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ber of men employed was 337, who received $84,426. The output was 523,725 barrels, valued at $425,923.75. Ten brick concerns report as invested capital $42,360. The number of men employed was 139, who received $15,850. The output was 5,246 M., valued at $31,958.89. Four soapstone concerns report an invested capital of $52,000. The number of men employed was 98, who received $35,200. The output was 3,020 tons, valued at $66,000. The aggregate statistics of these six industries are as follow: Capital, $7,330,710 ; number of men. 5,304; wages, $1,851,955 ; value of output, $4,275,850.64. Immigration.—The commissioner appointed under the act of 1888 to devise means for developing the agricultural and manufacturing interests of the State issued on Aug. 5 a letter to the listers of each town, in order to ascertain how much abandoned agricultural land could be purchased at a nominal price, and where large contiguous tracts of such lands could be found. His plan was to secure colonies of Swedes to settle on these tracts. If the land could be procured at $2 or $3 an acre, he believed such colonies could be induced to settle thereon. Replies to this circular showed that in many parts of the State such tracts could be secured at the price mentioned, and the commissioner made arrangements by which a well-known Swedish immigration agent undertook, as a beginning, to bring over forty or fifty Swedish families in the spring of 1890. Lands in Orange, Windsor, and Windham counties were secured. WIRGINIA, a Southern State, one of the original thirteen, ratified the Constitution June 25, 1788; area, 42,450 o miles; population, according to the last decennial census (1880), 1,512,565; capital, Richmond. Government.—The following were the State officers during the year: Governor, Fitzhugh Lee, Democrat; Lieutenant-Governor, John E. Massey; Secretary of State, H. W. Flournoy; First Auditor, Morton Marye; Second Auditor, Frank G. Ruffin ; Treasurer, A. W. Harmon : Attorney-General, Rufus A. Ayers: Superintendent of Public Instruction, James L. Buchanan; Commissioner of Agriculture, Thomas Whitehead : Railroad Commissioner, James C. Hill; President of the Supreme Court, Lunsford L. Lewis; Judges, T. T. Fauntleroy, Robert A. Richardson, Benjamin T. Lacy, and Drury A. Hinton. Finances.— The Governor, in his message, makes the following report concerning the State debt: If all of the outstanding obligations of the State were funded under the act approved Feb. 14, 1882, with the “Wickham amendment” attached, except the bonds held by institutions of learning, the interest upon which is now paid by special legislation, the principal of the debt would be $21,855,812.74, the annual interest upon which would be $655,074.39. (The consol coupons outstanding from July, 1885, to January, 1890, which are debarred from being funded by this Wickham amendment, and which are not included in the foregoing estimate, amount to $3,740,0.19; 10-40 coupons for the same period—namely, July, 1885, to January, 1890—amount to $863,821.50, making a total face value of $4,603,840.50.) This indebtedness of $21,835,812.74 can be reduced by the following items: Bonds held by the Commissioners of the Sinking Fund which can be canceled, $2,280,643.60. The stock held by the State in Richmond,

Fredericksburg, and Potomac Railroad can be sold and

with the proceeds new 3-per-cent. bonds can be pur

chased to the extent of $859,926.47. The sinking fund has in cash $126,014.28, which will purchase of new 3's at 68 #185,315.12. The stock hold by the State in the Chesapeake and Ohio Railway it is thought can be sold for a sum which will purchase of new 3's, $349,848.53. The United States holds old unfunded bonds, which, with interest thereon, funded into new 3-per-cent. bonds represent $548,594,52. The State has a claim against #. United States which will offset this indebtedness. It is estimated that old bonds and interest thereon have been lost and will not be presented, representing in new 3's the sum of $831,844.76. e aggregate of the above amounts to $5,056,173, Deducting this from $21,835,812.74, there will be left $16,779.8374, which would carry an annual interest at 3 per cent. of $503,389.20. Under the present law, as above shown, if it should be accepted by all the bondholders, the State would be called upon to pay in annual interest $503,389.20, or $143,128.12 more than is at present available, unless new sources of revenue are found by the State. The coupons received into the Treasury on judgments for taxes during the fiscal year ending Sept. 30, amounted to $214,580. During the previous year the amount was $258,938. The amount of tax coupons now maturing annually is $1,008,500. The amount of interest on the debt paid this year from the Treasury was $136,500, paid on the new 8-per-cent. bonds, amounting to $4,550,000, now in the hands of the public; $142,000, paid to colleges, being the full interest on bonds held by thern ; $37,374 paid on bonds held by the literary fund, and $214,580 for tax-receivable coupons of the old unadjusted debt, forced upon the Treasury, making a total interest account of $530,454. No progress was made during the year in the contest before the courts, between the State and the bondholders. The arguments in the cases before the United States Supreme Court, to determine the constitutionality of the “couponcrusher” acts, were postponed from October, 1889 to 1890. Education.—For the school year 1887–88, the Superintendent reports the following figures regarding public schools: White schools, 5,154; colored schools, 2,115; total, 7.269; white teachers, 5,373; colored teachers, 1,909; average monthly salary of male teachers, $31; average monthly salary of female teachers, $26.40; children of school age (according to census of 1885), white, 345,024; colored, 265,347; white pupils enrolled, 211,449; colored pupils enrolled, 118,831; total number enrolled, 330,280; average daily attendance, ...]". 124,994; average daily attendance, colored pupils, 64,422; number of school-houses, 6,205; built during the year, 309: gross expenditure for public schools, $1,558,352.70. For the school year 1888–89, the expenditure for schools was, in round numbers, $1,620,000; the number of pupils enrolled increased to 336,948, and the number of schools to 7,410, Charities.—The number of patients in the four asylums of the State was as follows on Oct. 1: Eastern Lunatic, 397; Western Lunatic, 677; Southwestern Lunatic, 371 : Central Lunatic, 581: total, 2,026. These institutions are filled, and 200 white and nearly 100 colored lunatics are cared for by the State outside. Penitentiary.—The whole number of prisoners on Oct. 1 was 1,081. distributed in the following proportion between the races: White men, 187; white women, 4; total, 191. Colored men, 815; colored women, 75; total, 890. The Abingdon Coal and Iron Railroad Company are working 32; the Farmville and Powhatan Railroad Company, 89; the Roanoke Southern Railroad Company, 91; and the South Atlantic and Ohio Rail Company, 54. The financial condition of the institution exhibits again of $5,685.82 during the year. Militia.-The State has enrolled, armed, and uniformed 2,786 volunteers—2,270 white and 516 colored. The assistance given by the State consists of the proceeds of half of 1 per cent. of all her revenues derived from regular sources of income except the School fund. The amount thence accruing for the year ended Oct. 1, 1889, was $9,644.86. Political.-A State convention of the Democratic party was held at Richmond on Aug. 15. There were several candidates for the gubernatorial nomination. On the first ballot Philip W. McKinney received 595 votes, Richard F. Beirne 361. Charles T. O'Ferrall 307, J. Hoge Tyler 139, S. W. Venable 73, John T. Harris 57. Before the end of the second ballot McKinney was nominated by acclamation. For Lieutenant-Governor the choice of the convention was J. Hoge Tyler, and for Attorney-General R. Taylor Scott. The platform included the following:

We will care for and o rt the public schools until every child shall be able to secure the benefits of education. To this end we favor liberal appropriations by the Federal Government, apportioned among i. States in the ratio of the illiteracy of their popuation. The Democratic party regards the encouragement and fostering of agriculture as all important to the prosperity of Virginia, and that securing valuable emigrants is necessary to the full success of agriculture in the State. The Democratic party will foster the oyster industry of Virginia for the benefit of her own citizens, and favors the enforcement of the policy of preserving to her citizens the free use of all natural oyster rocks, beds, and shoals as regulated by law. We recommend a revision of the laws imposing taxes on land, with a view to relieving it of any unjust or unequal taxation now imposed upon it.

The Republican State Convention was held at Norfolk on Aug. 22, and resulted in the nomination of ex-United States Senator William Mahone for Governor, C. C. Slemp for LieutenantGovernor, and W. S. Lurty for Attorney-General. The platform contains the following:

Our party will foster the oyster and fishing interests of our State and protect the natural oyster beds for the sole use of our own people. We are for the repeal of all laws, State and municipal, whereby our farmers and truckers are required to pay special taxes for the sale of their products in the cities of the Commonwealth. Our party only demands the security of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness for all dwellers in the ld Dominion, and that all shall be allowed to exercise their political, civil, and religious relations in accordance with the highest civilization of the age. Whereas there is no other public question which so

directly and largely involves the progress and prosperity of Virginia and her people or so seriously concerns the good name of this Counmonwealth as an honorable and conclusive settlement of the State debt, which the managers of the Democratic party for four years have had absolute power and favorable opportunity to do, and have meanwhile contented themselves with measures that have only embarrassed the creditors, entrapped many of our citizens into vexatious and costly difficultics, and generally aggravated a situation already intolerable; and whereas the policy of these m rs in the treatment of this grave and momentous issue has been to postpone and procrastinate, thereby adding millions to the liabilities that hold in mortgage all the property of the State, and which in the end must be met and satisfied; and whereas it is known that there is an opportunity to effect the debt settlement, so devoutly desired; there#. the Republican party of Virginia solemnly pledges itself— That if it be intrusted with the necessary power by the people it will settle the debt and the debt question wholly, finally, and promptly, upon terms that will not add to the annual burdens of the people, and will yet leave the Commonwealth ample means for the current expenses of a frugal administration for a neral maintenance of our admirable system of pubic free schools, and for munificent provision for our charitable institutions and our disabled soldiers. The Prohibitionists nominated a State ticket at Lynchburg on July 17, with Thomas E. Taylor as the candidate for Governor, W. J. Shelburne for Lieutenant-Governor, and James P. McTeer for Attorney-General. The canvass excited great interest throughout the nation. For two months the two gubernatorial candidates were upon the stump, visiting in that time nearly every part of the State. There was a strong faction of the Republican party, of which Hon. John S. Wise and ex-Governor William E. Cameron were leaders, which was bitterly opposed to the leadership of Mr. Mahone. They refused all offers of conciliation, and finally came out in open rebellion. A conference, or convention of disaffected elements was called by them to meet at Richmond on Oct. 2. About 200 delegates were present, a series of addresses in denunciation of the ex-Senator were made, and fifteen resolutions were adopted, each containing an accusation against Mr. Mahone, culminating in the fourteenth, which declared “That the defeat of William Mahone is essential to the salvation of the Republican party.” This disaffection made it impossible for the Republican ticket to win, and although the exSenator made a vigorous canvass, the majority against him at the November election was large. or Governor, ¥o received 162,654 votes, Mahone 120,477, and Taylor 897. Nearly the same vote was cast for Lieutenant-Governor and Attorney-General. At the same time members of the Legislature were chosen as follows: Senate, Democrats 39, Republicans 9; House, Democrats 89, Republican 15.


WASHINGTON, a Territory of the United States until Nov. 11, 1889, when it was admitted to the Union as a State; area, 69,180 square miles; population, according to the last decennial census (1880), 75,116; capital, Olympia. Government.—The following were the Territorial officers until Nov. 11: Governor, Eugene Semple, succeeded by Miles C. Moore: Secretary, N. H. Owings, succeeded by O. C. White: Treasurer, Frank I. Blodgett; Auditor, John M. Murhy; Attorney-General, J. B. Metcalfe; Superintendent of Public Instruction, J. H. Morgan; Chief-Justice of the Supreme Court, Thomas Burke, succeeded by C. H. Hanford; Associate Justices, Frank Allyn, William G. Langford, and Lucius B. Nash, succeeded by W. H. Calkins. The following State officers were chosen on Oct. 1, and assumed office on Nov. 11 : Governor, Elisha P. Ferry, Republican; Lieutenant-Governor, Charles E. Laughton; Secretary of State, Charles Weir; Treasurer, A. A. Lindsley: Auditor, T. M. Reed; Attorney-General, W. C. Jones; Superintendent of Public Instruction, W. D. Bryan; Commissioner of Public Lands, W. R. Forrest; Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, T. J. Anders; Associate Justices, Elmore Scott, R. O. Dunbar, T. L. Stiles, J. P. Hoyt. Admission to the Union.—On Jan. 2 a convention of delegates from all parts of the Territory met at Ellensburgh to express the desire of the people for admission to the Union. An appeal to Congress and an address to the people were adopted. A central committee for the Territory was appointed, whose duty it should be to superintend the circulation of petitions asking for admission, and to forward all such to Washin;on. The committee appointed by this convention had scarcely begun its work when the omnibus admission bill passed both Houses of Congress and received the signature of President Cleveland. By the provisions of this act an election should be held throughout the Territory on May 14, to select delegates to a constitutional convention, which should meet at Olympia on July 4. If the Constitution framed by this convention should be adopted by the people at an election on Oct. 1, Washington should become a State thereunder by proclamation of the President. On admission, the new State should become entitled to the sixteenth and thirty-sixth sections in each township, or sections in lieu thereof, the proceeds from the sale or lease of which should form a permanent School fund. This fund should also receive 5 per cent. of the net proceeds of all unappropriated public lands in the State thereafter sold by the Federal Government. Fifty sections of the public lands were given to aid in erecting public buildings at the State capital, and seventy-two sections for university purposes. In addition, the following grants were made: 90,000 acres for agricultural colleges, 100,000 acres for a scientific school, 100,000 acres for normal schools, 100,000 acres for buildings at the State capital, and 200,000 acres for State charitable, ol and reformatory

institutions. There was also a grant in aid of the Penitentiary.

In compliance with the Admission act, the Territorial Governor on April 15 issued his proclamation ordering a special election on May 14 to choose delegates to a constitutional convention. At this election seventy-five delegates were chosen, a majority of whom were Republicans. The convention met at Olympia on July 4, and organized by selecting John P. Hoyt as president. It remained in session through Aug. 22, and perfected a Constitution for the prospective State of Washington, of which the following are the more important features:

The legislative power shall be vested in a Senate and a House of Representatives, the latter to consist of not fewer than 63 nor more than 99 members, the former to contain not more than one half nor less than one third as many members as the latter. Senators shall be elected for tour years (half of the number retiring every two years), and Representatives for two years. The first Legislature shall meet on the first Wednesday after the first Monday in November, 1889. The second Legislature shall meet on the first Wednesday after the first Monday in January, 1891, and sessions of the Legislature shall be held biennially thereafter, unless specially convened by the Governor, but the times of meeting of subsequent sessions may be changed by the Legislature. After the first Legislature, the sessions shall not be more than sixty days. The Legislature shall never authorize any lottery or grant any divorce. Private and special legislation is forbidden. After Jan. 1, 1890, the labor of convicts shall not be let out by contract, and the Legislature shall by law provide for the working of convicts for the benefit of the State. The ownership of lands by aliens is prohibited, except where acquired by inheritance, under mortgage, or in good faith in the ordinary course of justice in the collection of debts; and all conveyances of lands hereafter made to any alien directly or in trust for such alien shall be void : Prorided. That the provisions of this section shall not apply to lands containing valuable deposits of minerals, metals, iron, coal, or fire-clay, and the necessary land for mills and machinery to be used in the development thereof and the manufacture of the products therefrom. Every corporation the majority of the capital stock of which is owned by aliens shall be considered an alion for the purpose of this prohibition. The Executive department shall consist of a Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, Secretary of State, Treasurer, Auditor. Attorney-General, Superintendent of Public Instruction, and a Commissioner of Public Lands, who shall be severally chosen for four years. The Governor may veto separate sections of any bill. The salary of the Governor shall not exceed $6,000, and of the Lieutenant-Governor $3,000. The judges of the Supreme Court shall be elected by the qualified electors of the State at large at the general State election, and shall hold office for six years. Any judge of any court of record, the AttorneyGeneral, or any prosecuting attorney may be removed from office by joint resolution of the Legislature in which three fourths of the members elected to each House shall concur. All male persons of the age of twenty-one years or over, possessing the following qualifications, shall be entitled to vote at all elections: They shall be citizens of the United States; they shall have lived in the State one year, and in the county ninety days, and in the city, town, ward, or precinct thirty days inmediately preceding the election at which they offer to vote ; ovided, That lndians not taxed shall never be allowed the elective franchise: Provided, further, That all male persons who at the time of the adoption of this Constitution are qualified electors of the Territory shall be electors. The Legislature may provide that there shall be no denial of the elective franchise at any school election on account of sex. The Legislature shall provide for such method of voting as will secure to every elector absolute secrecy in preparing and depositing his ballot. eneral elections shall be held on the first Monday of November in the even-numbered years. The State debt is limited to $400,000. The Legislature shall provide for a general and uniform system of public schools. The public-school system shall include common schools, and such high schools, normal schools, and technical schools as may hereafter be established. But the entire revenue derived from the Common-School fund, and the State tax for common schools shall be exclusively applied to the support of the common schools. The principal of the Common School fund shall remain permament and irreducible. The Legislature shall pass laws establishing reasonable maximum rates of charges for the transportation of passengers and freight. The onsolidation of competing lines of railroad is forbidden. Monopolies and trusts shall never be allowed in this State. The use of the waters of this State for irrigation mining, and manufacturing purposes shall be deemed a public use. he right of trial by jury shall remain inviolate, but the Legislature may provide for a jury of any number less than twelve in courts not of record, and for a verdict by nine or more jurors in civil cases in any court of record, and for waiving of the jury in civil cases where the consent of the parties interested is given thereto. he seat of government is temporarily fixed at Olympia, until some one place shall receive a majority of the votes of the people, either at the election for the adoption of this Constitution or at a subseuent general election. When the permanent seat is thus determined, it shall not be changed except by a vote of two thirds of the clectors voting at a general election. Amendments to this Constitution must be passed by a two-third vote of each IIouse of the Legislature, and must receive a majority vote of the electors at the next succeeding general election. The convention provided that the following articles should be submitted to a vote of the people separate from the Constitution : “All persons, male and female, of the age of twenty-one years or over possessing the other qualifications provided by this Constitution shall be entitled to vote at all elections.” “It shall not be lawful for any individual, company, or corporation within the limits of this State to manufacture, or cause to be manufactured, or to sell, or offer for sale, or in any manner dispose of any alcoholic, malt, or spiritous liquors, except for inedicinal, sacramental, or scientific purposes. Election. In order that this Constitution, if adopted, might take effect at once, it was provided that an election to the offices therein created should be held at the time of the election upon the Constitution itself. Party conventions were therefore called. The Republican State Convention met at Walla Walla on Sept. 5 and nominated the following ticket: For Governor, Elisha P. Ferry; Lieutenant-Governor, Charles E. Laughton; Secre

tary of State, Chas. Weir; Auditor, Thomas M. Reed; Treasurer, A. A. Lindsley; AttorneyGeneral, W. C. Jones; Superintendent of Public Instruction, R. B. Bryan; Commissioner of Public Lands, W. T. Forrest; Justices of the Supreme Court, T. J. Anders, Theodore L. Stiles, Elmore Scott, John P. Hoyt, and R. O. Dunbar; Member of Congress, John L. Wilson. The platform contains the following:

We pledge the co-operation of our congressional representations with those of the State of Oregon to secure the speedy opening of the Columbia river to navigation.

We are opposed to the formation of trusts.

We demand the rigid enforcement of the Chinese exclusion act.

We believe it to be the duty of the State to provide ta rigid system of inspection of mines and factories.

We recognize the right and duty of labor to organize for its own protection, and heartily sympathize with every movement which has for its object the moral, material, or intellectual advancement of any portion of our fellow-citizens.

We favor the opening to settlement of all Indian reservations in the State, having a due regard for the rights of the Indians.

The Democratic State Convention was held at Ellensburgh on Sept. 10 and the following eandidates were nominated: For Governor, Eugene Semple; Lieutenant-Governor, L. H. Plattor; Secretary of State, W. H. Whittlesey; Treasurer, M. Kaufman; Auditor, John M. Río Attorney-General, H. J. Snively: Superintendent of Public Instruction, J. H. Morgan; Commissioner of Public Lands, M. Z. Goodell: Judges of the Supreme Court, William H. White, B. L. Sharpstein, John P. Judson, John B. Reavis, and Frank Ganahl; Member of Congress, T. C. Griffiths. A long platform was adopted, which arraigns the Republicans for extortion, duplicity, and fraud; declares in favor of free schools and the appropriation of public lands for public purposes: denounces the Chinese exclusion act as administered by Republicans; favors the opening of Columbia river; favors the building of forts for the protection of Pacific coast harbors; and denounces the Republican State platform.

At the election on Oct. 1 the Republican eandidates were elected by majorities varying from 8,000 to 10,000. For Governor, Ferry received 33,711 votes and Semple 24,732; for Member of Congress, Wilson had 34,039 votes and Griffiths 24,492. Members of the first State Legislature were chosen at the same time as follow: Senate —Republicans 34, Democrat 1; House—Republicans 62, Democrats 8. On the question of adopting the proposed Constitution, the vote was 40,152 for adoption and 11,879 against it. The proposed article prohibiting the manufacture and sale of intoxicating liquor was rejected by a vote of 19,546 in its favor to 31,487 against it. The proposed article extending the right of suffrage to women was rejected by a vote of 16,527 for and 35,613 against it. There were 25.490 votes cast for Olympia as the permanent capital of the State, 14,711 for North o 12,833 for Ellensburgh, 607 for Centralia, 314 for Jakima, 130 for Pasco, and 1,088 scattering.

The result of this election having been officially notified to President Harrison on Nov. 11, he issued his proclamation admitting Washington to the Union.

Legislative Session.—The Legislature, elected in October, assembled at Olympia on Nov. 7; but at that time the Territory . not been admitted to the Union, and an adjournment was taken until Nov. 11, when, on receiving news of the President's admission proclamation, a permanent organization was effected. On Nov. 19 John B. Allen and Watson C. Squire, both Reublicans, were elected United States Senators or the new State by the following votes: Senate—Allen 25, George Turner 6, scattering 3; House—Allen 46, Turner 14, Charles S. Voorhees (Democrat) 8, scattering 1. Senate—Squire 30, J. W. Sprague 3, Voorhees 1: House—Squire, 46, Sprague 10, Griggs 8, ...; 5. The work of legislation was then begun, and had not been finished at the close of the year. Finances.—On Oct. 1, 1889, the Territorial warrants outstanding and the interest due thereon amounted to $223,459.94. There was due from the counties on that date a sum which, with the cash in the treasury, amounted to $59,120.26, leaving the actual indebtedness $164,339.68. This is the only debt that the new State will be obliged to assume. The treasury receipts from all sources for the ear ended Sept. 30, 1888, were $153,669.26; disi. $133,995.73; receipts for the year ended Sept. 30, 1889, $213,337.92; disbursements, $212,121.81; balance, $1,216.11. While the total payments from the treasury for the two years were only $346,117.54, the amount of warrants issued during the same period was $528,179.23. A large part of the floating debt has therefore been created within the past two years. The Territorial tax levy for 1889 was 24 mills. Education.—For the school year ending in 1889, the following report of the public schools is made : Number of school districts, 1,161 ; school-houses, 1,044: average school year, four and three fifths months; children of school age, 72,723; enrolled in public schools, 46,751; male teachers, 536; female teachers, 813; monthly salary, male teachers, $47.66: monthly salary, female teachers, $39.67: total amount raised for school purposes, $892,752: expended for school buildings and sites, $245,866. In 1888 the number of children of school age was 59,833; the total enrollment was 38,673, and the total amount raised for school purposes $505,885. Charities.—The last }. Legislature appropriated $60,000 for the erection of a hosital for the insane at Medical Lake in eastern Washington. Work is now well advanced on this building. The Hospital for the Insane at Steilacoom contained 303 patients on Oct. 1. The new building erected in 1887 is filled, and several of the old garrison buildings, formerly used as the hospital, are still occupied. The School for IDefective Youth, at Vancouver, has been provided with a new building. The number of pupils last term was 26. Penitentiary.--The Territorial Penitentiary, completed at Walla Walla in 1887, has been improved by the completion of a new cell wing, oslicers' and guards' quarters, and workshops. The board of commissioners report the number of convicts on Oct. 1 to be 172. Since Oct. 1, 1888, there have been received 126, and discharged 66. The prisoners are employed chiefly in brick making.

Militia.-The organized militia is composed of two regiments of infantry and one troop of cavalry: in all, 845 officers and men. The general staff numbers 25.

Development.—For the past few years Washington has had the most rapid and remarkable growth in its history. Estimates of the population for 1889, based upon the vote cast at the election, place the number of people at 239,544, or nearly twice the estimated population of 1885. For the past two years there has been an unexampled increase in the assessed valuation of property, the total value for 1887 being $61,562,739; for 1888, $84,621,182 ; and for #. $124,795,449. Real property in 1889 was assessed at $67,274,991, improvements at $14,860,812, and

personal property at $30,129,535. The number.

of acres of land assessed has increased from 3,457,952 in 1885 to 8,110,706 in 1889. The acreage of improved land for 1889 was 953,791, of which 820,791 acres were in the counties east of the Cascade mountains, and 132,736 in the counties west of the mountains. Seattle (see-attle), a city of Washington, on a harbor in Puget Sound known as Elliott's Bay; population estimated at 45,000. In June, 1889, the business part of the city was destroyed by fire, involving a loss of $20,000,000. During 1889, 3,435 buildings were erected, not including those burned, which have nearly all been rebuilt. The assessment returns of 1888–89 showed an increase in taxable property of $5,000,000. Returns of commercial agencies show that since the fire more than 260 new firms have established themselves in business, representing a total increase per annum of between $8,000,000 and $9,000,000 to the trade of the city, and bringing the value of the general trade up to $36,000,000 for the year. The industries include saw mills, brick yards, iron works, carriage factories, shi yards, planing mills, meat curers, roofers, artificial stone and cement works, soap making, tanneries, sails and awnings, harness and saddlery, candy makers, furniture factories, shingle mills, cracker works, marble works, mattress factories, box factories, broom works, oil clothing, drugs, overalls, spice factories, breweries, and brass works. The total capital employed is $6,385,000; the number of men employed is 3,560. The city has a system of water supply which, when completed, will cost over $1,000,000. There are three other systems of water works conducted by private companies, a paid fire department, and a powerful fireboat. The court-house now building will cost over $300,000, Government buildings are to be erected costing more than $500,000, and a hotel, “The Denny,” now approaching completion, will cost over $300,000. he town has 6 national, 3 State, 3 savings, and several private banks; a safe-deposit company; 4 daily and several weekly papers, and 1 monthly : 1 mortgage, loan, and trust company; 20 churches, 6 public-school buildings, 2 of which cost $175,000, a State university, 2 private colleges, and a girls' academy; 3 hospitals and an orphan's home. There are gas works and 3 electric-light companies. There are 22 miles of cable, electric-motor, and horse-car lines of street railroads in operation. Forty miles of graded streets and 70 miles of sidewalk have been built within a few years. In 1888–89 the capital of the

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