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be occupied in special cases where, The tenement-house law requires in his opinion, the light and ventila- that every room in a new tenementtion of the building is materially im- house shall have a window opening proved. In no case is more than directly to the outer air, and proseventy-five per cent of the lot per hibits any airshaft less than twentymitted to be occupied, but this does five square feet in area as a means of not, of course, apply to corner ventilating any such room; and also tenements.)
prohibits any such airshaft from beIn Manhattan out of 286 tene- ing roofed over, it not being considments inspected, where this informa ered outer air under such circumtion was obtainable, 282 or ninety- stances. In Brooklyn, out of eightynine per cent covered more than three new tenement-houses, in fiftysixty-five per cent of the lot; 274 two cases, or sixty-two per cent of tenement-houses or ninety-six per all, the rooms had no windows to cent covered more than seventy per the outer air, but secured their sole cent of the lot; ninety-three or light and ventilation from small, enthirty-two per cent covered exactly closed airshafts, about eight square seventy-five per cent of the lot, and feet in area, covered over at the top ninety-eight or thirty-one per cent with a roof or skylight; all of which covered more than seventy-five per is contrary to law. In the borough cent of the lot (the extreme maxi- of Queens, in thirty-two out of thirmum authorized by law in any case). ty-four tenements, or ninety-four per Twenty-nine tenements or ten per cent, the rooms had no windows to cent covered eighty per cent of the the outer air, but opened solely on lot and over. These did not in- small, interior, enclosed ventshafts, clude any tenements which extended about two feet by four feet, covered from one street to another street, by a roof or skylight at the top. of which there were seven.
In all The tenement-house laws also reof these latter cases the tenements quire that in new tenement-houses covered over eighty-three per cent the halls and stairs shall have winof the lot.
dows opening to the outer air. Out In Brooklyn eighty-three new ten of eighty-three new tenement-houses ement-houses were inspected. Out of in Brooklyn, in fifty-eight cases, or eighty-one tenements, situated on or
seventy per cent of all, the halls and dinary interior lots, fifty-one, or six- stairs had no windows to the outer ty-three per cent, occupied over sixty- air, while in the thirty-four houses five per
cent of the lot, while thirty- inspected in the borough of Queens, four, or forty-two per cent, occupied thirty, or eighty-eight per cent, had seventy per cent of the lot and over, similar violations of the law. and seven, or nine per cent, occupied The law prescribes that the comover seventy-five per cent of the lot. missioner of buildings shall have (The maximum allowed by law power to make regulations as to the under any circumstances.)
size of the airshafts. Acting under In the borough of Queens thirty- this power, the commissioner of eight new tenement-houses were in- buildings has made the regulation spected, six of these, or sixteen per that above the fifth story, airshafts cent; occupied over sixty-five per cent shall increase in width four inches of the lot.
at each story. In sixty-two cases,
or thirty-six per cent of 172 new The law in regard to the constructenements examined in Manhattan, tion of cellar stairs requires that, the airshafts were not increased if possible, the stairs shall be located above the fifth story, as required. outside of the tenement-house, but
In all new tenement-houses over if they are located inside they shall three stories and cellar in height, be enclosed with brick walls and prothe law requires that the floors of the vided with fireproof self-closing doors public halls shall be constructed of at the top and bottom. In Brooklyn, slow-burning or fireproof material. out of seventy-nine new tenementIn Manhattan, out of 144 new tene
houses where the cellar stairs were ments of this kind, in ninety-five inside of the building, in twentycases, or sixty-seven per cent, the seven cases, or thirty-four per cent floors of the public halls were con of all, the cellar stairs were not enstructed entirely of wood. (This ap closed with brick walls; in twentyplies to the floor beams and not mere five cases, or thirty-one per cent of ly to the flooring.) In Brooklyn, all, there were no fireproof doors at out of forty-four new tenements of the top and bottom of the cellar this kind, in twenty-nine, or sixty- stairs, and in sixty-seven cases, or six per cent of all, the floors of the eighty-five per cent of all, these doors public halls were constructed of were not self-closing. In the borwood. The law also requires in new ough of Queens, out of twenty-three tenements of this class (ie., new new tenement-houses where the celtenements over three stories and cel- lar stairs were inside of the building lar in height) that the stairs shall be in twenty cases, or eighty-seven per slow-burning .or fire-proof. In, cent, these stairs were not enclosed Brooklyn, again, out of forty-four with brick walls as required by law; new tenements, forty-four, or one and in twenty-two cases, or ninetyhundred per cent of all, had the stairs six per cent, there were no fireproof constructed of wood instead of slow- self-closing doors at the top and botburning or fireproof material; and in tom of such stairs. The law again Manhattan, in 113 out of 116 new requires in regard to the construction tenements, the stairs were construct of water-closet compartments, that .ed of wood instead of the material the floors of such rooms shall be prescribed
waterproof so that they may be readThe same law requires that in new ily flushed out or cleaned. But in tenements over three stories and cel- the borough of Queens, out of thirtylar in height, the stairs shall be en
tenements in nineteen .closed by walls of slow-burning or cases, or fifty-six per cent of all, the fireproof construction. In eighty- floors of the water-closet comparttwo out of 140 new tenement-houses ments were not waterproof, but simthe stairs were enclosed simply by ply wood. wooden stud partitions, and in only The law also requires that all opensix cases, or four per cent, were the ings to dumb-waiter shafts in new stairs enclosed by brick walls. This tenement-houses over three stories in Manhattan. In Brooklyn, out of high shall be fireproof and self-closforty-four new tenement-houses of ing, in order to prevent the spread of this kind, in thirty-one, or seventy fire through the building. The inspecper cent, the stairs were enclosed by tion made disclosed the fact that in wooden stud partitions.
Manhattan, out of 207 new tenement
houses, 201, or ninety-seven per cent precedent for progressive legislawere not provided with self-closing tion upon this subject. It appears doors in the dumb-waiter shafts. that none of these large American
cities, excepting Boston, Cincinnati, TENEMENT-HOUSE CONDITIONS.
Jersey City, and Hartford, have a
tenement-house problem, and in the The Tenement-House Commis- great majority of these cities the sion has issued its third special tenement-house as known in New report, prepared by the secretary,
York does not exist, the poor people Mr. Lawrence Veiller, upon the sub
and working people living generally
in small, one-story or two-story ject, tenement-house conditions.
houses, containing one, or, at the This latest report, a book of some most, two families, while in many sixty pages, entitled, "Housing Con cities these houses are often owned ditions and Tenement Laws in Lead- by the workingmen themselves. ing American Cities," deals with
There are, of course, in each of these
cities certain bad housing conditions housing conditions in the twenty- which give some of them what might seven largest American cities.
be termed a housing problem, but These conditions are taken up in de this is distinct from the tenementtail with respect to Chicago, Phila- house problem as known in New delphia, St. Louis, Boston, Balti- York and Boston. more, Cleveland, Buffalo, San Fran The laws of Buffalo, Philadelphia, cisco, Cincinnati, Pittsburgh, New and Washington might well serve Orleans, Detroit, Milwaukee, Wash- · as a model for New York in many ington, Jersey City, Louisville, Min- respects, especially in regard to proneapolis, Providence, Kansas City, visions for light and air. The St. Paul, Rochester, Denver, Toledo, Buffalo law provides that "no court Columbus, Syracuse, Nashville, and or shaft shall be less than six feet Hartford. Besides a description of wide for one-story and two-story the housing conditions in each one buildings, and at least eight feet of these cities, the report contains a wide for three-story and four-story statement of the more important buildings, and one foot wider for provisions of the tenement laws and each additional story above the building laws in each one of these fourth story." The law in Philadelcities, and also extracts from some phia is very similar. This law proof the more important laws, notably vides that "no shaft or court shall the laws in Philadelphia, Buffalo, be less than eight feet wide in any and Boston.
part, and that any court or shaft Appended to the report is a com between the wings of a tenementparative table showing the most im- house, or between two tenementportant provisions of the different houses shall not be less in width than tenement-house laws in each one of 12 feet; and all such shafts and these cities grouped side by side so courts shall be open on one side from that a person may see at a glance the ground to the sky." how these different statutes com When one contrasts these provi.pare. This report should be of value sions with the present provisions of to the legislature as affording a the New York law, which permit,
instead of wide shafts, mere slits as the result of treatment, shall be twenty-eight inches wide and sixty admitted. feet long, and closed on all sides,
All applications for admission one begins to realize that New York is in some respects far behind
should be made in writing to Dr. many smaller cities in her tenement
Newton M. Shaffer, surgeon-inhouse laws.
chief, No. 28 East Thirty-eighth
street, New York, who will appoint A NEW STATE HOSPITAL.
a time and place for the necessary
examination. The New York State Hospital for the Care of Crippled and Deformed
The Charity Organization Society Children is now open for the recep
of Indianapolis has been granted tion and treatment of patients.
articles of incorporation under the This institution will accommodate
name of the Charity Organization about twenty-five patients. Its board of managers are Bishop Henry Society of the City of Indianapolis
. board of managers are Bishop Henry The articles state that no religious C. Potter, president; Mr. George
or color lines shall have any effect in Blodgen, Jr., treasurer and secretary; Mr. J. Hampden Robb, Mr. J: Any person may belong by the pay
the working of the organization. Adriance Bush, and Dr. Newton M.
ment of a fee of $5. The board of Shaffer.
directors is composed of one person The hospital was established un
from each of the churches, one from der provision of the laws of 1900
each charitable society, the mayor, "for the care and treatment of any
the township trustee, the chairman indigent children who may have re
of the Board of Health, the superinsided in the state of New York for
tendent of police, the police judge, a period of not less than one year,
the superintendent of the city diswho are crippled or deformed, or who are suffering from a disease
pensary, the superintendent of pubfrom which they are likely to be
lic schools, the truant officer, and
the secretary of the State Board of come crippled or deformed.”
Charities. Patients from four to fifteen years During the year ending October will be received and all applications 31, this society received 737 appliwill be acted upon in the order of
cations for aid, representing 2,705 their reception. No patient will be people. Of the number of applica
tions received, 426 were from people admitted without an examination
who had lived in the city but a short by, and a certificate from, the sur time. geon-in-chief, or his assistant. No patient whose condition is such that Classified Advertisements.
Advertisements under this head, two lines or more death is likely to occur in the immediate future, or whose condition precludes a reasonable amount of relief, M'Fions ; M. NEYLAREA CONGSI RECITAS
without display, 5 cents a line.
or private houses. 34 W. 18th street, city.
surely, as we have intimated a nonsequitur.
THE OFFICIAL ORGAN OF
CITY OF NEW YORK.
We are not specially concerned ENTERED AS SECOND - CLASS MATTER AT THE NEW YORK, N. Y., POST-OFFICE.
with establishing our consistency, if Lex Issued every Saturday. Five cents a by that is meant unbroken uniformcopy. Subscription price, one dollar a year, in advance. Three dollars a hundred.
ity of practice, since we trust that ADVERTISING RATES.
the society has sufficient practiClassified advertisements, 5 cents a line, eight words to the line, agate measure.
cal common sense to change its methDisplay, 5 cents a line, 14 lines to the inch. ods whenever it becomes necessary Full page, 200 agate lines, $10. Half page, 100 agate lines, $5. Quarter page, 50 agate or expedient. But it so happens lines, $2.50. Special position, twenty-five
that in this particular there is the per cent additional. EDWARD T. DEVINE, Editor.
utmost consistency in the policy of PUBLICATION OFFICE:
the society from the beginning of 105 East 22d Street.
its work, nearly twenty years ago. NEW YORK, DECEMBER 15, 1900.
Chapter 139 of the laws of 1882,
incorporating the society, enumerA charity expert was heard to re ates the purposes and objects of this mark, on examining the annual re corporation under six headings, one port of the Charity Organization of which is “To obtain from the Society, that it appeared to him that proper charities and charitable indithe society disbursed a large amount viduals suitable and adequate relief of relief for an organization which for deserving cases.” The consticlaimed not to be a relief-giving so
tution of the society quoted below ciety. At the risk of painful repeti- improves upon this language by tion it may be expedient to point out avoiding the use of the word “dethe illogical and meaningless char- serving." acter of this observation. It implies that if a society, whose duty it is to A large amount of relief is obobtain relief for those who are in dis- tained by the society each year from tress, obtains, and passes on to those the "proper charities.” In proporfor whom it was specifically given, tion to the need existing among the a small amount of money, say $1,- families under its care, it is probable 700, in a year, this is consistent with that more relief was obtained from its claim not to have on hand a gen such sources in the past year than in eral relief fund; but if the money any previous year in the history of thus obtained and passed on increases the society. in amount, let us say to $17,000, the We have not in the slightest desociety then, by some mysterious gree neglected our function as a process, becomes transformed into clearing house, or as an agency for
relief-giving agency. This - is promoting co-operation, or as a bond