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Juvenile Court


care of the child in its own home or the institution where

he has been committed, but little has been done by the PUBLISHED BY THB VISITATION AND AID SOCIETY

State or the courts or the child placing societies towards

the proper visitation of children placed in homes. T. D. HURLEY, President and Editor

The statute provides that all children, if physically 79 Dearborn Street, Chicago, Ill.

able, must be sent to school until they are fourteen years Associate Editors

of age, and that no child be permitted to work until he HON. B. B. LINDSBY, Judge, Juvenile Court

arrive at this age. Heretofore this law has applied only Denver, Colorado

to children in their own homes. Children have been THOMAS WALSH, Chief Clerk

placed in family homes under the age of fourteen years New York Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children

where they have become domestic slaves and in many 297 4th Ave., New York

cases not permitted to attend school. This placement of W. A. GARDNER, Chief Probation Officer, Juvenile Court

children has been termed "child slavery". No reason can Portland, Oregon

be advanced why foster parents should be allowed to J. L. CLARK, Business Manager

treat a child any different than the natural parent. 79 Dearborn St., Chicago, III.

Two papers appear in this issue of the JUVENILE Eastern Office, 53 W. 24th Street, New York City

COURT RECORD, one from Mr. Sehon of the Kentucky

Children's Home Society, and the other from Mr. Hiser, Boston Office, 147 Milk St., Boston, Mass.

State Agent of the Indiana Home Placing Society. These The JUVENILE COURT RECORD is published monthly, except in the month papers embody the most advanced thought in this country of July, Single copies, 10 cents. Subscription price, $1 per year.

on the subject. Persons interested in the subject can and Entered at Postoffice, Chicago, as second-class matter.

will derive great benefit from the study of these papers. The JUVENILE COURT RECORD is the official organ of and published by the Visitation and Aid Society and will deal with social problems in child-raving work and give an account of the workings of the Juvenile Court. NEW SUBSCRIPTIONS can commence with current number.

DETENTION SCHOOL. WHEN RENEWING, always give the name of the postoffice to which your paper is now being sent. Your name cannot be found on our books walew this is done. Four weeks are required after the receipt of money by

The original framers of the Juvenile Court bill had u before the date opposite your name on your paper, which shows to what Hme your subscription is paid, can be changed. This will show that your

in mind a separate building for the court, which would be remittance was received.

known as the Juvenile Court building, and where the CHANGE OF ADDRESS. -Always give both your old and your new address when you ask us to change.

judge would be found and consulted at all business hours PAYMENT FOR THE PAPER, when sent by mail, should be made in a postotnice money order, bank check or draft, or an express money order, of the day in reference to Juvenile Court matters. The When neither of these can be procured, send 2-cent United States postage stamps; only this kind can be received.

thought and idea also prevailed at that time that a detenLETTERS should be addressed and checks and drafts made payable to

tion home and school would be in close proximity to the TUVENILE COURT REOORD, 79 Dearborn Street, Chicago. ADVERTISING RATES made known on application.

court, where all matters pertaining to truant, dependent

and delinquent children could be satisfactorily adjusted. OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY—1904-5. It has been impracticable up to the present time to bring T. D. HURLEY, President.

this much desired result about. James F. Bowers, Treasurer.

President E. J. Brundage of the County Board, seeing Emma Quinlan, Recording Secretary.

the necessity for such a group of buildings, took the iniMay Mallanny, Corresponding Secretary.

tiative and recently appointed a committee representing Esther J. Mercer, Financial Secretary.

the county, at the same time requesting Mayor Dunne Heads of Departments

to appoint a like committee representing the city to con

fer with the county committee and take the matter under Finance

.......John Cudahy
Men's Auxiliary
.Michael Cudahy

advisement. The Board of Education was subsequently Women's Auxiliary... Mrs. William P. Nelson

appealed to, and as a result a like committee was apOffice ....

...T. D. Hurley

pointed by the Board. Institutions

Thomas Breen

This movement in all probability will result finally
.Mary Hummelshein

in a proper location being procured where all the neces-
.James F. Bowers

sary buildings of the Juvenile Court, detention home and

school will be erected thereon. Much better work will EDITORIAL

be accomplished in this way with the children, and much

time and money saved. It will relieve the institutrons CHILD PLACING.

from many children that are now being sent to them and

will carry out the paramount principle of the Juvenile One of the vital questions now before the people of Court; that is, keeping the children in their own homes Illinois is that of proper child placing. After years of agitation on the part of THE JUVENILE Court RECORD

under the proper care and supervision of probation ofand those interested in neglected and dependent children

ficers. a bill was passed by the last legislature relating to this

This particular phase of the Juvenile Court has passed subject which became a law on the first of July. This beyond the theoretical stage, as it has been demonstrated law wisely provides that children placed in family homes and fully worked out in Denver by Judge Lindsey. Presshall be visited regularly by the institution placing the

ident Brundage is entitled to much credit for the active children, and a detailed report made to the State Board of Charities, who in turn will visit the child and pass on

and business like way that he has taken up this work. the fitness of the home.

An account of the work of the committee is found on anChild saving societies have been solicitous about the other page of this issue.

Juvenile Court and Detention School.

A comprehensive scheme for the administration of laws governing the problems of child life in Chicago has been devised. It is the result of the labors of a joint committee, representing the County of Cook, the City of Chicago and the Chicago Board of Education, which has been at work for some weeks.

This scheme, which means the co-operation of all the municipalities interested, originated in a communication from the Hon. Edward J. Brundage, President of the County Board, which is printed in full elsewhere in this issue.

The joint committee has held several sessions and discussed fully all the problems of truancy and delinquency, which are proving so troublesome in the management of the juvenile population of Chicago. As the outcome of its deliberation it is designed to build a Juvenile Court and Detention School and Detention Home and Offices for the compulsory education department, the child study department of the Board of Education, and labor certificate department and, probably, for a section of the City Health Department, dealing especially with school sanitation and contagious diseases among children.

A report dealing comprehensively with this scheme was presented at the meeting of the Board of Education October 25. In introducing the report, Trustee P. Shelly O'Ryan dwelt on the necessity of dealing rationally with the problems of child life. “The educational features of the problem,” said Mr. O'Ryan, “must be paramount to all others. The office of the State, through its Juvenile Court and the auxiliary institutions contemplated, is to educate the child, not to degrade him. For this reason the principles of modern pedagogy must be recognized. We are not designing a penal institution, or a charitable one.

It must be first, last and all the time an educational one, and as such very properly comes under the supervision and within the jurisdiction of the Board of Education. This is not simply an opportunity of accomplishing a great good-it opens up a field of duty which we cannot neglect."

Judge Julian Mack of the Juvenile Court, who attended the session of the school board by special invitation, spoke at length on the needs of co-ordination in the work of child saving. He said present methods were faulty and antequated.

“Take, for example,” said the jurist, “the custom of suspending pupils, which is about the only disciplinary method left in the schools. Suspension is one of the great causes of delinquency, a direct cause. The drifting towards waywardness and delinquency could be checked in a detention school such as is contemplated by the report presented. The deeds of truancy in the boy could be restricted and perhaps the school board saved great expense by not having to keep the boy in the Parental School for a long term later on. You are not doing your duty by having beds for only 200 truants at the Parental School when there are many more truants in the city. You are doing nothing for the boy for whom there is not room in the Parental School."

Judge Mack explained that great good might be accomplished by retaining children for short periods at the detention home, say, for three or four days or for a week, by checking their waywardness in time, and before it had yet become chronic children might be restored to goodness. He urged that not a day should pass during which the wards of the courts were not under educational influences. He demonstrated how closely the work of the courts and of the schools are related and urged the school board to recognize the necessity of giving a helping hand to the work of erecting a new court home.

The report, which was signed by Mr. O'Ryan, Mrs. Emmons Blaine and Mr. Tilden, was as follows: To the President and Members of the Board of Education of the


Following your instructions at the meeting of the Board of Education on Oct. 11th, your Committee met with the Committee appointed to consider new plans for the Juvenile Court, and begs to report as follows:

The Committee your representatives were asked to join consisted of,

Commissioner William C. Hartray,
Commissioner Edwin K. Walker,
Commissioner William J. Umbach,
Miss Julia C. Lathrop,

Hon. Orrin N. Carter,
Mr. T. D. Hurley.

Mr. M. J. Corboy,
Hon. T. J. Dixon,
Hon. J. Z. Uhlir,
Hon. J. R. Considine,
Miss Jane Addams,
Hon. Julian Mack.

There have been two meetings of this whole Committee and a meeting of a Sub Committee on Sites.

The Chairman of the Committee asked Judge Mack and Mr. Walker to outline to your representatives, the status of the question at the time they joined the Committee.

The movement originated in the necessity for new quarters for the Juvenile Court, the utter inadequacy and inconvenience of the Detention Home, and the general lack of these provisions, including the Parental School, to care in any complete manner for the truants and juvenile offenders of the city.

It at once occurred to the members of the Committee that the whole subject is perhaps more germane to the work of the Board of Education than to any other official body, and hence they sought its co-operation in the consideration of the whole matter.

It is probably known to the members of the Board of Education, that, in the course of dealing with the Juvenile offenders of the city, on their arrest, they are taken to the court room situated, at present, at 260 South Clark Street. There they must await their turn for hearing, accompanied by such members of their family, or such friends, as they may bring. It is readily seen that such a condition leads to the utmost confusion at the hearings, and in the whole atmosphere of the court, making it impossible for Judge Mack to do that work in the educational manner in which he wishes to do it.

The Detention Home, which is intended to supply a place for delay or short detention, is situated at 625 West Adams Street. The distance renders it useless except for commitment.

This brings out the first need--that the court and the place of detention should be adjacent. Thus in planning a new building, the Juvenile Court needs a new place of detention included with it.

For these buildings the County Commissioners have offered funds, looking to the city to add to them, and especially looking to the Board of Education to further their plan in every way, with financial and moral support.

Discussion further developed the very immediate concern that the Board of Education has in this whole subject of properly caring for all children from the first steps of truancy through the stages of juvenile offense. And it appeared that the splendid beginning that Chicago has made in recognizing the need for a Juvenile Court and separate Juvenile Detention, falls short of accomplishing the end sought through lack of adequate space and want of organization of the work.

It is suggested that this place of detention shall be a school, where children will immediately take up work instead of spending idle, unoccupied time in waiting, and shall be called the Detention School.

It is also suggested that the Board of Education shall have its Compulsory Education and Child Study Departments in these headquarters, centering there all the truant work, and securing thus unified effort in all of its branches.

The final recommendation is summed up in the following resolution offered by Judge Mack at the second meeting of the Joint Committee.

Resolved that it is the sense of this conference that steps be taken at once to secure a proper site on which there shall be erected a building or buildings suitable for the work of the Juvenile Court, the Detention Home, the Compulsory Education, Child Study and Child Labor Certificate departments of the Board of Education; that a school be maintained therein both for the children detained there as delinquents and dependents and also for truant children to be sent there for short periods, instead of being sent to the Parental School.

Resolved further that the Board of Education, the County of Cook and the City of Chicago be requested to co-operate in providing the funds necessary for the site and the buildings and for the maintenance thereof."

At that meeting Judge Lindsey of Denver outlined how the same plan of co-operation between the Juvenile Court and the Board of Education worked in Denver with the result of practically wiping out the class of uncared for truants.

Your Committee feels that with the plan as outlined, the organization of that work in Chicago will be so vastly improved as to multiply greatly the efficiency of the forces already at work here for truants, and that we shall then be in a position to know how far our space is inadequate, which we cannot know now because of the lack of co-ordination of the forces we have.

Your Committee therefore strongly recommends that the Board of Education co-operate as fully as possible with this general plan,—that the representatives from the Board be enlarged to represent the Committee on Buildings and Grounds, that these representatives be instructed to report back general concurrence and support, and willingness to co-operate financially, to the Joint Committee.

Among the possible ways that the Board of Education might take part have been suggested,—the contribution of a site, the contribution of a part of the building, the joining with the County in the maintenance of the building, the equipping of the schools with teachers, etc., etc.

Your Committee recommends that except to express any positive preference the Board may feel as to the manner of cooperation, the Board should leave the definite plan to be developed in the Committee and to be reported later to the Board of Education with recommendations by your representatives in the Committee.

Your Committee strongly recommends that general concurrence and approval be reported from the Board of Education to the Joint Committee.

That the resolution of the Joint Committee, as above recited, be concurred in, and that copies of this report be referred to both the Buildings and Grounds Committee and the School Management Committee for appropriate action. Respectfully submitted by


ANITA MCCORMICK BLAINE. On the motion of Trustee White the matter went over for a week, and was made a special order of business for the meeting of November the first.

The work of the Juvenile Court in Denver, Colorado, which was explained to the joint committee by Judge Lindsey, has been studied with profit. In Denver it is impossible for a truant to be absent from school for half an hour without his absence being brought to the attention of the court authorities. The schools and court are connected by telephone. Every week a folder containing the names of the truants who are paroled under the jurisdiction of the officers of the court, are sent to the principals of every school. Fifteen minutes after the opening of school, when the absence of one of these truants is reported at the offices of the court a truant officer is dispatched to hunt up the little delinquent. In that way habitual truancy becomes an impossibility.

Again, because of the telephone system, the moment a child is brought into the detention home his standing in school can be ascertained, and without the loss of any time he is put at a desk and compelled to resume his studies, at precisely the place where he had left off in school. Thus the little ones are never away from the influence of the school and of education.

At the meeting of the Board of Education, November 1, concurrence in the report above printed was unanimously recommended. HOUSING JUVENILE COURT.

September 18, 1905. To the Honorable, the Board of Commissioners of Cook County:

GENTLEMEN,–Now that Cook County by law has provided probation officers for the Juvenile Court and thus has become more intimately associated in the work of that tribunal, I deem it my duty to lay before you the problem of properly housing the court and its accessories.

This problem demands solution at an early date, because plans are being drawn now for the new Courthouse. The architects must know whether to provide for the Juvenile Court and its accessories in the new County building.

I have given the problem careful study. I have held conferences with the judge of the court, with representatives of the voluntary Juvenile Court Committee and with others interested in the care of dependent, delinquent and truant children.

As a result of this study I desire to recommend to your honorable body that a committee be appointed to take up with the proper officials of the City of Chicago the matter of the erection, on a suitable piece of land outside the downtown district, of a separate building to house all the service of the

Juvenile Court, the County of Cook and the City of Chicago to share on a fair basis the cost of this improvement and the maintenance of the service.

My reasons for the foregoing recommendations are:

In the first place, is it wise, is it truly economical to have, say, the top floor of the new Courthouse fitted up with sleeping apartments, kitchen, and the other necessary auxiliaries of a detention home, keeping in mind that all the supplies and the children must be taken through the building? It would be necessary to operate the place day and night, that children might be received at all hours. In addition to this the idea of having these children placed in a huge office building and the idea of constructing a nominal prison in the Courthouse do not appeal to me.

People who have observed the operation of the Juvenile law have noticed that it brings to court on trial days an army of mothers, accompanied by little children, whom they are compelled to bring along for lack of any one to care for them at home.

Many other persons are attracted to the Court for reasons of study and curiosity. The people in this throng are, as a rule, unacquainted in the down-town district, and, when they reach the Courthouse, they wander about promiscuously looking and asking for the Juvenile Courtroom, to the inconvenience of others who have business in the Courthouse..

Then, there is the humane side of the problem. Should not the County separate from the child's mind the impression that he is to be tried as a criminal?

I can not believe a Courthouse is the proper place for these little unfortunates.

If a suitable location can be procured in a district away from the center of the town, I favor the construction of a separate building, to be devoted exclusively to the work of the Juvenile Court. It should be a Detention Home and Courtroom combined, with headquarters for the probation officers and provisions for the entire Juvenile Court service and records.

Such a building could be erected for a reasonable sum. It would be an improvement for the community where it is located. In the long run, it would be of no additional expense to the taxpayer over the operation of such quarters in the Courthouse proper.

The maintenance of delinquent children prior to their trial was formerly in the County Jail and for dependent children in the Detention Hospital. The rented Detention Home now af. fords a separation and transfer of the delinquent children from the Jail and its evil associations to a place where the moral surroundings are better and of the dependent children from a building for the insane to one where home quiet prevails. This Detention Home was provided by the voluntary Juvenile Court Committee. The County and City, recognizing mutual responsibility for the institution, contribute to the cost of maintenance. Hence my recommendation that representatives of the County and City take up the matter of providing a building for the Juvenile Court and for the maintenance of its service, Respectfully submitted,



WHEREAS, It is not desirable to provide quarters for the service of the Cook County Juvenile Court in the new Courthouse, and

WHEREAS, The problem of the care of dependent, delinquent and truant children is a joint problem for the County of Cook and the City of Chicago to solve, therefore be it

Resolved, That no space be set aside for Juvenile Court service in the new Courthouse,

Resolved, That the President of this Board be, and he hereby is, authorized to appoint a committee of six, three to be members of this Board and three to be residents of Cook County, to take up with the proper officials of the City of Chicago, the matter of constructing and maintaining a building to be devoted exclusively to the service of the Juvenile Court and its charges;

Resolved, That the Mayor and City Council of the City of Chicago be, and they hereby are, invited to select a committee to co-operate with the County Board Committee for the above purpose.

Moved by Commissioner Hartray the adoption of the resolution.

Carried by the following vote:

Yeas Carolan, De Priest, Hartray, Kolze, Mack, Olson, Strassheim, Wolker 8. Nays-- Boeber, Busse, Van Steenberg 3.

September 18, 1905. To the Honorable, the Board of Commissioners of Cook County:

GENTLEMEN, -Acting under the authority of the resolution adopted by your honorable body to-day I hereby appoint the following members of the Committee on Juvenile Court Building and Service:

Commissioner William C. Hartray,
Commissioner Edwin K. Walker,
Commissioner William J. Umbach,
Miss Julia C. Lathrop,
Judge Orrin N. Carter,
Justice T. D. Hurley.


Illinois State Conference of Charities.

(Continued from page 7.) be to study its geography to determine from what center or centers all the foster homes may be best reached, also the means of travel to be used, whether livery, steamer or railroad, selecting the one that will save most time and expense.

Now that the agent is in the field, each child is visited and a written report is made in duplicate on blanks provided for the purpose. The reports are mailed to the Board of State Charities office daily and after being looked over by the agent who directs the work and by the Secretary of the Board, they are turned over to the clerk, who makes the proper record of them and then files the originals with the children's papers and sends the duplicate to the county or orphans' home from which the children came.

These reports contain, in addition to such corrections of the visiting list as are necessary to make the record a true one, statements concerning school and Sunday school attendance, occupation, if any, whether industrious, contented and liked by the ioster parents, also something as to general conduct and some remarks showing in general and particular the conditions of the home and child.

The law states as definitely as a law can state what is to be determined by these visits in requiring them to be made "until the children are considered happily and permanently placed in family homes.” It is exactly this that the agents try to determine in their visits. In many cases this is not at all easy to decide, as the true situation is hard to find out, because each source of information may become a factor in the cause of dissatisfaction or unrest. For instance, the child, if old enough, is one of the sources of information, yet it may be one of those whose real traits are so hidden or its intention and ability to misrepresent só great that its statements are not to be relied upon, and because they cannot be relied upon is in itself a cause of dissatisfaction on the part of the foster parents. On the other hand, the foster parents may so misunderstand child life in general or this one's life in particular that their representations are not fair in the case. Then the neighbors, for one cause or another, are not always unbiased in the case, either on the side of the child or foster parents, which makes that source of information unsatisfactory. Yet tactful conversations with neighbors, ster parents and child are the means that must be used by the agent in learning the conditions existing in a liome where a child is placed.

In a majority of cases visiting children is very pleasant employment. In most instances where the children are well adapted to their respective homes and the homes, in turn, suited to the children visiting children is spending a little time in a mutual admiration society. Yet even where the conditions seem favorable the visitor should be careful to note the true situation in order to detect any symptoms which might later develop into the disease of dissatisfaction. The practical visitor develops almost linconsciously the trait of discerning such symptoms.

This careful watch on the part of the visitor is necessary because conditions are constantly changing and these changes take place in the child as often as in the foster parents, and a return visit may find discord in a home where only harmony existed at the time of a previous one. A child who was good looking when young becomes homely as it grows older, or by accident the face or limbs become deformed, or what is still more common, a disposition that was once thought to be bright and cheerful becomes dark and sullen, even stubborn at times. Then a child who has always seemed honest in word and deed begins to misrepresent matters and appropriate things of another for his own use. These are traits accepted almost as a matter of course in one's own child, but they are neither expected nor tolerated in that of another. Again there are diseases which did not appear when the child was placed which develop later and threaten to become permanent. It may be chronic catarrh, weak eyes or lungs, scrofula or, as I found in one family, their skins to turn into scales. Those things are all treated and borne with in natural children, but not so with the foster ones.

All of those conditions must be reckoned with, whether mental traits or physical defects, and if adjustment cannot be reached through reconciliation or cure then it must come through removal-removal of either the trait or the defect from the child or the child from the home.

Foster parents have traits and dispositions that have the power of variation somewhat the same as those of placed-out children. Children that, in the opinion of their foster parents, were fluttering temptingly near the zenith of perfection fell in a short twelve months in a swoon to the nadir of worthlessness. Tliese foster parents are also subject to physical ills, they become rheumatic, paralytic, tubercular or insane or the home is broken up or altered by the death of father or mother or other member of the family. Or financial difficulties may come. And even worse than all these, domestic troubles may arise which causes the separation of husband and wife.

All of these conditions occasion a readjustment in the care of these children.

The conditions thus far mentioned have to do with changes which take place within the foster home, either in the children or members of the families. I have yet to consider conditions which are determined froni wholly outside this circle, the influence of neighbors and relatives. Just as it is believed that there are more well meaning and good acting persons in the world than evil thinking and evil doing ones, so it is that there are more right meaning neighbors in every community than wrong intentioned ones. Visiting children in some instances would be a dreary sort of work indeed if it were not for the wholesome-minded neighbors that live everywhere and who not only cheer but add safety to the children it is our duty to protect. Many times a situation existing in a family where one of these children is placed is “tipped off” by one of these good neighbors, but for whom nothing would have been learned until much harm would have come to the child. But ofttimes these well-meaning neighbors, having great zeal but little discretion, cause disaster where only beneficence was intended. Then there are those whose meddlesome bump has large development. They have at times the revengeful or "getting-even” spirit as the incentive for their actions. I know of an old party fence feud being renewed upon the occasion of a dependent child being placed in the home of one of the disputants. This case involved the school teacher, prosecuting attorney, truant officer and the State agent. The boy, a lad of twelve, is still in the family.

I do not know the dependent children situation in Illinois as respects living parents, but in Indiana of all the children in the orphans' homes (between 1,600 and 1,700) and in family homes (between 2,700 and 2,800) about 55 per cent. have both parents living, 37 per cent. either father or mother living and only about 8 per cent. are full orphans. That is, about 92 per cent. of all dependent children who have the public as guardian have a living parentai interference, and I sometimes feel that about 92 per cent. of all the trouble I have mentioned as coming from without the family circle emanates either directly or indirectly from this quarter. This is true despite the fact that now in Indiana this class of children is admitted to public support only upon parents and guardians signing away all their rights to them in releases of guardianship or through orders of court.

But these legal barricades are stormed with the cry that "blood is thicker than water," and "the love of a mother for her children never dies, but springs eternal in the human breast," and the sentimental but artless public in whose ears this slogan is sounded never stops to think that in many, perhaps most of these cases, the mother's love did not spring at the right time or in the right direction, and though blood is thicker than water, yet at the proper time it lost much of its quality of thickness.

While these parents are unwilling, unfit or unable to care for their own children they yet feel that they can, should and must be permitted to assist, by their advice, others who are doing it. If they learn where their children are out in family homes they will visit or communicate with them or the foster parents to the end that dissatisfaction arises and the children have to be removed or they will run off.

What has been said of parents in this matter of interference is quite as true of older brothers and sisters, uncles and aunts. The only solution yet found is to keep the location of these children away from parents and other relatives.

In this brief and hurried manner I have sketched the plan now in operation in Indiana for the care of dependent children and stated the methods of their supervision by the Board of States Charities, also some of the conditions and problems met with in this phase of the work to the end that a clearer vision may be had and better methods employed to protect in its rights dependent childhood in whatever State, in whatever condition it may be found.


Parental Responsibility.


Society, working through courts and other agencies of law, “I am not saying that this is true of all families; there are can do much toward protecting and redeeming delinquent and thousands of good boys and girls in this city who honor their ill-cared-for children. In some cases, as when a child's parents fathers and mothers and who are going to make good citizens, are dead or totally unfit for the performance of parental du- but there are enough fathers and mothers here who do not ties, society must do everything. The steps which Chicago is make their children love and respect them to scare the police now taking to provide for the better care of unfortunately sit- force every day in the year. We can trace the old crook or the uated children are to be accounted among the most gratifying good thief. They have certain haunts and they work along and creditable of its activities. The enforcement of the com

certain lines. pulsory school and child-labor laws, the opening of small parks

YOUNG CRIMINALS RECKLESS, and playgrounds, the inspection of tenement-house conditions and the work of the Juvenile Court promise to be of incal

“But a reckless young cub who wants more money, who will culable value in safeguarding the young and fitting them for

not work for it, and who has worked the 'old folks' to the last self-respecting manhood and womanhood. The present measures

penny gets a cheap gun, jumps a street car and works in any taken by the county authorities in respect to juvenile delin

district of the city. He doesn't mean to be caught if he can quents, with a view to correcting their evil propensities without

help it. He will kill long before an old criminal would. He placing the stigma of criminality upon them, are especially

gets away and when we get a clew to him we find him in a encouraging

good home, wearing the face of innocence and appealing to his The governmental machinery provided for this purpose can

father and mother to prove that he has always been a good not do everything, however. In many cases it can only sup

Thev almost invariably stand up for him and we are left plement the forces which should be brought into play in the

helpless, although from his associates, the fact that he does fullest measure in the home. It is for this reason that the ef

not work and yet always has money, we know that he is a forts of the Juvenile Court to lay emphasis upon the idea of

criminal. parental responsibility are especially to be commended. Under "If that boy had been led to understand from the start the new juvenile court law it is in the power of the court to by his parents that he must work, that every dollar must come summon the fathers and mothers of delinquents and require honestly, that he cannot make the saloon his headquarters and their aid in carrying into effect the provisions of the law. Every

that at night it is better for him to be in school than on the parent may thus be made to serve unofficially as a probation streets, he would learn in the first years of his life that honesty officer in safeguarding his own child.

pays and he would come out a useful citizen.” By wise and discriminating action along the line indicated the Juvenile Court can emphasize the idea of parental responsi

Frazer Roasts Parents. bility in a way that should be highly useful. The child is not accountable for its environment or its inherited tendencies. The

Says They Neglect Children for Life's Vanities. parents are, and to them society in self-protection has a right

"No matter how well bred a child may be, or how moral to look for the wise exercise of their authority. If they fail to

or intelligent the parents may be, if the proper care or direction recognize this duty it is of importance that the legally con

is not thrown around the child in its years of youth the charstituted authorities should step in and require them to do so.

acter of the man or woman will be molded for ill." The whole trend of recent legislation relating to children has This is one of the terse bits of philosophy which Judge been a recognition of this fact.-Daily News.

Robert E. Frazer has embodied in his dissenting opinion, hold

ing the new Juvenile Law to be constitutional. Parents Neglect Duty.

Continuing, the judge says, in part: "If I could get every mother and father in Chicago to do

"It seems that this law is an effort on the part of welltheir full duty to their boys and girls," said Assistant Chief of

meaning people to look after and care for the children of this Police Schuettler in the Post, “it would be possible to stop at

country; that they have recognized the fact that the cities and least one-half of the crimes on the streets and in saloons. It villages of the land are full of uncared for and unprotected would be the most powerful re-enforcement of police work the

children. city could have."

"They have recognized the fact that in this age of graft, Schuettler was discussing the activity of criminals in Chi- of the desire for wealth, of the desire for display, of the desire cago and the efforts of the police to preserve order and catch for pleasure, the care of the child is neglected, and that this the lawbreakers.

neglect has a tendency to develop the worst characteristics of a "The father and mother," he continued, “who pay no atten

person." tion to where their boys and girls go after dark, who never think

Touching upon one of the most important law points raised of the company their children may be keeping, who make home in the controversy, Judge Frazer says: life for the children dull and dreary, are direct contributors to the inmates of the county jail, the Bridewell, Pontiac and the

"It seems to me that it is assuming a good deal to claim House of the Good Shepherd. But while the young folks are

that all the criminal laws of this State against boys under 16

and girls under the age of 17 are repealed by this statute. In working their way to these institutions the police get all the

no place does this statute say they shall not be proceeded against trouble. “The great percentage of crime committed in Chicago today

in no other way. In no place does it say, nor can it be implied is by boys and girls, particularly boys, under 21 years of age.

that the prosecution of criminals is inconsistent with the proWe catch some 22 and 23 years of age, but the majority are

visions of this act, nor can it be implied that the prosecution under 21, and we find when tracing their records that a large

of criminals is inconsistent with the provisions of this act; and number of them have homes, fathers and mothers, but have

in all the cases cited and in all the states where similar laws been undisciplined.

prevail, it never seems to have been fully decided that the law

defining and taking care of delinquent children prevented the PARENTS MIGHT SAVE THEM.

proper courts from proceeding against them when they had com“I believe the parents, if they made the right kind of home

mitted any criminal offense." life for the young folks and made them obey and work, would go a long way toward keeping them out of a life of crime. The girl wouldn't get into the saloon and cheap concert garden and

Utah. the boy wouldn't make the saloon his headquarters and a cheap bartender his 'fence.'

Under the recently enacted Juvenile Court law of Utah which "We have a certain class of fathers and mothers in Chicago, establishes separate Juvenile Courts in cities of the first and and everybody knows it, who work like slaves, accumulate a bit

second class, the four cities coming under this classification have of property, and yet who feel that it is wrong for the children

established the courts. to work. The boy is given good clothes and pocket money and For the past eight months a systematic campaign has been let loose. The girl sits in the parlor playing the piano till even- under way to acquaint the people of the state with the objects ing and then goes out to meet on the corner the 'sportiest of the Juvenile law. The State Federation of Women's Clubs fellow in the district.

have been active in this effort. Judge Brown of the Salt Lake

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