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Texts of Columbus's Privileges, contributed by Frances G. Daven-
GENERAL BOOKS AND BOOKS OF ANCIENT HISTORY
Pais, Ancient History, by Professor C. H. Moore .
Helmott, History of the World, V., by Professor A. C. Coolidge
Turmel, Histoire du Dogme de la Papauté, by Professor F. A. Christie. .
BOOKS OF MEDIEVAL AND MODERN EUROPEAN HISTORY
Halphen, Recueil des Actes de Lothaire et de Louis V., by Professor C. H. Haskins
Prou, Recueil des Actes de Philippe Ier, by the same
Vinogradoff, English Society in the Eleventh Century
Bédier, Les Légendes Epiques, by Professor F. M. Warren
Stevenson, Marine World Chart of Canerio Januensis, by V. H. Paltsits
Ramsay, The Dawn of the Constitution, by Professor R. K. Richardson
Bain, Slavonic Europe, by Professor R. C. H. Catterall
Theal, History and Ethnography of Africa, I., by Professor A. L. P. Dennis.
De Trésal, Les Origines du Schisme Anglican, by Professor R. B. Merriman.
Hartranft, Corpus Schwenckfeldianorum, I., by Professor G. L. Burr
Herre, Papsttum und Papstwahl im Zeitalter Philipps II., by Professor R. B. Merriman .
Granville, The King's General in the West, by Professor W. C. Abbott
Whetham, History of the Life of Colonel Nathaniel Whetham, by the same
Webb, English Local Government, by Professor G. E. Howard.
Waddington, La Guerre de Sept Ans, IV., by Professor Victor Coffin
De Lanzac de Laborie, Paris sous Napoleon..
Oman, History of the Peninsular War, III., by Colonel T. A. Dodge.
Trevelyan, Garibaldi's Defence of the Roman Republic, by H. N. Gay
Cunningham, Rise and Decline of the Free Trade Movement, by Professor H. C. Emery
BOOKS OF AMERICAN HISTORY
Fisher, The Struggle for American Independence, by Professor J. A. Woodburn.
Moore, The Works of James Buchanan, by Professor William MacDonald .
Blair and Robertson, The Philippine Islands, XLVII.-LII., by J. A. LeRoy
The American Historical Association supplies the REVIEW to all its members; the Executive Council of the Association elects members of the Board of Editors.
Correspondence in regard to contributions to the REVIEW may be sent to the Managing Editor, Professor J. F. Jameson, Carnegie Institution, Washington, D. C., or to the Board of Editors. Books for review may be sent to the Managing Editor. Subscriptions should be sent to The Macmillan Company, 41 North Queen St., Lancaster, Pa., or 66 Fifth Ave., New York. The price of subscription, to persons who are not members of the American Historical Association, is four dollars a year; single numbers are sold for one dollar; bound volumes may be obtained for four dollars and a half. Back numbers or volumes of
the REVIEW may be obtained at the same rates.
THE NEW ERA PRINT,
COPYRIGHT, 1908, BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY
American Historical Review
THE INTERNATIONAL HISTORICAL CONGRESS AT
NTERNATIONAL congresses of historians are a comparatively new phase of the international gatherings of scholars which have in recent years become well established in most fields of learning, and their organization presents special difficulties. The subjectmatter of history is more vast and far less uniform than that of the various natural sciences, and so much of it possesses only local or, at most, national interest that it is by no means easy to find sufficient common ground, apart from questions of method which are too often arid or fruitless, while the topics of widest interest, being often the very ones which divide nations and faiths, are not always well adapted to peaceful discussion. In the absence of any appropriate machinery for such purposes, the Société d'Histoire Diplomatique undertook the organization of the first congress, which was held at the Hague in 1898, as well as the one which met at Paris two years later. Of wider range and more largely attended was the congress held in Rome in 1903. The meeting there fixed for Berlin in 1906 was by the committee in charge postponed until this summer, so that five years may now be considered the normal interval.
As a meeting-place for historians Berlin stands in the sharpest possible contrast to Rome. The Prussian capital is a thoroughly modern city, the creation of comparatively recent times, and possesses neither the monuments nor the atmosphere of a rich historic past. Berlin prides itself on its modernity, and nowhere is the latest edition of one's Baedeker so essential. On the other hand, if Berlin is not rich in historical remains, it has a vigorous and fruitful tradition of historical study and research. The greatest interpreter of ancient Rome to the modern world was a Berlin professor, Theodor Mommsen, and no one will deny that Berlin is still the most active 1 August 6-12, 1908.
AM. HIST. REV., VOL. XIV.-I. (1)
centre for the investigation of that ancient world from which in time. and space it stands so far removed. It is from Berlin that the influence of Ranke's seminary and Niebuhr's critical method went forth, and in our own day the advancement of historical learning has no more active agencies than the University of Berlin and the Royal Prussian Academy. A meeting in such a centre could not prove otherwise than stimulating and fruitful. About eleven hundred attended the congress, coming from places as remote as Egypt, Brazil and Japan, as well as from all parts of Europe, from Scotland and Finland to Greece and Portugal. The total number, however, was less than at Rome, and the geographical distribution somewhat more uneven. The absence of the usual reduced rates on the railroads counted for something, and the fear of a Berlin August doubtless counted for more-although in fact the weather proved most delightful. The small number present from France was especially noteworthy, and the size of the American delegation, though respectable, was a disappointment to the management of the congress, which had the American vacation period in mind in fixing the date of the meeting.
The local arrangements were admirable and were carried out with efficiency and precision. The new and centrally located buildings of the Prussian Landtag which were placed at the disposal of the congress offered commodious and even luxurious headquarters, with committee rooms, post-office, ticket-office, restaurant and places for informal coming together. The meetings were all held in these buildings or in the immediate neighborhood, so that no time was lost in wandering about. Acquaintance was facilitated by a printed list of members with daily supplements, and each day a bulletin of from thirty to sixty pages appeared in four languages, containing programmes, announcements, etc. Each member received a specially prepared volume descriptive of Berlin and an excellent set of maps. Special exhibits were arranged and special facilities given for visiting the many museums of historical interest in Berlin, and those concerned with libraries and archives had opportunity to see, under expert guidance, the Prussian archives and the new building of the Royal Library. Too much cannot be said of the generous hospitality with which the congress was received and the delightful opportunities for social intercourse. The meeting opened with an informal reception in the buildings of the Reichstag, and succeeding evenings were occupied by a formal dinner given by the city of Berlin in the Rathhaus, a general subscription banquet for members of the congress, and Kneipen of the various sections. A special performance