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ducted by a Council of the Empire, the Ministry, and a Senate; but there is no representative body. The late Emperor Alexander gave the Senate the right of remonstrating against any ukase or ediet contrary to law. It is a body partly deliberative and partly executive, and forms the highest judicial tribunal of the empire. It is divided into 9 departments or sections, of which six, comprising 62 members, hold their sittings at St. Petersburg, and three sections, with 26 members, at Moscow. The ministers of the great departments are responsible to the Senate. The established religion is that of the Greek Church, but all others are tolerated.
COUNCIL OF THE EMPIRE. Count Victor Kotschoubey (Actual Privy Counsellor), President of the Council.
M. de Paschkoff, Pres. of the Department of Legislation ; (Grand-Veneur.) Count Peter de Tolstoi, General of Cavalry, Pres. Dep. of Military Affairs.
M. Nicol de Mordwinoff (Admirul), President of the Department of Civil and Ecclesiastical Affairs.
Prince Alexis de Kourakin ( Actual Privy Counsellor), President of the Department of Political Economy.
MINISTRY OF STATE.
(Ministres à Portfeuille.) His Royal Highness Duke Alexander of Wurtemberg, General of Cavalry, Director General of the Department of Canwls, Bridges, and Roads.
Prince Peter de Volkonsky, General of Infantry, Aide-de-Cump General, Minister of the Imperial Court, and Minister des Apanages.
Prince Alexander Galitzyn, ( Actual Privy Counsellor,) Director General of che Post-Ofice of the Empire.
Count de Nesselrode, Vice-Chancellor, and Minister of Foreign Affairs.
Prince Alexis Dolgorouky, Privy Counsellor, Attorney General, and Minister of Justice.
His Imperial Highness the Grand Duke Constantine, Commander in Chief of the Army of Poland.
KING AND ROYAL FAMILY. FREDERICK VI, King of Denmark, Duke of Pomerania ; b. Jan. 28, 1768; declared co-regent with his Father Christian VII, April 14, 1781, succeeded to the throne March 13, 1808; m. July 31, 1790, Sophia FREDERICA, niece of the Elector of Hesse-Cassel, b. Oct. 28, 1767 : Issue :
1. Caroline ; b. Oct. 28, 1793; m. to Prince Frederick Ferdinand, Aug. 1, 1829.
2. Wilhelmina ; b. Jan. 17, 1808; m. to Prince Frederick, Nov. 1. 1820.
CHRISTIAN FREDERICK, Crown Prince, cousin to the King; b. Sept. 18, 1786 ; m. (1) Feb. 18, 1806, Charlotte Frederica, Princess of Mecklenburg ;
-Issue ; 1. Frederick ; b. Oct. 6, 1808; m. Princess Wilhelmina, Nov. 1, 1828); m. (II) May 22, 1815, Carolina Amelia, daughter of the Duke of Holstein-Augustenburg : -- Issue ; 2. Julienna; 3. Charlotte ; 4. Frederick Ferdinand, b. Nov. 22, 1792; m. the Princess Caroline Aug. 1, 1829.
GOVERNMENT. Denmark has been since 1660, in law, an absolute monarchy of the most unqualified kind; the will of the King is supreme, in both civil and ecclesiastical affairs; but in religion he must be of the Confession of Augsburg. The crown is hereditary in the male line.
PRIVY MINISTRY OF THE KING. Count de Schimmelmann, Privy Minister of State, Head of the Depart. ment of Foreign Affairs.
M. de Moesting, Privy Minister of State for Finance, and President of the Chamber of Finance.
M. de Sehestedt, Privy Minister of State, Head of the Chamber of Commerce and Customs.
Count de Moltke, Privy Minister of State, President of the German Chancery.
M. Malling, Privy Minister of State for Public Instruction.
M. de Steemann, Privy Minister of State and Justice, President of the Danish Chancery.
KING AND ROYAL FAMILY. WILLIAM, King of the Netherlands, Prince of Orange-Nassau, and Grand Duke of Luxemburg; b. Aug. 24, 1772; succeeded his father in his hereditary possessions in Germany, April 9, 1806; declared Sovereign Prince of the Netherlands Dec. 3, 1813 ; assumed the crown March 15, 1815 ; m. Oct. 1, 1791, WILHELMINA, sister of the King of Prussia, b. Nov. 18, 1774: Issue :-
1. WILLIAM, Prince Royal and Prince of Orange; b. Dec. 6, 1792 ; m. Feb. 21, 1816, Anne, sister of the Emperor of Russia, b. Jan. 18, 1795 :Issue ; William, b. Feb. 18, 1817; Alexander, b. Aug. 2, 1818; Frederick, b. June 13, 1820 ; Sophia, b. April 8, 1824.
2. Frederick ; b. Feb, 28, 1797 ; m. May 21, 1825, Louisa, 3d daughter of the king of Prussia :-Issue ; Alexandrina, h. Aug. 5, 1828.
3. Marianne; b. May 9, 1810.
GOVERNMENT. The kingdom of the Netherlands, which was constituted in 1814, is a limited hereditary monarchy. The Constitution is formed on the basis of the representative system, and bears a close resemblance to that of Great Britain. The executive power is vested in the King; the legislative power in the King and the States-General, consisting of two Houses. The members of the Upper House are named by the King for life. They must be 40 years of age; io number not less than 40, nor more than 60; and their titles are not hereditary. The members of the Lower House, 110 in num.
ber, are elected by the people for the term of three years, and consist of three orders, gentry, citizens, and peasants. The several provinces have also their Assemblies of States, which meet for the purpose of legislating on matters of local interest.
The religion of the Dutch provinces is the Calvinist; that of the Belgic provinces, Roman Catholic; but all sects are tolerated; and the clergy are supported by the state.
His Royal Highness the Prince of Orange, President of the Council of Ministers'; also President of the Council of State, in the absence of the King.
His Royal Highness Prince Frederick of the Netherlands, Commissary General of War.
Count C. J P. de Thiennes de Lombize, Minister of State.
Baron W. F. Roël, Minister of State, Chancellor of the Order of the Belgic Linn.
Baron J. H. Mollerus, Secretary of State, Vice-President of the Council of State.
Baron G. A. G. P. van der Capellen van Berkenwoude, Secretary of
M. O. Repelaer van Driel, Minister of State.
The following statement exhibits the heads of Expenditure of the kingdom of the Netherlands, and their average annual amount, as derived from official returns for the last eleven years. [Liverpool Paper, Sept. 1830.] King's Household (Civil List)
£211,000 Officers of State and Secretaryships
100,285 Foreign Affairs
65,635 Courts of Law, Judges, &c.
270,297 Home Department, Dikes, &c.
478,203 Protestant Ecclesiastical Establishment
112,651 Catholic Establishment
128,671 Education, Arts, Trade, and Colonies
179,626 Department of Finance and Debt
Average annual Expenditure.
KING AND ROYAL FAMILY.
WILLIAM IV. King of Great Britain and Ireland, and King of Hanover; Defender of the Faith ; b. Aug. 21, 1765; m. July 11, 1318, ADELAIDE, sister of the Duke of Saxe-Meiningen, b. Aug. 13, 1792; succeeded his brother George IV. June 26, 1830.
Brothers and Sisters of the King, with their Annual Parliamentary
Allowance. 1. Augusta Sophia ; (£13,000); b. Nov. 3, 1768.
2. Elizabeth ; b. May 22, 1770; m. April 7, 1818, to Frederick Joseph Lewis, Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg, who died April 2, 1823.
3. Ernest Augustus, Duke of Cumberland ; ( £25,000); b. June 5, 1771 ; m. May 25, 1815, Frederica Sophia Carolina, sister of the Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, and widow of Frederick William, Prince of Solms-Braunfels, b. March 20, 1778 :- Issue; George Frederick, b. May 27, 1819.
4. Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex; (£21,000); 6. Jan 27, 1773.
5. Adolphus Frederick, Duke of Cambridge ; (27,000); b. Feb. 24, 1774; m. May 7, 1818, Augusta Wilhelmina Louisa, niece of the Landg rave of Hesse, b. July 25, 1797 :- Issue; 1. George William, b. March 26, 1819 ; 2. Augusta Caroline, b. July 19, 1822.
6. Mary, Duchess of Gloucester (£13,000); b. April 25, 1776 ; m. . July 22, 1816, to her cousin the Duke of Gloucester. 7. Sophia ; (£13,000); b. Nov. 3, 1777.
Niece of the King. ALEXANDRINA VICTORIA, Heiress Presumptive, (daughter of the late Prince Edward, Duke of Kent,-b. Nov. 2, 1767, died Jan. 23, 1820,-by Victoria Maria Louisa, (£12,000), sister of the Duke of Saxe-Coburg, b. Aug. 17, 1786); b. May 24, 1819,
Cousins of the King.--Issue of the late Duke of Gloucester. Sophia Matilda, (£7,000); b. May 23, 1773.
William Frederick, Duke of Gloucester; (£14,000) ; b. Jan. 15, 1776 ; m. July 22, 1816, his cousin the Princess Mary.
Related by Marriage. Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg; (£50,000); b. Dec. 16, 1790 ; m. May 2, 1816, Charlotte, daughter of George IV. who died Nov. 6, 1817.
The government of England is a constitutional hereditary monarchy, in which the power of sovereign is controlled by the influence of the aristoc. racy in the House of Peers, and by that of the democracy in the House of Commons. The executive authority is vested in the King; the legislative, in the King and Parliament. The king has the power of appointing all the great officers of state, and all the executive acts of the government are performed in his name; but the ministers only are responsible for them.
THE KING's MINISTERS. Duke of Wellington,
First Lord of the Treasury. Rt. Hon. Henry Goulburn, Chancellor of the Exchequer. Lord Lyndhurst,
Lord-Chancellor. Earl Bathurst,
President of the Council. Earl of Rosslyn,
Lord Privy-Seal. Rt. Hon. Sir Robert Peel, Secretary of State for the Home Department. Earl of Aberdeen,
Secretary of State for the Foreign do. Rt. Hon Sir Geo. Murray, Secretary of State for the Colonial do. Viscount Melville,
First Lord of the Admiralty.
The above form the Cabinet.
Master of the Horse.
Commander of the Forces.
First Commissioner of the Land Revenue. Rt. Hon. T. P. Courtenay, Vice-President of the Board of Trade. Duke of Manchester, Postmaster-General. Lord R. E. H. Somerset, Lieutenant-General of the Ordnance. Sir James Scarlett, Knt. Attorney-General. Sir E. B. Sugden, Knt. Solicitor-General.
The Ministry of Ireland.
THE PRIVY COUNCIL AND CABINET.
The principal council of the sovereign is his Privy Council, the members of which are chosen by him, and, on changes of administration, are seldom erased, though those in opposition seldom attend. They are styled Right Honorable, and are sworn to observe secrecy. The lowest of the board pronounces his opinion first, and the king, if present, concludes by declaring his judgment.
The Cabinet, or Cabinet Council, consists of those ministers of state, who hold the highest rank and dignity. The number of members varies generally from 10 to 14; consisting of the Lord Chancellor, the Lord Privy Seal, the President of the Council, the First Lord of the Treasury,