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The Meeting of the American Historical As.
sociation at Washington and Richmond 429
Normandy under William the Conqueror . 453
The Formation and Constitution of the Bur-
English Conspiracy and Dissent, 1660-1674,
The South Carolina Federalists, I. · 529
DOCUMENTS — Father Pierre Gibault and the Submission of Post Vincennes, 1778,
The South Carolina Federalists, II.
English Interest in the Annexation of Cali-
DOCUMENTS — Texts of Columbus's Privileges, contributed by Frances G. Daven-
port ; South Carolina Federalist Corre.
spondence, 1789-1797, contributed by
The International Historical Congress at Berlin
DAVID J. HILL
San Galgano: a Cistercian Abbey of the Middlo
Some Economic Factors in the Revocation of the
Some Phases of Tennessee Politics in the Jackson
DOCUMENTS—Letters of Sir George Simpson, 1841-1843, contributed by Joseph Schafer. 70
REVIEWS OF BOOKS-Pais's Ancient Italy; Vinogradoff's English Society in the Eleventh
Century ; Webb's English Local Government ; De Lanzac de Laborie's Paris sous Napoléon ;
Walpole's History of Twenty-five Years, III., IV.; Lowell's Government of England;
Pisher's The Struggle for American Independence; Howe's Life and Letters of George Ban.
croft ; Bigelow's Letters and Literary Memorials of Samuel J. Tilden ; Blair and Robertson's
The Philippine Islands, XLVII.-LIII.; and other reviews.
(For a complete list of reviews see next page.)
GENERAL BOOKS AND BOOKS OF ANCIENT HISTORY
BOOKS OF MEDIEVAL AND MODERN EUROPEAN HISTORY
BOOKS OF AMERICAN HISTORY
The American Historical Association supplies the REVIEW to all its members, the Executive Council of the Association elects members of the Board of Editors.
Correspondence in regard to contributions to the Review may be sent to the Managing Editor, Professor J. F. Jameson, Carnegie Institution, Washington, D. C., or to the Board of Editors. Books for review may be sent to the Managing Editor. Subscriptions should be sent to The Macmillan Company, 41 North Queen St., Lancaster, Pa., or 66 Fifth Ave., New York. The price of subscription, to persons who are not members of the American Historical Association, is four dollars a year; single numbers are sold for one dollar; bound volumes may be obtained for four dollars and a half. Back numbers or volumes of the REVIEW may be obtained at the same rates.
COPYRIGHT, 1908, BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY
Tøs Now Era Print,
American Historical Review
THE INTERNATIONAL HISTORICAL CONGRESS AT
BERLIN NTERNATIOXAL congresses of historians are a comparatively
new phase of the international gatherings of scholars which have in recent years become well established in most fields of learning, and their organization presents special difficulties. The subjectmatter of history is more vast and far less uniform than that of the various natural sciences, and so much of it possesses only local or, at most, national interest that it is by no means easy to find sufficient common ground, apart from questions of method which are too often arid or fruitless, while the topics of widest interest, being often the very ones which divide nations and faiths, are not always well adapted to peaceful discussion. In the absence of any appropriate machinery for such purposes, the Société d'Histoire Diplomatique undertook the organization of the first congress, which was held at the Hague in 1898, as well as the one which met at Paris two years later. Of wider range and more largely attended was the congress held in Rome in 1903. The meeting there fixed for Berlin in 1906 was by the committee in charge postponed until this summer, so that five years may now be considered the normal interval.
As a meeting-place for historians Berlin stands in the sharpest possible contrast to Rome. The Prussian capital is a thoroughly modern city, the creation of comparatively recent times, and possesses neither the monuments nor the atmosphere of a rich historic past. Berlin prides itself on its modernity, and nowhere is the latest edition of one's Baedeker so essential. On the other hand, if Berlin is not rich in historical remains, it has a vigorous and fruitful tradition of historical study and research. The greatest interpreter of ancient Rome to the modern world was a Berlin professor, Theodor Mommsen, and no one will deny that Berlin is still the most active
August 6-12, 1908.
centre for the investigation of that ancient world from which in time and space it stands so far removed. It is from Berlin that the influence of Ranke's seminary and Niebuhr's critical method went forth, and in our own day the advancement of historical learning has no more active agencies than the University of Berlin and the Royal Prussian Academy. A meeting in such a centre could not prove otherwise than stimulating and fruitful. About eleven hundred attended the congress, coming from places as remote as Egypt, Brazil and Japan, as well as from all parts of Europe, from Scotland and Finland to Greece and Portugal. The total number, however, was less than at Rome, and the geographical distribution somewhat more uneven. The absence of the usual reduced rates on the railroads counted for something, and the fear of a Berlin August doubtless counted for more-although in fact the weather proved most delightful. The small number present from France was especially noteworthy, and the size of the American delegation, though respectable, was a disappointment to the management of the congress, which had the American vacation period in mind in fixing the date of the meeting
The local arrangements were admirable and were carried out with efficiency and precision. The new and centrally located buildings of the Prussian Landtag which were placed at the disposal of the congress offered commodious and even luxurious headquarters, with committee rooms, post-office, ticket-office, restaurant and places for informal coming together. The meetings were all held in these buildings or in the immediate neighborhood, so that no time was lost in wandering about. Acquaintance was facilitated by a printed list of members with daily supplements, and each day a bulletin of from thirty to sixty pages appeared in four languages, containing programmes, announcements, etc. Each member received a specially prepared volume descriptive of Berlin and an excellent set of maps. Special exhibits were arranged and special facilities given for visiting the many museums of historical interest in Berlin, and those concerned with libraries and archives had opportunity to see, under expert guidance, the Prussian archives and the new building of the Royal Library. Too much cannot be said of the generous hospitality with which the congress was received and the delightful opportunities for social intercourse. The meeting opened with an informal reception in the buildings of the Reichstag, and succeeding evenings were occupied by a formal dinner given by the city of Berlin in the Rathhaus, a general subscription banquet for members of the congress, and Kneipen of the various sections. A special performance