Gambar halaman

kindling Wood


During the past winter relief bureaus have given to applicants, instead of free fuel, etc., tickets enabling them to earn money enough at the

Charity Organization Society's
Wood Vard

to buy their own supplies. The wood yard is in consequence overstocked with both LOG and KINDLING WOOD in all sizes and grades.


Telephone :

804 18th Street.


Superintendent, 516 West 28th Street.


are desired by

The Workrooms

for Unskilled Women

of the

516 West 28th Street.

li garments and rays are used to supply work for those who would otherwise neuest relief, und the work is made a means of training for self-support.

The Charity Organization Society will send for packages. Address, 105 East 221 Street, Telephone, 380 181h Street,


The Official Organ of the Charity Organization Society of the City of New York.


JULY 14, 1900.

No. 7.










become “so busy with immediate

needs as to have no time to prevent Principles of Co-operation..

their recurrence." MARY L. BIRTWELL. A Radical Proposition....

It is to reduce the danger of this Alms, Charity, and Substitutes for Charity, 5 to a minimum that many of our FREDERIC ALMY.

charity organization societies adhere The St. Vincent de Paul Society. PRESIDENT W. R. STEWART ON INSPEC so strongly to the policy of holding

no funds for relief. It is merely a Hos. J. W. Keller ON MUNICIPAL CHAR

matter of emphasis, and we must be The Cooper UNION LABOR BUREAU


right place.

But not only should the profesPRINCIPLES OF CO-OPERATION.

sional charity worker understand By Mary L. BIRTWELL.

wise principles of relief; all givers

and workers in a community,-inA clergyman once said that the dividuals, churches, relief societies, story of the Good Samaritan illus- public officials, should hold sound trated the ancient method of principles in common and act in charity; the modern method would accordance with common convichave been to clear the road to tions. Otherwise we shall work at Jericho of thieves. It is, indeed, cross-purposes, and defeat the very no less a task than this that we have ends at which all are aiming. set for ourselves,-"working toward Now it is the need, or the supour own extinction,”—but not in posed need, of relief, that generally our day will the need cease for the brings a family to our attention in work of the Good Samaritan.

the first instance; and it is the planIt is of the utmost importance, ning of relief and friendly assistance however, that every worker should for individual families that opens understand, at the outset, the rela. the way to practical co-operation, tion of curative to preventive meas bringing us into contact with fellowures, the relation of relief to the workers, promoting mutual underwork of charity organization as a standing, offering an opportunity whole, and to the whole field of to illustrate the utility of our charitable endeavor. Relief work is methods, and to explain our broader of great importance, but in the aims. words of Prof. Warner, we must not Let us consider some of the prin

If we

ciples by which all should be him out merely perpetuate the governed. If careful and thorough miserable conditions from which initial inquiries have first been made, we would save a family. and every

effort to avoid the neces Second. Relief should be adapted sity of relief,-by wiser use of to the highest need of the recipient. existing resources, or by the devel The form of aid given should be opment of new resources within the determined by its influence upon family,--have proved unavailing, the habits and character of the rewhat principles should govern the cipient. The reason we do not aid administration of relief?

a lazy man is not primarily because First. Relief should be part of he doesn't deserve it, but because a plan for permanent improvement. such aid would probably only make

If it does not look beyond the him lazier. We should treat people relict of present distress, it is not according to their needs rather than worthy the name of charity; it is their deserts. Our decision should merely almsgiving. Our plan must be based not on “worthiness" or be elastic; we must be quick to see “unworthiness," but on the course the need of readjustment to new of action best calculated to lead to developments. It must be a plan improvement. of concerted action. There is

would do creative, conalways room for a difference of opin- structive work, we must

not be ion as to the most important princi- bound by preconceived ideas and ple involved in any serious situation. meaningless rules and traditions, The successful worker must have but consider every problem with a the imagination to see and under mind unprejudiced by precedent, stand points of view with which he asking what course of action is best, does not wholly sympathize. He and then bringing all our courage must have the courage of his con and energy and enthusiasm to bear rictions when important principles to make that course possible. are involved, but he must himsell be Third. Relief should come from open to conviction as well. He one source, if possible, or through must have patience and tact and one channel. good judgment. He must have the Natural resources, relatives, inviglit into human nature that will friends, neighbors, employers, should cuable hum to draw from each co be drawn upon to the utmost. We mother the best service of which he can do little more valuable work in is citpalle, as well as to understand the community than enforce upon the poor themselves, whose co-oper- relatives their natural obligations. arion is the most essential of all. There can be little doubt that if all Hispecially must the head of the charitable agencies acted in harmony lamıly be included in our scheme of in this direction, refusing all aid operation. We have learned by

We have learned by whenever relatives legally responswide variener that plans that leave ible are able to support, an appreci

able decrease in pauperism would philanthropic agencies can remove, soon result. There would be less co-operation with such officers is of neglect of old age, and the effect vital importance. . upon the growing generation would The ideal plan would seem to be have great educational value.

that the state should care for the The cheerfulness with which em permanently incompetent and the ployers look upon themselves as a incorrigible, who should be under legitimate source of relief shows an entire control, and that private appreciation of faithful service and charity should care for the remainder a growing spirit of sympathy in the in their own homes. In order to business world not without signifi- bring about this classification, private cance.

charitable agencies must demonstrate The church may be regarded, per their ability to care wisely for the haps, as another “natural” source

latter. of relief, but such relief has peculiar Fourth. Relief should be adequate. dangers. “The chief function of The most strenuous effort on the the church," Dr. Pullman says, "is part of every member of the family not charity, but the awakening and should be expected however. Espestrengthening of a spiritual life.” cially should aid to widows with The giving of relief should not be children be adequate. We can not allowed to crowd out this higher expect satisfactory physical or moral function by putting intercourse be- results when frail women attempt to tween pastor, or other church rep be both bread-winners and homeresentative, and parishioner on a makers. It may be that the method, relief basis.

common in England, of relieving a Opinions may differ as to whether mother of the entire care of some of private aid from a stranger is prefer the children when the number is too able to that from a relief society; large, is best; though it seems to me but all would agree that relief should the commonly accepted principle be given as privately as possible, and that poverty alone, except in extreme in such a way

to lessen the cases, does not justify the separation temptation to rely upon it for the of mother and children, is the only ordinary contingencies of life.

one consistent with our constant It may be that public outdoor effort to strengthen and preserve relief will be abolished everywhere the ties of blood. The recent work at some distant day, as has already of the New York Charity Organizahappened in some of our large cities; tion Society shows what can be done but since for many years to come to preserve family life when energy public relieving officers will have and determination are brought to large sums of money at their dis bear on the problem. It is always posal, the lax administration of to be remembered that every queswhich will create more poverty than tion of relief is a social as well as it will relieve, and more than most individual problem. The effect of


charitable aid can not be confined workers meet for the discussion of to those who receive it. We must these problems, the more widespread bear in mind not only that the becomes the knowledge of actual family is the unit of society, but social conditions that must precede that families are set in communities. wise measures for their improvement.

Relief work on these principles We may thus strengthen many a involves co-operation at every step. good cause and gain strength ourEvery inquiry made, every letter selves. Through this many-sided written, every consultation held, co-operation we obtain a general may aid in the diffusion of knowledge knowledge of the charitable work of in regard to the real meaning of our a city that is invaluable. We see work. We should always make it the growth of evils little suspected, clear that the object of an inquiry is perhaps, by the individual citizen, not to learn all the evil we can but and measures to check their growth how we can help. To any citizen may be devised that would otherasking an investigation we should wise never have been thought of. report not a list of the short-comings

New social conditions may require of a family but a sympathetic state new charitable methods, but whatment of the whole situation, the kind ever developments the future may of task laid upon us, the principles bring, knowledge will always be necinvolved in such action as may be essary for intelligent action, co-operataken, the resources that are avail tion will always be necessary to able and those that may be lacking harmonize social forces, and make to meet the situation. How else can progress possible ; and a thousand he learn the difficulties with which years hence it will be as true as it is we have to cope, and the service we to-day, that sympathy and friendship are rendering to the community ? are of more value than material gifts.

Co-operation does not mean doing The ground seems firm under our other people's work for them. No feet, therefore, and our faces are set church, no private individual has less in the right direction. Let us conto do because of our existence. tinue to seek the newest light, from

The office of the charity organiza- whatever source, eagerly joining tion society is not a place for any- hands with any and every force in body to unload his charitable bur the community that makes for peace dens. On the contrary it is our aim and righteousness. to stimulate members of the community to greater activity, and to

A RADICAL PROPOSITION. induce them to join hands with us, that all may work more effectively.

G. P. Putnam's Sons are the pub

lishers of a book by Dr. W. D. McThe more our friendly visitors

Kim on "Heredity and Human come into close personal touch with

Progress" which is an expression of the problems of individual poor the extreme of pessimism with refnilies, the more they and other

to the value of religion,


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