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îng, the most exquisite tortures; and the and our intermediate situation, we mat common people of all countries are de- acknowledge, that, with regard to inferice lighted with nothing so much as bull-bait- animals, just such a being is a sportsman

, ings, prize-fightings, executions, and all

Fery. spectacles of cruelty and horror. Though civilization may in some degree abate this $ 157, On the Duties of Scheel Beps, fre native ferocity, it can never quite extir- i be pious and judicious ROLLIK. pate it: the most polished are not ashamed Quinctilian says, that he has included to be pleased with scenes of little less bar- almoit all the duty of scholars in this caz barity, and, to the disgrace of human na- piece of advice which he gives them, t) ture, to dignify them with the name of love those who teach them, as they love sports. They arm cocks with artificial the sciences which they learn of them; weapons, which nature had kindly denied and to look upon them as fathers, from to their malevolence, and, with thouts of whom they derive not the life of the body, applause and trivipi, see them plunge but that instruction which is in 2 mana them into each other's hearts: they view the life of the soul. Indeed this sentiment with delight the trembling deer and de- of affection and respect fuffices to make fenceless hare, Aying for hours in the ut- them apt to learn during the time of their molt agonies of terror and despair, and studies, and full of gratitude all the ret of at last, înking under fatigue, devoured by their lives. It seems to me to include a their mercile's pursuers : they fee with joy great part of what is to be expected free the beautiful pheafant and harmless par- them. tridge drop from their flight, weltering in Docility, which consists in submitonga their blood, or perhaps perisning with directions, in readily receiving the indrs wounds ard hanger, under the cover of tions of their masters, and reducing the some friend.y thicket to which they have to practice, is properly the virtue of seba. in vain retreated for safety: they triver ph lars, as that of masters is to teach over the uosuspecting fith, whom they have The one can do nothing without the other decoyev by an infidicus pretence of feed- and as it is not suficient for a labourer o ing, and drag hin from his native ele- fow the seed, unless the earth, after havia ment by a hook fixed to and tearing out opened its bosom to receive it, in a nuhis entrails : and, io add to all this, they ner hatches, warms, and moistens it; by frare neither labour nor expence to pre- likewise the whole fruit of instructica de terve and propagate these innocent ari- pends upon a good correspondence bersat inals, for no other end but to multiply the masters and the scholars. the objects of their perfecution.

Gratitude for those who have labor! What name should we bestow on a fu- in our education, is the character of a perior being, whose whole endeavours were honeft ma:), and the mark of a gente employed, and whose whole pleasure con- heart. Who is there among us, says C: fiited, in terrisying, ensaring, tormenting, cero, that has been instructed with and destroying markind? whose superior care, that is not highly delighted was faculties were exerted in fomentig ani- fight, or even the bare remembrance de mofities amongit them, in contriving en- his preceptors, malters, and the per gines of deftruction, and inciting them to where he was taught and brought of use them in maiming and murdering each Seneca exhorts young men to preferre aother? whole power over them was em- ways a great respect for their maiters ? ploved in anting the rapacious, deceiving whose care they are indebted for the : ike fimple, and opprefsing the innocent? mendment of their faults, and for bar; who, without provocation or advantage, imbibed sentiments of honour and prok Thould continue from day to day, void of Their exactness and severity disple: all pity and remorse, thus to torment man- sometimes at an age when we are actie

! kind for divetsion, and at the same time condition to judge of the obligatio. ** endeavour with his utmost care to preserve owe to them; but when years have ripettheir lives, and to propagate their species, ed our underítanding and judgment in order to increase the number of vi&tims then discern that what made us de devoted to his malevolence, and be dea them, I mean admonitions, reprinaas lighted in proportion to the miseries he and a fevere exactness in refraining occatoned ' I say, what name detestable pallions of an imprudent and incor. fide: * e.ough could we find for such a being age, is expressly the very thing wia yot, if we in partially consider the cale, should make us esteem and love crear

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Thus we see that Marcus Aurelius, one of shine through the veil of childhood'; “ I the wisest and most illuftrious emperors had still left me, says he, my son Quinctilian, that Rome ever had, thanked the gods in whom I placed all my pleasure and all for two things especially for his having my hopes, and comfort enough I might had excellent tutors himself, and that he have found in him: for, having now enhad found the like for his children. tered into his tenth year, he did not pro

Quinctilian, after having noted the dif- duce only blossoms like his younger brother, ferent characters of the mind in children, but fruits already formed, and beyond the draws, in a few words, the image of what power of disappointment. I have much he judged to be a perfect scholar; and experience ; but I never saw in any child, certainly it is a very amiable one : “ For I do not say only so many excellent dispomy part,” says he, “I like a child who is fitions for the sciences, nor so much taile, encouraged by commendation, is animated as his matters know, but fo much probity, by a sense of glory, and weeps when he is sweetness, good-nature, gentleness, and inourdone. A noble emulation will always clination to please and oblige, as I diskeep him in exercise, a reprimand will cerned in him. touch him to the quick, and honour will “ Besides this, he had all the advantages serve instead of a spur. We need not fear of nature, a charming voice, a pleasing that such a scholar will ever give himself countenance, and a surprising facility in up to fullenness.” Mihi ille detur puer, pronouncing well the two languages, as if quem laus excitet, quem gloria juvet, qui he had been equally born for both of virtus feat. Hic erit alendus ambitu : them. hunc mordebit objurgatio: hunc honor ex

“ But all this was no more than hopes. citabit: in hoc defidiam nunquam vere- I set a greater value upon his admirable bor.

virtues, his equality of temper, his resoluHow great a value foever Quinctilian sets tion, the courage with which he bore up upon the talents of the mind, he esteems against fear and pain; for, how were his those of the heart far beyond them, and physicians astonished at his patience under looks upon the others as of no value with a distemper of eight months continuance, out them. In the same chapter from when at the point of death he comforted whence I took the preceding words, he

me himself, and bade me not to weep for declares, he should never have a good him! and delirious as he sometimes was at opinion of a child, who placed his study his laft moments, his tongue ran of nothing in occafioning laughter, by mimicking the else but learning and the sciences: O vain behaviour, mien, and faults of others; and and deceitful hopes !" &c. he presently gives an admirable reason for Are there many boys amongst us, of it : “ A child,” says he, “cannot be truly whom we can truly say so much to their ingenious, in my opinion, unless he be advantage, as Quin&ilian says here of his good and virtuous; otherwise, I Mould ra. fon? What a shame would it be for them, ther choose to have him dull and heavy if, born and brought up in a Christian than of a bad disposition.” Non dabit country, they had not even the virtues of fpem bonæ indolis, qui hoc imitandi ftudio Pagan children! I make no fcruple to repetit, ut rideatur. Nam probus quoque peat them here again-docility, obedience, imprimis erit ille vere ingeniosus : alioqui respect for their masters, or rather a degree non pejus duxerim tardi esse ingenii, quam of affection, and the source of an eternal mali.

gratitude; zeal for study, and a wonderful He displays to us all these talents in the thirit after the sciences, joined to an abeldest of his two children, whose charac- horrence of vice and irregularity; an adter he draws, and whose death he laments mirable fund of probity, goodness, gentlein fo eloquent and pathetic a strain, in the nefs, civility, and liberality; as alto pabeautiful preface to his fixth book. I shall tience, courage, and greatness of soul in beg leave to insert here a small extract of the course of a long fickness. What then it, which will not be useless to the boys, as was wanting to all these virtues - That they will find it a model which suits weil which alone could render them truly worthy with their age and condition.

the name, and must be in a manner the After having mentioned his younger son, foul of them, and constitute their whole who died at five years old, and described value, the precious gift of faith and piety; the graces and beauties of his countenance, the saving knowledge of a Mediator; a the prettinels of his expresions, the viva- fincere delire of pleating God, and refer . city of his underlanding, which began to ring all our actions to him.

APPEN.

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* To accuftom young people to the innocent and agreeable Employment of observing Nature,

it was judged proper to insert the following, as affording ibem an useful Model, and much valuable information.

MARKS EXPLAINED.

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R

II.

I. Μ Ο Ν Τ Η.
January
5.

OSEMARY, 515. H. Rosmarinus oficinal. f.

Honeysuckle, 458. Lonicera periclymenum, l.
23. Archangel, red, 240.2. Lamium purpureum, F.

Hasel nut tree, 439. Corylus avellana, f.
Honeysuckle, 458. Lonicera periclymenum, L.
Laurustinus, 1690. H. Viburnum tinus, F.

Holly, 466. Ilex. aquifolium, f.
26. Snow drops, 1144. H. Galanthus nivalis, F.

Chickweed, 347.6. Alsine media, F.
Spurry, 351.7. Spergula arvenfis, F.
Daisy, 184. Bellis perennis, F.

II. Μ Ο Ν Τ Η.
February
4. WOOD LARK, 69.2. Alauda arborea, fings.

Elder tree, 461. Sambucus nigra, f.
12. ROOKS, 39.3. Corvus frugilegus, begin to pair.
GEESE, 136.1. Anas, anjer, begin to lay.

WAGTAIL WHITE, 75.1. Motacilla alba, appears.

The wagtail is said by Willughby to remain with us all the year in the severent weather. It seems to me to shift its quarters at least, if it does not go out of England. However, it is certainly a bird of passage in some countries, if we can believe Aldrovandus, the author of the Swedish Calerdar, and the author of the treatise De Migrationibus Avium. Linnæus observes, S. N. Art. Motac ita, that must birds whicla live upon infects, and not grains, migrate.

16. THRUSH.

February
16. THRUSH, 64.2. Turdus muficus, fings.

• CHAFFINCH, 88. Fringilla cælebs, fings: 20. Thermometer, 1. Highest this month.

Thermometer, - 2. Lowest this month.
22. PARTRIDGES, 57. Tetrao perdix, begin to pair.
Hasel tree, 439. Corylus avellana, F.

H. Ribes grofularia
, rubrum, 1.
Thermometer from the 19th to the 25th, between o and - I with frow.
Wind during the latter half of the month between E. and N.

F.

III. Μ Ο Ν Τ Η.
March
2. ROOKS, 39.3. Corvus frugilegus, begin to build.

Thermometer, 1o.
4. THRUSH, 64.2. Turdus muficus, fings.

Thermometer, 11.
5. DOVE, RING, 62.9. Columba palumbus, cooes.
7. Thermometer, o. Lowest this month.
11. Sallow,

Salix,
Laurustinus, 1690. H. Viburnum tinus, l.
+ BEES, Apis mellifera, out of the bive.
Laurel, 1549. H. Prunus laurocerasus, l.

Bay, 1688. H. Laurus nobilis, l.
20. Vernal equinox.
21. Grass, scurvy, 302.1. Cochlearia officinalis, F.

Asp, 446.3. Populus tremula, F. 26. Speedwell

, germander, 279.4. Veronica agrejtis, F.
Alder, 442. Alnus betula, F.
28. Violet, sweet, 364.2. Viola odorata, F.

Parsnep, cow, 205. Heracleum sphondylium, E.
Pilewort, 296. Ranunculus ficaria, F.

Thermometer, 25:50. Higheji this month. 29. Cherry tree, 463. Prunus cerasus, B.

Currant bush, 456.1. Ribes rubrum, B.
Primrose, 284.1. Primula veris, F.
Yew tree, 445. Taxus baccata, F.
Elder, water, 460. Viburnum opulus, B.
Thorn, haw, 453-3. Cratægus oxyacantha, B.
Larch tree, 1405. H. Pinus larix, B.
Hornbeam, 451. Carpinus offrya, B.
Tanfy, 188. Tanacetum vulgare, E.

IV. MONTH
April
1. Chesnut, borse, 1683. Æsculus hippocastanum, B.

BIRCH, 443. Betula alba, L.
Willow, weeping

Salix Babylonica, L.
ELM-TREE, 468. Ulmus campestris, F.

Quicken tree, 452.2. Sorbus aucuparia, f. • Linnæus says, that the female chaffinch goes to Italy alone, through Holland ; and that the male in the spring, changing its note, foretells the summer: and Gesner, ornithol. p. 388. says that the female chaffinch disappears in Switzerland in the winter, but not the male.

+ Pliny, nat. hist. lib. 11. &. 5. says, that bees do not come out of their hives before May 11. and feems to blame Aristotle for laying that they come out in the beginning of spring, i. c. March 12.

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1. Apricot,

April
1. Apricot, 1533. H. Prunus Armeniaca, F.

Narcissus, pale, 371.2. Narcissus pseudonar. 3. Holly, 466.1. Ilex aquifolium, f.

Bramble, 467.1. Rubus fruticosus, L.
Rafberry buth, 467-4. Rubus ideus, L.
Currants, red, 456. Ribes rubrum, F.
Dandelion, 170.1. Leontodon taraxicum, E.

Cleavers, 225. Galium aparine, E.
4. Laurustinus, 1690. H. Viburnum tinus, F.

APPLE TREE, 451.1,2. Pyrus malus, B.
Orpine, 269.1. Sedum telephium, B.

Briar, 454.1. Rofa canina, L.
6. Gooseberry, 1489. H. Ribes grofularia, f.

Maple, 470.2. Acer campestre, B.
Peach, 1515. H. Amygdalus Perfica, L. et F.
Apricot, 1533. H. Malus Armeniaca, L.
Plum tree, 462. Prunus præcox, L.
Pear tree, 452. Pyrus communis, B.

• SWALLOW, 71.2. Hirundo urbica, returk!. 7. Filberd, 439. Corylus avellana, L.

Sallow Salix, L.
Alder, 442.1. Betula alnus, I.
Lilac, 1763. Syringa vulgaris, 1.
Oak, 440.1. Quercus, robur, f.
Willow, weeping;

Salix Babylonica, b.
8. Juniper, 444. Juniperus communis, b.
9. Lilac, 1763. Syringa vulgaris, b.

Sycamore, 470. Acer pseudoplatanus, L.
Wormwood, 188.1. Artemisia absinthiun, E.
+ NIGHTINGALE, 78. Motacilla lufcinia, fingsa

Auricula, 1082. H. Primula auricula, b. 10. Bay, 1688. H. Laurus nobilis, L.

Hornbeam, 451. Carpinus betulus, b.
Willow, white, 447.1. Salix alba, b.
BEES about the male fallows.
Feverfew, 187.1. Matricaria Parthenium, E.
Dandelion, 170.1. Leontodon taraxicum, E.
Hound's tongue, 226.1. Cynoglossum officinak, E.
Elm, 468. Ülmus, campestris, I.
ANEMONE, wood, 259. Anemone nemorosa, F.
Jack in the hedge, 291. Erysimum alliaria, E.

Quince tree, 1452. H. Pyrus cydonia, L. 11. Elder, water, 460. Viburnum opulus, L. * According to Ptolemy, swallows return to Ægypt about the latter end of January.

+ From morn 'till eve, 'tis music all around;

Nor dost thou, Philomel, diklain to join,
Even in the mid-day glare, and aid the quire.
But thy sweet song calls for an hour apait,
When folemn Night beneath his canopy,
Enrich'd with star's, by Silence and by Sleep
Altended, sits and nods in awful ftate;
Or when the Moon in her refulgeat car,
Triumphant rides amidst the filver clouds,
Tinging them as thc paires, and with rays
Of mildett luftre giles the scene below;
While zephyrs bland breathe thro' the thickening Made,
With breath fo gentle, and so fort, that'e en
The poplar's trembling leaf forgets to move,
And nimic with its found the vernal now'er;
Then let me fit, and listen to thy Atrains, &c.

11. Alder,

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