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Vol II.]

Of the Language of Madagascar.

937

are

Ennoo.

In manne anno.

Wherein art thou Abo. What? fich?

Meaz trangubas tambook trangue vattes Emgombe voolle, angondri, olle, akohoo, trangue ambone, haze, lawa verwan lawa vooje. In gelč oxen, sheep, goats, and samme samme trangue France, misle sea lande gelt fowls.

voolangondre, voolcose voolangombe mene Zahai te acco.

I will take some. meinte nionguemongue voque tootolabi. They Intoato cola, meinte minde, anya em- will toil to build fine houses of wood and boitz, malaque angombe, mitondre ef poola, ftone, with great

doors and windows, like angombe Voole, focla angombe, tanmane. those of France, decked with cloths of Gilk, Come hither, negro, go to the mountain wool, mehair, ox-hair, red, black, yellow, for oxen, and fetch forty gelt oxen and ten green, and all colours. cows.

faye oola mahai.

These men Ize

marmare mizza, molle ensandok clever. aminai teanno. It is much, look into my Rez mabai amboolle antanne samboorre chest for what thou wilt.

meaz engamere fatroo camis lambe fooshe. Vaz annoo teaz omai anguemadindin, They know to low, plant reap, make harez madindin, vaque momgey-morngey, shoes, hats, and white linen. meneamene seinte zaharai rawoo. I know Aho cola mahai meaz andracalle andra. not if thou wilt give ine coral and beads calle. Why do your men toil day after of many colours, green, yellow, red, day? black,

Oola fe meaz moosquine mawoose rex Into fambcorre. Take fome.

ampaanguinaira oola meaz manne mahaira Zaa citea samboorre, oma anno. I will vinsi ampanguinaira. The man who toils not take, unless thou givest me.

not is

poor and hungers, but the man who Into famboorre, voose faibai enwoofe, toils, gets drunk and grows rich. ennoo voose massaisai, entangue awali Zahci annarez ji mahai meaz moosquine

Take this necklace, put it on thy rez ampanguinaira. Then if we toil not, neck, and take these motley bracelets for we are to be poor and to hunger. thy wife.

Accorre tampoo Zanharrei angarra yan.. Aviot entrangue, enminai femmesemme barra re fitea meaz andracalle andracalle trangano. Come to my house, it is moosquine abi. If our common master, thine.

God, will not accept our toil, though we Zaa fitia frangano roandrie, zaa teas work day after day, it profits not. tranganos. I will not, thy house, fir, but Taiza Zanharre zahai simaita. Who ia one to myself.

this God? I never saw him. Samboorre trangano menewali. Take Re toomooranbon re ampooras tootoolle the house of

my
wife.

colla tanne tootoolle abi mans wandre vooek Zaa teaco. I consent to it.

reak raa vinanguès haze's abets. He Accorwali allai fandok, allai fihit, ve- dwells in heaven; he is the father of all longas, loowees oola, vaza tea, trangano. men of all the earth, the sun, the moon, Awiot roandrie, rie madhai. My wife, the sea, the beasts, the rivers, the trees, clear away thy chefts, mats, pots, and the plants. dishes. Strangers want thy house. Come, Zaa tea mizandri zaa itandri rawon fir, he is gone.

ampanguinaira. I would fain see him. I Mande hanne, manswander matte. Go fhould be very glad of it. away, the sun is dying.

Anno ite abi tootoo awerer Kibiti amni Zaa awiot amarray empisse. I shall tangue anni dola ampanzac tai Manafa. come again to-morrow.

Thou seeft him every where; halt thou Salam zanyak, abi tootoolle, akor sarako. not seen him in the hand of our priest at Good day, my children, are you well? Manafia? Fante. Yes.

Zaa ite oola ampanzac ampoo warre Izangare lambe faibai anmemi, haze samboorre amni tangue booroo booroo foosbe lawa en loatambo. What is this net stretch- mofaisai vaque ahelin amnifingue ahelin led between two bits of wood, fastened at fik mosne minox ampanguinaira zoa fibiti the ends on which you lie?

zanbarre. I have seen your priest talk, Engare lambemandre vatte. It is to rest and tal in his hands a round white the body upon.

thing, which he broke and put into a Anbanne manne Zare. You are rich in cup of wine, which he drank ; but I saw mind.

not God. Quelle quelle, ampanguinaira cola France Samme famme oola vaza biti ampana manne zare mahai meas tootola. So fo, in guinaira, Íf thou wert a man of the faith, a short time you will see men of France thou wouldIt fee him directly, do many other things,

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Zaha teakko. I consent to it.

I am full of meat. Slave, bring rice-milk, Tomoira ampanguinaira cola amponsae beans, ripe banyans, and prunes. awiote antan annaeirez. Wait, in a little Accorre anno awiotte autonna anai ise while you will have priests in your land, omai annoo. If thou come to my town, who will teach you.

what shall I give thee? Zaba rawao, I shall be glad of it.

Vas. I know not. Ampoorras zaha rez baiza an ommez Zahai moosguin bin en angombe akoc ani annabace. Father, I hunger, where shall enpoerras rene rafooze vali anai anoI'find to eat ?

cawandri zana labe zanna ampelle anna Annak mis akoho lahe voole tamanne lahe oratorgue onde ves annai abelin fiq mimajasai attoole farra angondri oferomonne. tonire ben. I am poor; thou wilt eat Son, I have many cocks, capons, hens, only beef and chickens : but iny father chickens, eggs, calves, sheep, goats, and shall be there, my mother, my grandmomilk.

ther, ny wife, my sister, my son and Zaa thea ro ako vooh arwo. I desire daughter, my brother, my uncle and aunt, only two capons.

and my slaves shall serve us with wine Quelle quelle amini oolo abi. So so, that and meat. is little for you all.

Accore sibin fuie. Shall we eat Manfrandre ambone zaa thea monde fith? mitfif voorre fecque auranne amni varre. Hin ko malak oola mahai samboorre fuie. When the sun is high, I will kill ducks We will eat some. I will fend men to take in the water, where thy rice grows.

fith. Maninye matte voorre. Wherewith wilt Ise marmare fuie an, winangue'. Are thou kill them?

there
many
fith in
your

river?
Amili ampingare lawa fenoo auli bachie. Marmare. Many.
With a long gun, full of powder and lead. Omaira. Whither goeft thou?

Oowee mande zathea ombe anyo. When Mirna oola mahai samboole fuie. I am goeft thou? I will

go
with thec.

to fee for my men to take filh. Amarai ampise. To-morrow early, Toomooaire zaa ihea mande ano. Stay, I

Aho amarai ampise li mandai anyon. Why will go with thee. to-morrow early, canst thou not to-day? Atoo mande han. Let us go then. Ato mandai. Come, let us go

Ize winangu. Here is the river. Mize avorroo roandri. Sce these birds, Ize oole mahai saniboole fuie. Here are fir.

the men ready to take fith. Anno tomoire zaa misix. Stir not, I am Ize maroo toli faya anni foole. Here are going to fire.

many lines fastened to a net. Zaa mitenne firi voorre matte. I have Samboorre fuie enetoc. They are to take heard : how many birds are dead? the fish.

Zai voonon vale. I have killed eight. Abo oole hmateo voy omban winangue. Ize vale marmare. Eight! that is many. The men are bold, for all the crocodiles,

Accorre roandri fitea awiotte biane venturing into the river. voorre, Now, sir, wilt thou not come and Ize et Jamboorre tali. Here's an end; eat of them?

they are taking in the lines. Teako lili voose annivoorre allai raz. I Aho marre fuie. Ah! how many fish. agree to it. Cut the neck, that the blood Miraa lanzaa Look! Reckon, may cuine out.

Maninye ef tootole fuie. What shall we Zaa lili voole allai voole allai ansinai do with all this fish? awali ani aze lawe. I have cut the necks; V'as jamboorre tea anno fuie toomoira pluck them, gut them, spit them on a zahai amiljoo labi. I know not. Take cane, and turn them.

what thou wilt, the rest I shall divide Zannok hen mansok enharrez firia hin. among my people. Son, the meat is roasted, shall we eat ? Zaa filea jamboorre fuie anno tampon Zaa teako. I confent.

ondeve anno mitondre antranguc anno. I Ato ambanne annilice. Let us sit on will not take any of this filh; your llaves these mats.

shall

carry what you choose to your Sos ben manfok. It is nicely roasted., house. Atao minon fiq tantelle minon sarakoo So abigo. Well said !

Let us drink wine. I drink thy Mandai allhoa vahai ombe ampanguihealth.

naira. Go before, I shall be there in a Zai koo. And I thine.

little while. Vinfi hen ondooe in twato foofhe narre Zahai lajo salame. I will go then, oronnon voaguembe onces mamy voannio, farewel,

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To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. of alps, which first runs fouthwards,

then directly east, dividing the Valais SIR, The following admirable topographical from Bern, and coalefcing with the

piece, prefixed by the illustrious HAL- fouthern chain in mount Furca., But LER to his treatise on Swiss Plants, not

from mount Gothard, which is connected having, as I believe, yet appeared in an

with Furca by other alps, another chain Englith dress, I am induced to offer it begins, nearly in the same direction, to your neiscellany, under the perfuafion named Crispalt, separating first the canthat its intrinsic merit, and the interest

ton of Uri, and then that of Glaris, from excited by the country of which it the Grisons. This chain subsides about

treats, will render it acceptable to your Sargens, into hills of moderate height; it · readers, notwithstanding the various

then rises again into very craggy summits accounts, by other writers, which have

between St. Gall and Toggenburg; and appeared relative to the same part of, with gentler elevations between these dirEurope.

tricts and the Rhine, is continued to the

lake of Constance. THE TOPOGRAPHY AND NATURAL

From each of thefe principal chains, HISTORY OF THE SWISS ALPS.

the northern and southern, shorter ridges, By the late BARON HALLER. but frequently of great height, run in a WHAT is called Switzerland, contains different direction; from the former, ge

the thirteen allied cantons; the coun- nerally towards the north and welt; from try of the Grisons, the Valais and other the latter, towards the fouth and eart. allied states, and the subjects of the free The principal alps from the southern ftates. The extent of the whole country chain run between Savoy and Piedmont, is not considerable, containing about four and so fouth-eastwards to the sea, as far degrees of longitude, and the space be- as the mouth of the Var. Some of these tween the 46th and 48th degree of lati- are of ftupendons height. A shortet tude.

ridge runs due fouthwards into Aoust, and The whole of Switzerland may be di- divides into many branches, separating vided into two parts; of which the Cifal- the narrow vallies of this district. A pine is the greatest, and contains the prin- considerable one also proceeds froin mount cipal states: the Tranfalpine consists en- Furca, and descends by Domo d'Ossela tirely of subject districts, torn from the and the Lago Maggiore into the duchy Milanese,

of Milan. To the north the same high Switzerland proper is situated to the chain sends out many ridges, but shorter north of the Alps, and among their

very

ones, into the principal valley of the fummits. Its general boundaries are, to

Valais, intercepting portions of it, like the fouth, that very long chain of Alps

branches. which runs from the Leman-lake, be

Beyond the Furca, in the country of tween the Valais and the vallies of Aoust, the Grisons, fo multiplied and various Seilia, Antigoria, and others, to mount

are the ridges which run from the great Furca; and thence from mount Gothard,

alpine chain, that they can scarcely be through mount Lucmainer and Adulla, described in words. Of these many are between the free Grisons and their sub- exceedingly wild and lofty, particularly ject allies, thence between the Valtelline those that run eastwards about Bormio and Engadina, and fo to the Bormian

and the Valtelline. ridge. This chain of Alps is indeed here

The northen ridge of the alps pushes and there somewhat depressed, so as to af- inany branchies into the canton of Bern, ford passages towards Italy; but even

and thence into Underwald, Uri, Glaris, these vallies are very much elevated, and

and Schwitz. * are real craggy alps; nor did ever wheel Some of the alps are insulated, and de find a way from Switzerland to Italy:

tached from all others, every where furThis line, which is nearly one hundred rounded with lakes or vallies, as some leagues in length, I usually call the ridges between Bern and Friburgh, and southern alpine chain. It is not, how

mount Rigi, in Schwitz. ever, one simple ridge; for others, either These are the Alps. To the north and parallel, or variously connected with it, west Switzerland is separated from Alsace and rising to nearly an equal height, run from east to welt.

* Part of the description of the original is From the neighbourhood of the Leman, here abridged, as it confifts of a number of lake, and especially from the barriers of names which could only be found in a good the Valais, commences the northern chain map.

and

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*

and Franche Comté by Mount Jura, a Upon this the snow is seated. Hence the much lower chain, and more resembling inhabitants rightly name Gletscher what the mountains of other countries ; yet we in German call snowy mountains. This split here and there into several ridges, ice in some places covers a breadth of a purallel or inclined towards each other, thousand perches and more. Its under between which are interposed the vallies surface, which faces the rock or sand, is of Neufchatel, Bienne, and the bishopric generally hollow; and froin this vault of Bafil.

Trops of water distil on all sides, most co; The country between the Alps and piously in the summer heats, when a rivu. mount Jura approaches nearer to a plain, let springs from every mass of ice. Such yet is rendered unequal in parts by rifings is the origiả of the Rhine and Rhone, in and hilly tracts. Nor is there any where the source of which I have formerly in Switzerland a large extent of plain, quenched my thint ; of the Aar and Rus. from whence no mountains may be dif- To these waters, destined to the produccerned. The most level are some parts of tion of rivers, acceslions are occasionally the canton of Zurich, and the larger sub- made, when the snows melt from the alpine vallies.

warmth of the air or the heat of the sun; The face of the Alps appears to me not a circumftance which principally happens fufficiently known; I hall therefore brief from fudden storms attended with thunly describe it, as I have observed it in der, or south-westerly winds, to the great many journeys through its regions. terror and peril of the neighbouring in

The Alps are entirely of a rocky na- habitants. ture, in moit places naked about the sum- A third cause of the rivers is the rain mit, with a middle girdle of pasture, and distilling from the clouds, whenever they the roots cloathed with woods of fir.--, are suddenly taken up from the middle Though from a distance they appear ridge of the Alps, and dissolved into a composed of pyramius far detached all dewy shower on the summits of the mounround from the neighbouring inountains, taing; a phenomenon which I have feveyet in reality they are ridges, some parts ral times witnessed. The conflux of these of which are more elevated than the rest. waters into rivulets is aided by the pecuTheir height has not been accurately de- liar structure of the Alps. The rocks termined: Tha of the mountain Dent which tower aloft are grooved by innu. de Midi alone has been found to be 8161 merable trenches, which are inclined feet above the level of the Rhone, by J. planes, meeting at various angles.--Gamaliel de Roverea, late engineer at the Through these, firinly wrought in a stony Bern fait-works. But this mountain channel, the waters froin the heavens deloses all its snow almost every year, and is scend, and below the summits of the Alps the extreme and lower termination of the unite either into a lake, of which these fouthern chain By an experiment of mountains contain a vait multitude in Loys, the Montagne Maudite, in Savoy, their vallies, or into a rivulet. A stream rifes 13,440 feet above the Leman-lake ; thus formed, augmented from similar and the fame, or more, is the height of sources, flows through the upper vallies Mount Schreckhorn, Sylvio, the moun- in a thallow channel, but as it descends tains above Gothard, Septimus, and the lower, where the mountain has a more Grison ridges above Bormio. For Mi- earthy soil, it digs itself a deep bed among chieli's calculation of 2,760 perches for the the precipices; from whence rushing in height of mount Gothard, depends upon repeated cataracts, and often dashed into an uncertain basis between Arburg and mitt by its fall, it at length gains the the Alps. The Alps, therefore, in ge- valley. Here it brings down stones torn neral rile to about 16,000 Paris feet above from the mountains, and overspreads it the fea; for the Leman-lake has an eleva- with a gravelly coat, till at last it is ej. tion of 1000 or 1,200 froin the sea *. ther swallowed up in foine more extenlive

Great part of the Alps appears covered lake, or is lost in a larger river. This is with Inow, which in many ridges is eter- the cominon structure of the Alps, wherenal. That which is seen is not, how- by they generate rivers, by the junction ever, snow. A perpetual ice forms the of waters from liquified ice, melting snow, cruit which covers the declivities of the and rain and mist. Alpine fummits, as with a breaft-plate. The alpine lakes, for the most part,

pour off their waters by torrents pro

ceeding from them, From fome, how* Sir.G. Shuckhorough makes Mont Blanc, ever, the water steals away through imin Savoy, 15,662 feet.

perceptible shinks. Of this kind is the

lake

a

Vol. II.)

Haller's Description of the Swiss Alps,

94r

posed of

lake of Jura, not an inconsiderable one, from the valley of Bagnes towards Viege hut three leagues in length, which Í haye is intercepted between two ridges of thie. observed upon the spot. not to discharge southern Alps. And there are many val. its waters by any torrent, bụt filently lies filled with an icy lake of the same to lose them by chinks in its stony bed. kind," interiperted among the Alpine In other lakes I do not deny that there are chains ; not, indeed, fo connected as to manifest whirlpools, Indeed, I have my- forin one icy fea, as our late friends self seen, near Roche, the waters of the Chriftian, the physician, and J. George torrent called l'Eaufroide fink beneath Altmann, the Greek professor, have al. the rocks with a visible whirlpool, and serted in their writings. For the firstmurmur away at a distance under my mnentioned lake is terminated on this Gide feet: and frequently, on comparing river's Grimsul; and if its extent be traced as with themselves, I have been convinced far as possible, is certainly interrupted in that they have lost a great part of their the Alps of Gem.mi. water in their descent to the plains ; as in From there icy lakes amidst the Alpine the latter, the quantity of water was much frags, where in places the mountainous less than might have been expected from range is broken by a little ravine, conthe conjoined torrents ; less, indeed, than tinuous icy declivities descend into the init had been above the junction of many

habited plain,

Strangers usually visit rivulets which fell into the main stream. thele under the idea of rivers of ice, iwo If the Aar, near Interlac, be compared of which may be seen in the valley of with the Aar at Bern, where it may be Grindel, and a third near them as icon as forded under the old hospital, it will be you cross the height of Schiedek. From found to contain much more water before declivities of this kind, springing from it has received the Cander, the Simm, the the icy lakes, rivers also proceed, as that Rotach, the Sull, and the Gurb, torrents of Lutschin, in Grindel. of no inconsiderable magnitude.

The chains of Alps are usually comIt must not, however, be omitted, that

many.

ridges, of which the mid. the use of the sub-alpine lakes is twofold; dle are the highest. From these, on each one, and the most evident of which, is to fide, towards the plain, others run geneexhale

part of the water flowing from the rally parallel to the principal. In this mountains ; the other, to break that im- manner the vallies in which ice is devomenfe velocity with which the torrents sited are formed. rush down a fall of so many thousand feet. The inferior Alpine cliffs, especially For the Aar flows with no greater swift- towards the welt, are in various parts ness from the lake Thun towards Bern, composed of a fpecies of Schistus. The than it would have done if it had taken higheit fummits consist of rock comits rise in that lake. By both these means pounded of unica, quartz, and a fofter the violence of the Alpine streams is matter, called Geisberger. The lower checked, which is much more dangerous regions are cloathed with 'calcarious to their neighbours when no lake receives stones, marbies of all kinds, and other them.

hard stones, which furnith to the rivers I have spoken of the icy breast-plate of the round calcarious stones which they the Alps, poliising the whole extensive roll down. Concretions of lints are tract beneath their Tummiis. But there mingled, cemented together by a very are also other valt malles filling the icy hard inatter. Whetstone is generalis vallies, which to the south liave the lof- found on the hills. The Alpine valli's tiest ridges of mountains, shading them contain fand, which, hoxvever, is never from the folar rays; though these icy found in the suminits, and seems produced tracts are likewise found on the southern from the comininution of the rock liv face of the Alps. There vallies often for water. Crystals are generally contained the space of several leagues, nay, even in the quartz, and are met with in the one or two days journey, are filled with highett Alps. ice, which is spread over the subjacent The Alpine earth is tenacious, black, rock or sand, and by them as by a nu- with small fandy and stony particles : in cleus is figured, so as to represent an an- the Valais it is frequently interperlid gry sea congealed with all its waves. A with silvery inica : in other refpects it is valley of this kind is continued from the not unlike marth earth, which, however, Alps above the valley of Lauterbrunnen, is usually more tenacious, and purchy to that valley which emits the Aar, to the earthy, without pebbles. Indeed, a great hospital of Grimful, a length of near part of the Alps and of other mountains 14 leagues. Another of equal length is marshy.

"The

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