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ing Palestrina, Pergolesi, Haydn, Rossini, and Dvorak. The composition of Pergolesi, for two voices with accompaniment, is the most celebrated, but that of Rossini is the most popular in the concert room. The hymn as given in the 'Breviarium Romanum' office of the festival of the Seven Dolors of the Blessed Virgin Mary (Friday after Passion Sunday; is as follows:

Stabat mater dolorosa,
Juxta crucctn lacrymosa,

Dum pendebat ntias.
Cujus animara gementem,
Contristatam et dolentem

Pertransivit gladius,
O quam tristis ct afiiicta
Fait ilia benedicta
Mater L'nigeniti.
Quz mocrebat et dolebat
Pia mater, dum videbat

Nati pcenas inctyti.
Quis est homo qui non fleret
Christi matrem si videret

In tanto supplicio?
Quis non posset contristari,
Piam matrem contemplari

Dolentem cum filio.
Pro peccatis suae gentis •
Vidit Jesum in tormentis,

Et nagellis subditum;
Vidit suum dulcem natum
Moriendo desolatum,

Dum emisit spiritum.
Eia mater, fons amoris.
Me sentire vim doloris

Fac, ut tecum lugeam.
Fac ut ardeat cor meum
Id amando Christum Deum

Ut ills complaceam.
Sancta mater, istud agas,
Crucinxi fige plagas
Cordi meo valide.
Tui Nati vulnerati,
Tam dignati pro me pati,

Pcenas mecum divide.
Fac me tecum pie flere,
Crucifixo condolere.
Donee ego vixero.
Juxta crucem tecum stare,
Et me tibi sociare.

In planctu desidero.
Virgo virginum przclara,
Mihi jam non sis amara,

Fac me tecum plangere;
Fac ut portem Christi mortem,
Pasiionis fac consortem

Et plagas recolere.
Fac me plagis vulnerari,
Fac me cruce inebriari,

Et cruore filii.
Flammis ne urar
Per te, Virgo, sim

In die judicii.
Fac me cruce custodiri,
Morte Christi praimuniri,
\ Confoveri gratia.

Quando corpus morietur,
Fac ut animae donetur
Paradisi gloria.

Stabillite. This new smokeless powder, invented by Hudson Maxim, in recent tests made in cannon both large and small, has given far higher ballistic results than have ever heretofore been obtained by other powders anywhere in the world. "Stabillite," furthermore, possesses the great advantage that no volatile matter is employed in its manufacture, and consequently it requires no drying after manufacture, but is ready for use immediately. For this reason it undergoes no change whatever by keeping for any length of time.

Stachys. sta'kis, a genus of perennial and annual herbs and a few shrubs of the order Labiata. The species, of which there are about 150, are natives of mild climates. They have simple, opposite leaves, small, white, yellowish, red or purple flowers in axillary whorls or terminal spikes. They are mostly found in low

moist ground, but though several are attractive when in flower they are little cultivated.

Stadium, a Greek measure of 125 paces,

or 625 Roman feet, equal to 606 feet 9 inches English; consequently the Greek stadium was somewhat less than our furlong. It was the principal Greek measure of length. This term was also applied to the course for foot-races at Olympia in Greece, which was exactly a stadium in length. The name was also given to all other places throughout Greece wherever games were celebrated.

Stadtholder, stat'b6I"der, a title given in the Netherlands to a governor of a province who was also commander-in-chief of the forces. This title, however, received its special significance in 1580, when the provinces of Holland and Zealand revolted against the authority of Spain, and unitedly accepted William, prince of Orange, as their stadtholder. The prince was assassinated before he was formally invested with this office, but the title was conferred on his son, Prince Maurice, and remained as the hereditary title of the chief of the state until Holland was annexed by France in 1802. This title was finally dropped in 1814. when the Prince of Orange was recalled from England and declared king of the Netherlands by an assembly of notables.

Stael-Holstein, sta'el-hol'stin fFr. stael 61-stan), Anne Louise Germaine Necker, Baroness De, French author: b. Paris 22 April 1766; d. there 14 July 1817. She was the only child of Jacques Necker. Swiss banker and minister of finance to Louis XVI. Necker's house was the resort of the most distinguished men of the capital; every week on a certain day were assembled in the salon of Madame Necker the most eminent scholars of the day, as Marmontel. Raynal, Grimm, Thomas, etc. The encouragement the young girl received in this society, and the various excitements which it furnished to her faculties, had an important influence on the formation of her mind. To these she owed that rare conversational power for which she was so remarkable, with that inclination to ingenious, brilliant, and striking theories, which appears in her earlier works. Her earliest productions were 'Sophia.' a comedy (1786), and two tragedies, 'Lady Jane Grey* and (Montmorency.' Her 'Lettres sur les Ouvrages et le Caractere de J. J, Rousseau' (1788), first attracted the public notice. In 1786 she was married to the Baron de Stael-Holstein, Swedish ambassador at the French court, a man much older than herself, whose suit was favored by Madame Necker's desire that her daughter should marry a Protestant.

The breaking out of the Revolution (1789) exercised a powerful influence both on her mind and fate. The first period of her father's service in the ministry (1777-81) brought his family into connection with the great world and public affairs. During Robespierre's ascendency she exerted herself to save the victims, and published a powerful and eloquent 'Defense of the Queen.' After the insurrection of 10 Aug. 1792 she fled in September to her father's house at Coppet in Switzerland, which now became the refuge of the French fugitives. When Sweden recognized the French republic, her husband was again sent as ambassador to Paris, whither she returned t* 1795. The government of the Directory gave her an opportunity of effecting the recall of some of the emigrants. Barras became her friend; and she acquired so much influence that, on Talleyrand's return from America in 1796, she obtained, through Barras, his appointment to the ministry of foreign affairs. To this period also belong two political pamphlets, 'Sur la Paix' and 'Sur la Paix interieure,' which contain her views respecting the situation of France in 1795, and express the. remarkable opinion that France could arrive at limited monarchy only through military despotism. In 1796 appeared her 'De l'lnfluence des Passions sur le Bonheur des Individus et des Nations,' which, though characterized by enlightened views, does not contain any complete exposition of the subject. Her connection with her husband, who died in 1802, whose tastes were different, and whose talents were inferior to hers, had been from the first marked by coldness; and when she became desirous of securing the property of their children from the effects of his lavish habits, a separation took place; but his infirmities rendering the services of his friends necessary to him, she again joined him. Bonaparte she saw for the first time in 1797, on his return to Paris, after the peace of CampoFormio. His brilliant reputation excited her admiration, but this soon gave way to fear and aversion. The danger which threatened Switzerland led her back to Coppet; but when Geneva was incorporated with France she hastened back to Paris, to cause her father's name to be struck from the list of emigrants. But some observations of Necker in his 'Dernieres Vues de Politique et des Finances' (1802) offended the first consul, who caused the work to be attacked in the journals.


Madame de Stael was banished to a distance of 40 leagues from Paris, under pretense that she had given her father false information of the state of France. During her banishment she lived with her father at Coppet, but spent much time in traveling. Her literary reputation was meanwhile increased by her 'De la Litterature considered dans ses Rapports avec les Institutions sociales' (1802), and her 'Delphine' (1802). The former attracted many assailants, among whom Fontanes was the ablest and acutest. Her romance 'Delphine' contained a faithful picture of herself as she was in her youth — separated from the multitude by genius and sensibility, and struggling against the restraints of custom and her sex. In 1803 she made a visit to Germany, and lived for about a year in Weimar and Berlin. She paid a visit to Italy in 1805, and the fruit of her journey was 'Corinne ou l'ltalie' (1807), which combines in a happy manner the charms of romance with a, faithful picture of Italy. It was finished in France, and was no sooner published than she was ordered to quit this country, upon which she returned to Coppet. Here she wrote 'Essais dramatiques,' and finished (1809) her work on Germany ((De l'Allemagne'). She then went to France to get it printed, but before it could be published the printed copies were seized by the police, and she was ordered to quit France. It first appeared entire at London in 1813. This work gave the French the first intimation of the intellectual development of Germany.

Returning to Coppet from France, Madame de Stael was subjected to new persecutions, and was forbidden to go farther from her residence

than two leagues. But in the spring of 1812 she escaped, and passing through Vienna to Moscow, on the approach of the French army went to Saint Petersburg, and soon after, in the autumn of 1812, to Stockholm. From Stockholm she went to England, where she was received with the most flattering attention. Here was published her 'Reflexions sur le Suicide,' and 'Zulma et trois Nouvelles.' After a long exile, described in her <Dix Annees d'Exil,' she landed at Calais in 1814. After the Restoration in 1815 she returned to Paris, and was received with great distinction. She also received from the government public stock to the amount of 2,000,000 francs, due to her father by the treasury at the time of his dismissal from office. Surrounded by a happy domestic circle, esteemed and courted by the most eminent men of the capital, she lived in Paris, with the exception of a short absence, till her death, and until her last sickness she was employed on her 'Memoires et Considerations sur les principaux Evenements de la Revolution Franchise' (1819). By her will it was made known that in 1812 she had been married a second time to a M. de Rocca, a young officer of hussars, who, suffering from wounds received in Spain, had quitted the service, and come to reside at Geneva, where she became acquainted with him.

Consult 'Life' by Norris. (1853) ; d'Haussonville, 'Le Salon de Madame Necker' (1882); Lady Blennerhasset, 'Frau von Stael' (1888-9); Brunetiere, 'Evolution de la Critique' (1890); Sorel, 'Madame de Stael' (1800); Faguet, 'Politiques et Moralistes' (Vol. I., 1898).

Staff, in the army, a body of officers whose duties refer to an army or regiment as a whole, and who are not attached to particular subdivisions. The staff includes the general officers commanding divisions, district brigades, etc.,— the officers of the quartermaster-general's and the adjutant-general's departments, called the general staff; officers attached to commanding general officers as military secretaries and aidesde-camp, called the personal staff; officers employed in connection with the civil departments at the war office ; and those engaged in recruiting and garrison work. See General Staff Of The United States Army.

Staff, an artificial stone or cement used to cover or ornament large buildings and structures built for temporary occupation. It is made chiefly of powdered gypsum or plaster of Paris, with a little cement, glycerin, and dextrine, mixed with water until it is about as thick as molasses, when it may be cast in molds into any shape. To strengthen it coarse cloth or bagging, or fibres of hemp or jute, are put into the molds before casting. It becomes hard enough in about a half hour to be removed and fastened on the building in construction. Staff may easily be bent, sawed, bored, or nailed. Its natural color is murky white, but it may be made of any tint to resemble any kind of stone, and may be painted and gilded.

Staff was invented in France about 1876 and was used in the construction and ornamentation of the buildings of the Paris expositions of 1878 and of 1890. It was also largely used in the construction of the buildings of the Columbian Exhibition at Chicago in 1893, and at the Omaha and Buffalo expositions in 1898 and 1901. Without this cheap and easily worked material the great and splendid buildings would have been impossible, for they were little more than skeletons of iron and timber covered with staff.


Staff is well-nigh fireproof. Frost does not hurt it. Rain has little effect upon it. A drip injures it. As a veneer for the ordinary exposition building it lasts scarcely ten years, for the reason that these buildings have inadequate foundations. They settle and force cracks in the walls. When anchored to brick buildings or spread on expanded lath, staff will doubtless prove to be a serviceable outside finish, easily repaired and moderate in cost. Its fitness for a permanent finish is beginning to receive the attention of American builders.

Staff, in music, the five parallel lines, and ♦heir intermediate spaces on which the notes, sharps, flats, and other musical characters are placed. See Music

Staff Colleges and Schools, military institutions for the advanced instruction of officers desirous of being placed on the staff of the army. See Army; General Service And Staff ColLege; Military Schools.

Staffa, staf'a, Scotland, a small island of the inner Hebrides, situated five miles west of Mull. It is celebrated for its basaltic pillars and natural caves, the most noted of which is Fingal's Cave. The island, which is one half mile in diameter, consists of columnar basalt capped by a shapeless mass. This gives the interior of the caves almost architectural forms. Fingal's Cave extends 227 feet inward, and the opening is an arch 66 feet high. The floor is covered with from 9 to 18 feet of water.

Stafford, staf'ord, Henry, duke of Buckingham. See Buckingham, Dukes Of.

Stafford, William Howard, Viscount, an English statesman: b. 30 Nov. 1614; executed on Tower Hill 29 Dec. 1680. He was the son of the 20th earl of Arundel, the well-known collector of the Arundelian marbles. In November 1640 he was created Viscount Stafford. He was brought up in the Roman Catholic faith, and adhered during the civil wars to the royal cause; but after the Restoration he was frequently found in opposition to the court, although he appears never to have played an important part as a legislator. He was singled out by Titus Oates, the contriver of the "popish plot," as one of his chief victims. On 23 Oct. 1678 Oates deposed before the House of Commons that upon the subversion of the kingdom by the Jesuits, Lord Stafford was to have the appointment of paymaster of the army; and on the 30th the accused nobleman was committed to the Tower, with other Catholic peers against whom _ similar charges had been preferred. After lying two years in prison, he was brought to trial on a charge of high treason 30 Nov. 1680. During a trial of seven days he defended himself by pointing out the weakness of Oates' evidence, so that Evelyn, who was present, thought "such a man's testimony should not be taken against the life of a dog." Nevertheless a verdict of guilty was pronounced by a vote of 55 to 31. He was executed three weeks afterward.

Stafford, England, capital of Staffordshire, on the River Sow, 25 miles southeast of Crewe. The principal buildings include the Church of

Saint Mary's, which has fine stained glass and many interesting monuments; Saint Chads, a fine old Norman church; a stately county hall; a borough hall, containing a museum, and the market hall; hospital, asylum, a Latin school ('550), technical schools, and a theatre. The town has extensive tanneries and manufactures leather goods, engineering and electrical works. In the neighborhood is Stafford Castle. Many ancient buildings like High House attest to the antiquity of the town.

Stafford Springs, Conn., borough in Tolland County; on the Willimantic River, and on the Central Vermont Railroad; about 48 miles north of New London and 18 miles northwest of Willimantic. It is in an agricultural and a manufacturing section of the State. The chief manufacturing establishments are woolen mills, iron works, machine shops, flour mill, creameries, and tobacco works. There are Protestant Episcopal, Roman Catholic, Congregational, _ and Methodist Episcopal churches. The educational institutions are a public library, founded in 1874, a high school, and public and parish schools. The national bank has a capital of $50,000; there is one savings bank. Stafford Springs is a favorite resort for health seekers on account of the mineral springs. Pop. (1890) 2,353; (1900) 2,460; (1910) 3,059

Staffordshire, staf'ord-shir, England, a midland county, with an area of 1,128 square miles. The Moorlands is a hilly district at the north, intersected by deep valleys. The surface is mostly undulating. The Trent is the chief river and its tributaries are the Sow, Tame, Blythe, and Dove. Few valleys are fertile in the central portion. In the south are important iron and coal deposits. The Dudley and Pottery coalfields contain several hundred collieries, and produce large quantities of ironstone. Important copper-pits are found near Warslow, while on the banks of the Dove at the north, colored marble alabaster, mill stones, and chalk, are found. The clay for pottery which makes the Wedgewood ware famous is taken from the "Potteries" district of North Staffordshire, where extensive china and pottery factories exist. The manufacture of various metals is extensive, also leather, silk, wool, linen, and sailcloth. The important towns are Stoke-upon-Trent, Burton, Wolverhampton, Wallsall, Handsworth, and Smethwick.

Stag. See Deer.

Stag-beetle, a beetle of the family Lucanidee, in which the jaws of the males arc greatly enlarged and studded with spike-like protuberances which give them a resemblance to stag antlers. The mandibles of the females are short, of smaller size, and curved; and the club or terminal part of the feelers is four-jointed. These beetles arc vegetable feeders, and subsist upon the tender leaves and other parts of plants. The larvae are found in trees, into the substance of which they burrow.

Stage, The American. In order to convey to the reader a fair understanding of the progress of the American theatre since 1795 it is perhaps necessary to state something about its beginnings, which, indeed, previous to 1750, are involved in much obscurity. Tony Aston, an English stroller of some celebrity, visited the

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