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II, 42

Causes and General Progress. Effect of the nationalisation of the mar-

ket, 43. National trade unions in thirties, 43. The effect of national

labour competition, 44. Effect of employers' associations, 44. Effect of

machinery and the division of labour, 44. Organisation of national trade

unions, 1861-1873, 45. Growth of their membership, 47. The national

trade union the paramount aspect of nationalisation, 48.

The Moulders. Epitomise the labour movement, 48. Activities during

the war, 48. Beginning of employers' associations, 49. Lull in the organ-

isation of employers during the period of prosperity, 49. West and

East, 50. American National Stove Manufacturers' and Iron Founders'

Association, 50. Apprenticeship question, 50. The strike in Albany and

Troy, 51. Withdrawal of the Buffalo and St. Louis foundrymen from

the Association, 51. The general strike against wage reductions, 51.

Defeat of the union, 52. Restriction on strikes by the national union,

52. Turn to co-operation, 53. Sylvis' view on the solution of the labour

question, 53. Co-operative shops, 53. The Troy shops, 54. Their busi-

ness success but failure as co-operative enterprises, 54. Disintegration

of the employers' association, 55. Revival of trade unionism, 55.

Machinists and Blacksmiths. The intellectual ascendency in the labour

movement, 56. Employers' associations, 56. Effect of the depression, 57.

Effect of the eight-hour agitation on the union, 57. Revival in 1870,



The Labour Movement in Europe and America. Eight-hour ques-

tion, 87. Ira Steward and his wage theory, 87. Stewardism contrasted

with socialism, 90. Stewardism and trade-unionism, 91. Stewardism and

political action, 91. Boston Labor Reform Association, 91. Grand

Eight-Hour League of Massachusetts, 92. Massachusetts labour politics,

Labour politics in Philadelphia, 93. Fincher's opposition to politics,

93. Return of the soldiers - -a stimulus to the eight-hour movement, 94.

The question of national federation, 94. The move by trades' assemblies,

94. New York State Workingmen's Assembly, 95. The move by the na-

tional trade unions, 96. The compromise, 96.


Labour Congress of 1866. Representation, 96. Attitude toward trade

unionism and legislation, 98. The eight-hour question at the congress,

98. Resolution in political action, 99. The land question, 100. Co-

operation, 101. Form of organisation, 101.

Eight Hours and Politics. Congressional election of 1866, 102. In-

dependent politics outside Massachusetts, 103. Eight-hours before Con-

gress, 104. Eight-hours before President Johnson, 104. Eight-hours be-

fore the General Court of Massachusetts, 105. The special commission of

1865, 106. The commission of 1866, 107. E. H. Rogers, 107. Eight-hour

bills in other States, 108. Causes of the failure, 109.

Co-operation. Co-operative workshops, 111. Productive co-operation in

various trades, 111.

Labour Congress of 1867. Activity of the National Labor Union dur-

ing the year, 112. Address to the Workingmen of the United States, 113.

Viewpoint of the "producing classes," 114. Representation at the Con-

gress of 1867, 115. The constitution, 116. The immigrant question and

the American Emigrant Company, 117. The question of the Negro, 118.

Greenbackism. The popularity of greenbackism among the various ele-

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