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out Bosnia and the Herzegovina. With regard leaders was held at Suttorina, February 26th, to the fifth point, relative to the application at which a manifesto was issued against the of the direct taxes to meet the requirements acceptance of the terms offered by the powers. of the provinces, the note explained that such It was signed by the Waywode Lazar Sotchitza,
the Archimandrite Melentii, Pico Paulovitch, and the Popes Bogdan and Stembkovitch. It pointed out the Porte's former failures to carry out promised reforms, and declared that the resistance of the Mohammedans would baffle every reform; the Mohammedans were even expected to revolt if an attempt were made to execute the reforms. The insurgents desired full freedom and independence—this, or nothing. The paper contained an expression of thanks to Austria for the care she had taken of the Herzegovinian refugees, to Garibaldi for his fatherly counsels, and to England that she had at last recovered from her partiality for Turkey. It compared the attitude of Servia and of Montenegro, to the disadvantage of the former state. “ Diplomatic combinations," it said, “ are not our business; the European press may occupy itself with them: we must proceed to fight, to burn, to conquer. We cannot lay down our weapons so long as we are not granted an independence like that of Montenegro.” The manifesto closed with an avowal that help was expected from Russia.
an arrangement could not be brought into harmony with the general system of administering the Turkish finances. Nevertheless, in his solicitude for the provinces devastated by the insurrection, the Sultan had ordered that, as an addition to the amounts already applied to public objects in the Herzegovina and Bosnia, a certain sum should be set apart, the amount of which would be fixed on the basis of local requirements, after the evidence of the administrative authorities had been received and the corporations interested had deliberated on the point. The note concluded by stating that there did not appear to be any perceptible discrepancy between the facts in the case and the formal standpoint taken up in Count Andrassy's proposals. These declarations were supplemented by an iradé granting a general amnesty to all insurgents who within four weeks of its promulgation throughout the country should return to their homes. It announced that the Government would have the homes and churches of the returning refugees, where they had been destroyed, rebuilt at its own DALMATIA. - Baron Rodich, the Austrian cost, and would furnish those who returned Governor of Dalmatia, was authorized by the with the means of pursuing their usual em- Imperial Government to negotiate with the leadployments.
ers on either side, so as to bring about a susHERZEGOVINA. - The European consuls at pension of hostilities, in order that an opportuMostar were advised by their respective gor- nity might be given for carrying the proposed ernments to negotiate with the insurgents, and reforms into effect. With this view he visited induce them to accept the propositions of the the Turkish commanders, Ali Pasha and MukhAndrassy note as a basis for the restoration of tar Pasha, at Ragusa, and the insurgents at
urgents refused to entertain any Castelnuovo in the Suttorina. Mukhtar Pasha propositions of the kind, as they had no faith insisted, as a necessary preliminary, that Nicin any salutary result following diplomatic sic should be reprovisioned from Montenegro. negotiations. A meeting of a number of their Baron Rodich endeavored to make an arrange
ment for furnishing the garrison from Monte- under Paulovitch, with the loss, it was said, negro, but could only get its wants supplied of 800 men killed, 675 rifles, and four rified canfrom day to day. Early in March he met the pon. The Turks were pursued as far as Lipnik, chiefs of the insurrection at Cettigne. They four hours' march. The insurgents had in this declined to agree to a peace. Deputations of engagement 1,150 men, and claimed to have refugees communicated to him the general lost only ten killed and twenty-five wounded. determination of that class not to accept a Liubibratics, who had played an important pacification or return home. They declared part in the beginning of the insurrection, but that they would resist to the last, rather than had since lost much of his prominence as a subunit to the Turks again; they preferred let- leader through the superior influence and enerting their families starve in a Christian coun- gy of Pico Paulovitch, had retired to Ragusa try to returning them to Turkish maltreat- and busied himself in promoting the agitament. They had no confidence in the promises tion through the journals, and by the help of of the Porte. Baron Rodich informed them their correspondents. He collected a small that the allowances to them would be discon- corps, consisting of Serbs, Russians, and advent. tinued in a few days, and that henceforward urers from Italy, Poland, and France, designno powder would be allowed to cross the ing to arouse to resistance the districts of frontier. Baron Rodich held another inter- Bosnia adjacent to the Herzegovina and to view with the insurgent leaders in the Sutto- Servia, which had as yet taken but little part rina, at Castelnuovo, on the 6th of April. On in the insurrection. The detachments of bis the previous day the chiefs had had a confer- force embarked from different points along the ence with M. Vesselitzky Bogdanovitch, a Ser- coast toward the last of February, and landed vian gentleman, who visited them partly on his at Klek. With a command of between 500 own account and partly by the authority of the and 600 men thus obtained, he marched, keepRussian chancellor, Prince Gortchakoff. The ing close to the Austrian border, toward Linchiefs communicated to him, as the terms on bushka. Near this place he met a company which they would agree to a suspension of of Bashi-Bazouks, March 5th, who were out hostilities: 1. That all the Turkish troops in upon a reconnaissance, and repulsed them. the Herzegovina should be concentrated in six On the 11th of March he reached the neighfortified places, viz.: Nicsic, Trebigne, Stolatz, borhood of Imoschi, in Dalmatia, where he Mostar, Fotcha, and Plevalje, and that the and the members of his staff were arrested Christians and insurgents should keep their upon Austrian territory. Among those who arms until the Mohammedans were disarmed. accompanied his expedition and were arrested 2. That stores of provisions should be fur- with him was Mademoiselle Markus, a rich nished by the Porto to last the population till Dutch lady, who was an enthusiastic supporter the next harvest. 3. That the collection of of the insurgent cause, and had contributed taxes should be suspended for three years. 4. liberally of her means and personal services That the Christians should have a third of the to assist it. The prisoners were interned lands held by the rayahs, on lease awarded to within Austrian territory, but by the end of them. 5. That the reforms proposed in the March Mademoiselle Markus was again within Andrassy note should be immediately, and the lines of the insurgents. The greater part fully carried out in those parts of Bosnia not of the command of Liubibratics, not having in insurrection, so that it might be seen how been on Austrian territory, escaped capture. the Mussulmans would behave in reference to Its members were dispersed, but erentually them, and especially whether they would tol- joined other bodies of the insurgents. erate reforms in favor of the Christians. 6. In April the needs of the garrison at Viesio That a commission of the European powers became pressing. The understanding with should be established, to look after the execu- Montenegro, by which provisions were supplied tion of the Turkish promises. A reply pre- from day to day, though in quantities barely scribing similar conditions was given to Baron sufficient for the daily needs of the command, Rodich. Although both parties refused to continued in force till the 10th of April, when agree to a formal armistice, a suspension of the insurgents cut off the communications behostilities was effected from the 28th of March tween Nicsic and Montenegro. Mukhtar Pasha to the 10th of April.
marched from Gatchko, April 13th, with a force While the diplomatic agents were trying to of about 10,000 men and a convoy of provisions, bring about a peaceful understanding, mili- for the relief of the garrison. At the north tary movements were suspended by the win- end of the Duga Pass he met with a fierce reter weather, and only a few engagements tooksistance from the insurgents, and it was only place. These generally consisted of attacks after four days' fighting that he succeeded, by the insurgents upon the Turkish convoys with his convoy considerably reduced, in reachconveying provisions to the garrisons. The ing Presyeka. His force was exhausted, and most important of these occurred at Murato- he was obliged to retreat to Gatehko for reinvizza, on the 6th of March. Five battalions of forcements. On his retreat he was attacked Turks, under the command of Selim Pasha, and lost his mules. He started again from going to provision the fortress of Goransko, Gatchko, April 26th, with 18,000 men. As the were attacked and defeated by the insurgents sole object of the new expedition was to tako
to Nicsic the provisions which had been left counts of outrages which had been committed at Presyeka, the men took with them only the upon Christians by the Mussulman population. supplies they would need on the march. On In several villages the Turks had risen against the 28th the Turks encountered a force of the Christians, killed numbers of them, and 15,000 Herzegovinians, under Sotchitza, Paulo- driven others away or subjected them to abuse. vitch, and Pope Simonitch. A fierce engage- At the beginning of April the inhabitants of ment ensued, in which the Turks prevailed, the Bilhacs district were reported to be in reand succeeded in penetrating to Presyeka. A volt, and that they were joined by several hunpart of the garrison of Nicsic had opened a dred Mohammedans. Five thousand insurway around to this place, and by this way the gents were active in this district and in that of provisions were finally conveyed to that fort, Travnik, and in a few days the insurrection April 29th. On the 30th of April Mukhtar was said to be under full headway along the returned to Gatchko, harassed by the enemy, Drin and the North Bosnian frontier. The having in the four days of fighting lost 3,000 Turkish commander, Ali Pasha, had here a
The Herzegovinians claimed to have force of about 10,000 men. The Vali, Ibrahim lost only 120 men. The insurgents also at- Pasha, reported to his Government that the intempted to blockade Trebigne, the fort Drieno, surrectionary movement had already become west of Trebigne, and Govanitchka. The Turks, stronger than it had been at any time in the however, succeeded in introducing supplies course of the year 1875. During the month into these places without encountering serious of April there were twenty-seven bands of inobstacles. The fortress at Nicsic was again surgents, spread over a wide extent of counprovisioned in June without fighting. As the try, which were estimated to embrace not spring advanced, new reports were circulated less than 15,000 men. These bands acted of the spread of the insurrection through Bos- without any common plan, their most ordinary nia. The public mind had been excited by ac- method of operation being to fall upon the
isolated estates of the Mohammedan land- rushed weeping into one another's arms. The owners or upon the small towns, or to lie in cry was raised among the populace that the wait near the larger towns, watching their young woman was a Christian, who had been communications with the neighborhood, and compelled to abjure her religion and become occasionally seizing messengers or convoys of a Mohammedan. The Christians took the girl provisions. An important part in these move from the guards, and, seizing a vacant carriage ments was played at Orahiviza by the pretend- belonging to the American consul, which stood er to the Servian throne, Peter Karageorge- near by awaiting the arrival of its owner, put vitch. He kept himself close by the Austri- her into it and carried her to the house of a an boundary, so as to be able to cross over Greek merchant, where she was hid. The and put himself ont of the way upon the sign next day the streets were filled with bands of of danger, while detachments from his camp excited Mussulmans demanding the return of scoured the country for several miles around. the girl, and threatening a massacre of the On the 7th of May occurred the massacre of the Christians. Hearing of the tumult, the French the consuls at Salonica. Emin Effendi, a Turk consul, and the German consul, who was his in high position, in whose family the office of brother-in-law, proceeded to the palace of the state procurator of Salonica was hereditary, governor to demand that he cause order to had abducted for his harem a handsome young be restored. The governor was found at the Bulgarian girl, who was brought by railway to mosque, where a large mob was gathered, filled Salonica on the 6th of May. In the same with rage at the affront that had been offered train was her mother, who had followed in to the Mohammedan religion. The consuls search of her. The two women did not know were set upon by the mob with clubs, knives, that they were upon the same train, but and yataghans, and were murdered and manrecognized each other at the station, and gled in the most horrible manner. This out
rage aroused an intense excitement throughout and increased her war-supplies at Gibraltar the Christian world. The great powers took and Malta. immediate steps to demand satisfaction for it, In the last days of May the Sultan Abduland guarantees against the repetition of similar Aziz was dethroned, by a revolution in the palace, scenes. France, Germany, Austria, and Italy, assisted by the softas. The leaders in the revolusent vessels-of-war to Salonica, and England tion were the ministers of the 12th of May, Middispatched a gun-boat to accompany the com hat Pasha, the Grand-Vizier Mehemet Rushdi mission which the Turkish Government seut Pasha, the War-Minister Hussein Avni Pasha, to investigate the affair. The chief perpetra- and the Sheikh ul-Islam Karullah Effendi. The tors of the outrage were arrested and tried, other leaders propounded to the Sheikh Kaand sentenced in June to penalties which, how- rullah Effendi, as the authorized interpreter of ever, France and Germany declared were not the laws of Islam, the question : “ If the comsatisfactory to them. In August the Porte mander of the Faithful becomes afflicted with paid to the families of the murdered consuls a disorder of his faculties so that he cannot an indemnity of £40,000. The event was fol- take cognizance of political affairs ; if he, by lowed at Constantinople, May 12th, by a personal extravagance, increases the burdens change in the ministry. The Grand-Vizier, of the nation beyond endurance; if he, by Mahmoud Pasha, was overthrown, and Rushdi wrongs which he causes, threatens the ruin of Pasha was appointed in his place; while Mid- the empire and of the Mussulman community; hat Pasha, who had made himself the head of if his rule is destructive-must he be deposed? a new party opposed to further concessions Karullah answered, “ The law says, Yes!” and to the demands of Russia, took a place in the embodied the question and the answer into a cabinet without a portfolio.
fetna, officially signed, which had the force of a The warning of the Andrassy note had so law with the Faithful. Armed with this fetna, far produced no substantial result. The re the conspirators, on May 30th, proceeded to forms promised by the Porte had not been effect the deposition of the Sultan Abdul-Aziz. realized; the discontent in Bosnia and the They kept their design carefully concealed till Herzegovina had not been diminished. On the moment for action arrived. Guards, conthe 11th of May, Count Andrassy for Austria, sisting of soldiers on the land side and a vesand Prince Gortchakoff for Russia, met Prince sel on the water, were stationed around the Bismarck at Berlin, in a conference which con Palace Dolma Bagtsheh. Hussein Avni Pasha tinued till the 13th, to arrange what should be was dispatched to the Prince Murad Effendi, done next. The result was, that a new note the eldest son of the late Sultan Abdul-Medjid, was issued, more decisive in tone than the and notified him that he must come to the Andrassy note, in which allusion was made to palace to be made Sultan. The prince obered, more active proceedings that might be adopted and proceeded to the great hall of the Seraskiein case the condition of affairs was not soon rat, where he was received with homage, and the improved. This note, which was dated May customary religious services were had for the 13th, and is known as the Berlin Memoran- authentication of the act of his accession. The dum, or the Gortchakoff note, declared, in proceedings of installation having been comeffect, that the Porte, by accepting the Andras- pleted, Redif Pasha was sent to inform Abdulsy note, had pledged itself to Europe, and that Aziz that, " by the will of the people,” he had the great powers had the moral right to ex been deposed, and must be taken to the Serail pect the Porte to execute its pledges. The · of Top Kapu, which had been assigned him as Sultan had done nothing to fulfill his promises, his residence. Abdul Aziz was excited to a vioand the murders at Salonica must be regarded lent outburst of rage by this message; but as a consequence of his weakness. An armis- when he was shown the guards posted around tice of two months must be arranged between the palace, he exclaimed, “Great is Allah!" the Porte and the insurgents, on the basis of and fell into a stolid desperation. Accompathe five points mentioned in the Andrassy nied by his mother, his sous, and eleven of his .note, and of other points which had grown out wives, he was taken to Top Kapu. The new of the righteous demands of the insurgents. If Sultan was proclaimed as Murad v. An amthis armistice passed away without the object nesty was immediately declared for all politi.contemplated by the powers being gained, it cal offenses; the money in the imperial chest would be necessary to consult concerning such and the treasure of the mother of the Sultan more effective measures as the interests of Abdul-Aziz were turned over to the Minister general peace would demand, to limit the of Finance. Abdul-Aziz was removed shortly spread and growth of the prevailing disorder. afterward from Top Kapu to a pavilion of the The Berlin note was submitted to France, palace of Tcheragan, which was assigned to Italy, and England. France and Italy gave him as his future residence. Here he was their adhesion to it; England declined to ap- found dead on the morning of the 4th of June. prove it, May 19th. Immediately afterward, His body was examined by a council of nineEngland sent to Besika Bay, at the southern teen physicians of various nationalities, who end of Dardanelles, a fleet of twenty ves- all agreed that he had killed himself by cutting sels, mostly iron-clads, with about 5,000 men, his veins with a pair of scissors, and their verunder the command of Admiral Drummond, dict was published as the official explanation
of the cause of his death. On tne night of the rifles for Servia was reported at Berlin. Tho 15th of June a ministerial council was held at Governor of Bohemia ordered the frontier to the residence of Midhat Pasha, at which were be watched, to prevent the conveyance of the present, besides Midhat, the Grand-Vizier Me- rifles to Servia through Austrian territory. In hemet Rushdi Pasha, Hussein Avni Pasha, April it was reported that Prince Wrede, the Minister of War, the Grand-Admiral (Capudan Austrian representative at Belgrade, had comPasha) Achmet Kisserli, and the Minister of municated to Prince Milan a threat that AusForeign Affairs, Reshid Pasha. Soon after trian and Turkish troops would occupy Servia midnight an officer rushed unannounced into if she declared war against Turkey. Prince the Chamber, fired repeatedly at Hussein Avni Milan laid Prince Wrede's communication bePasha, and fell upon him with a knife. In fore the ministers and a parliamentary comthe mean time all the lights were put out ex- mittee, who unanimously advised him to pay cept a single candle. In the affray which fol no attention to it. On Sunday, April 9th, a lowed, Reshid Pasha was killed by a shot from mob at Belgrade made a warlike demonstrathe assassin's revolver, the Capudan Pasha tion, and insulted two persons attached to the was shot in the shoulder and then stabbed, Austrian consulate. The Austrian Governand Achmet Aga, a member of the household ment made a demand for satisfaction, and an of Midhat Pasha, who attempted to arrest the apology was promptly made. On the same murderer, was also killed. Finally a detach- day Prince Milan made an address at a popument of soldiers came in and captured the mur- lar festival, and said: “If the Turks attackous, derer. He was summarily tried, and was hanged we have sufficient force to repel them.” On on the morning of the 17th of June. His the 24th it was reported that the War-Office name was Hassan Beg. He was a Circassian, had ordered all militiamen to prepare for a a brother of the third wife of the Sultan Abdul- foreign campaign, and that the troops had Aziz, and had been during the reign of that been ordered to march to the frontier. With Sultan adjutant of his eldest son, Yusuf Izze- the renewal of hostilities in the insurgent din Effendi. According to the official state- provinces the public mind became more inment of the affair, he felt aggrieved at Hussein Hamed, and freslı fuel was added by the atrociAvni, and sought to gratify a personal animos- ties in Bulgaria and the murder of the consuls ity in assassinating him.
in Salonica. Prince Milan was finally forced In Servia the ministry of Kalievitch was at to comply with the popular demand, and the the head of the Government in the beginning ininistry of Kalievitch made way in May for of 1876. This ministry was decidedly in favor the popular ministry, Ristitch-Gruitch. But, of peace, and was in opposition to the Skup- although the new cabinet was decidedly warshtina, the national Legislature. On the 22d of like in its composition, M. Ristitch hesitated January the Skupshtina unanimously adopted to declare war, owing to the unprepared the war estimates; on the 25th the Minister state in which the country still found itself; of War asked the Chamber to grant an addi- yet important steps were taken that Servia tional £224,000 før ariny equipment, and ur- might be ready when the time came.
On May gency was voted on the ineasure. On the 24th a decree was published providing for the 20th of February the Minister of War issued issue of a loan of 12,000,000 francs, to bear an order calling out all men between twenty interest, and to be payable within five years. and fifty years of age. Disturbances occurred On May 29th the Russian General Tchernayeff at the communal elections at Kraguyevatz and was appointed a general in the Servian army; a Semendria in the last days of February, occa- decree published soon after ordered the closing sioned by agitators who raised the revolution- of the schools and courts in case of war, and ary flag. About the same time Prince Milan troops were posted along the frontier. At the made peaceful assurances to Prince Wrede, the same time Servia had entered into negotiations Austrian representative at Belgrade, which with Montenegro, and on May 26th concluded caused a temporary subsidence of the war with the latter å treaty offensive and defenfeeling. Before the middle of March, how- sive. In consequence of these proceedings the ever, pressure was brought by the war-party Turkish Government demanded an explanaupon Prince Milan; on the 14th Belgrade tion from Servia, on June 9th, as to its prepawas illuminated in honor of the battle of Mu- rations for war. Servia replied that it desired ratovizza, in the Herzegovina. The Turkish the preservation of peace, and by no means troops massed upon the Servian borders bav- entertained any hostile intentions toward the ing committed depredations, the Servian mili- Sublime Porte, and at the same time promised tia were mobilized and ordered to march to to send a special envoy to Constantinople, the frontier. A cabinet council was held to who should discuss with the Turkish Governdiscuss the policy to be pursued by the Gov- ment the questions arising out of the situation. ernment, at which differences of opinion arose The negotiations of the great powers had which threatened a crisis. On the 23d of gone on in the meanwhile, and on them the March the levy of the reserve had resulted Servians had built great hopes. They had satisfactorily, with a promise that Servia would even gone so far as to formulate certain dehave 30,000 men disposable in case of war. mands, which were essentially as follows: On the 24th the purchase of 60,000 Chassepot They claimed that Bosnia and Herzegovina