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his stores shonld be forwarded to Fort Cumberland. The Virginia contractors having failed to fulfil their engagements, bis stay at Frederick, very much to his chagrin, was protracted beyond his expectation or his patience. He was compelled to send round the country to buy food and cattle for the subsistence of his troops.

6. While Braddock was venting his spleen against army contractors, Benjamin Franklin arrived at Frederick. He came ostensibly in the character of Post Master General, to arrange for the transmission of dispatches, but in reality was sent by the Assembly of Pennsylvania to conciliate Braddock, who, they understood, was incensed against them.

7. Notwithstanding the entire confidence Braddock had in himself and his regulars, Franklin, relying upon his better knowledge of the difficulties of the country, and the peculiarities of Indian warfare, modestly observed to the general, that if he arrived before Fort Duquesne, with his troops and artillery, the fort could probably make but a short resistance, but that he himself feared the ambuscades of the Indians.

8. Braddock smiled at what he thought Franklin's ignorance, and replied: “These savages may indeed


Questions.-5. What was he compelled to do? 6. Who joined Braddock at Frederick ? For what purpose had he been sent ? 7. What suggestions did Franklin make? 8. How did Braddock receive the suggestions? What did he reply?

be a formidable enemy to raw American militia, but upon the king's regular and disciplined troops, sir, it is impossible for them to make any impres


9. During his stay at Frederick, he was joined by George Washington, then Colonel, whom he had invited to join him as aid-de-camp. It was to the skill and courage of Washington, that the rempant of the army owed its preservation.

10. As the whole delay of the army was caused by the want of wagons and teams, the few in the neighborhood of Frederick having been all impressed, and found insufficient, Franklin, one day, expressed his regret to the general that he had not landed in Pennsylvania, where almost every farmer owned a wagon.

11. Braddock immediately commissioned Franklin to contract for one hundred and fifty wagons, and a proper supply of draught and saddle horses. The reluctant Pennsylvania farmers, however, would not yield their property without the further secu. rity of Franklin's personal responsibility.

12. On the 10th of June, Braddock set off from Fort Cumberland. The march over the mountains proved a tremendous affair. Owing to the difficulties of the way, the line of wagons and troops often

Questions.—9. Who joined him at Frederick? What is said of Washington? 10. What caused the delay? What did Franklin say? 11. For how many wagons did he order him to contract? What did the farmers require ? 12. When did Braddock start from Cumberland ? What of the march?



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extended for three or four miles. Washington was outraged at the number of wagons required for the baggage and luxuries of the officers,-backwood's campaigning admitting only what could be carried in a portmanteau. He thought that men who required so much for their comfort, could hardly be efficient in the field. On the other hand, the British officers were disgusted at the “languid, spiritless, unsoldier-like appearance" of the colonial levies," which gave little hope of future good behavior.” The sequel proved how much deceived both parties were in their estimate of each other.

13. Braddock, in his blind confidence in his regulars, rejected the aid of Indians and backwoodsmen, acquainted with Indian warfare, saying, he had “experienced troops on whom he could rely for all purposes."

14. The military education of Braddock was in his way. He could not adapt himself to the nature of circumstances in which he was placed.Hence his march was exceedingly slow, sometimes not advancing more than twelve miles in four days. Although a stranger to fear, he was charged at home "with not marching as if at all impatient to be scalped.

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Questions.- 12. What Were Washington's feelings ? At what were the British disgusted ? 13. What is said of this section ? 14. What was in Braddock's way? What was the result?

15. In this march Washington saw enough of British regulars to have his confidence in them shaken, when it should come to wild bush-fighting. He ventured to suggest that the Virginia rangers, being accustomed to the country and Indian warfare, might be thrown in advance. The veteran, indignant that a young provincial should presume to make a suggestion to him, gave him only an angry reply.

16. On July 9th, the army was in the neighborhood of the fort, marching “as if in a review in St James' Park,” without having sent out scouts or rangers in advance, wben suddenly was heard a quick and heavy firing in front. The van of the advance had been taken by surprise ; a murderous fire broke out from among trees and a ravine on the right, and the woods resounded with unearthly whoops and yellings.

17. A perfect panic seized the troops, all orders were unheeded ; in their fright they shot at random, killing their own troops. In a short time most of the officers and many of the men of the advance were killed or wounded. The advance fell back upon the working party, which was equally dismayed, and which, together with the advanced party, fell back upon the reinforcement sent up, and all was now confusion.

Questions.—15. What did Washington suggest? How was it received ? 16. What is said in this section ? 17. Describe the panic!

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18 When the general came upon the ground, he tried to rally the men. They would fight," they said, “ if they could see their enemy; it was useless to fire at trees and bushes, and they could not stand to be shot down by an invisible foe."

19. The Virginia troops scattered themselves, and took post behind trees. In this way they, in some degree, protected the regulars. Braddock would not consent to depart from the system he had been trained in, and, instead of adopting the same plan, insisted upon forming his troops in platoons. The result was they were cut down as fast as they could advance.

20. The bravery of the officers was now seen. Their courage seemed to kindle with the thickening horrors. In the vain hope of inspiriting their men, they would dash forward singly or in groups. They were invariably shot down.

21. Washington was the only aid left alive. He was sent to the main body to bring the artillery into action. The men who served the guns were paralysed. Had they raked the ravine with grape shot the day might have been saved. But the men could not be kept to the guns.

22. Braddock was undaunted ; five horses had been killed under him, still he kept his ground,

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Questions.—18. What did the general try to do? What did the men reply? 19. What did the Virginia troops do? What Braddock? 20. What is said of the bravery of the officers? 21. What is said of Washington? What of the men? 22. What of Braddock ?

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