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obtained the population of States, Territories, counties, and all places of 8,000 inhabitants and upward. For the purpose of verifying the first or rough count, a second count, known as the dwelling-house count, was made, by means of which a new count of population was obtained, according to the number of persons returned in each dwelling house or place of abode visited by the census enumerators.
For the purpose of making the detailed tabulations concerning the population, the electric tabulating system of which Mr. Herman Hollerith is the inventor, was adopted, after a preliminary test of tabulating methods, and through the adoption of this system a much more complete presentation of the statistics of population was made than at any preceding census, including the statistics of conjugal condition, which were entirely omitted in 1880, although the inquiry was made on the population schedule, and a detailed statement of parentage by nationalities, for which only partial tabulations were made at that
The Hollerith system of tabulation, involving the use of a punched card for each person returned in the census, to which was transferred by means of a mechanical punch all the various details as to color, sex, age, conjugal condition, place of birth, parentage, occupation, etc., and the subsequent counting of these cards by the electric tabulating machines, was used in compiling all the statistics relating to population and mortality, and to crime, pauperism, and benevolence.
The census office was organized in the latter part of April, 1889, and the force was steadily increased from 30 in May to over 100 in September, over 400 in January, 1890, and over 1,100 in May, just prior to the commencement of the enumeration, this large force being principally engaged in the work dependent upon several of the special subjects of investigation already in hand and also in the necessary work of preparation for the general enumeration. The force was increased to over 1,800 in July, 1890, over 2, 200 in October, and so on until the maximum force of 3,143 was reached in May, 1891, practically one-half of whom were females. Appointments to the clerical force at the census of 1890 were not made under the civil-service rules and regulations, but applicants for clerical positions were examined in the census office by a board of examiners, in accordance with rules approved by the Secretary of the Interior, to whom the census act gave discretionary authority relative to all examinations for appointment and promotion. The work of the census was divided among twenty-five divisions, each devoted to some special branch or feature.
Mr. Porter served as Superintendent of Census until his resignation July 31, 1893, and the work was completed under the direction of the Commissioner of Labor, in accordance with the terms of the act of October 3, 1893, and under the provisions of which the Commissioner of Labor was designated by the President on October 5, 1893, to take charge of the work. By the deficiency act of March 2, 1895, the census office was abolished and the unfinished work transferred to the office of the Secretary of the Interior, but by the same act the Secretary was authorized to continue the services of the Commissioner of Labor in charge of the completion of the eleventh census. The census division, established March 4, 1895, in the office of the Secretary of the Interior, under the act of March 2, 1895, remained in force until July 1, 1897, from and after which date provision was made for a census clerk charged with the proper care and preservation of the census records. The Commissioner of Labor, however, remained in supervisory charge of the census work until October 5, 1897, when, at his own request, he was relieved by the Secretary of the Interior, serving from October 1, 1895, without compensation so far as his census duties were concerned.
The results of the eleventh census are contained in 25 quarto volumes, comprising 21,410 pages, besides a compendium in three parts, an abstract, and a statistical atlas.
The final volume of the report of the census of 1890, exclusive of the statistical atlas, was issued in 1897, the last plate proofs being returned to the printing office July 31 of that year, but this does not represent, in reality, the date when all the essential preliminary results of the eleventh census were given to the public. Following the practice established by General Walker in 1880 of issuing bulletins from time to time containing the preliminary results of the census, Superintendent Porter made a much more extended use of the census bulletin and by this means published, subject to final revision, all the principal results as soon as they became available. The first bulletins of preliminary results were issued in August, 1890, and the final bulletin was issued May 18, 1895, representing, in all, over 6,000 pages of matter which was published in this way. It can with reason be considered, then, that May 18, 1895, represents the date of sending the final general results of the eleventh census to the public—a fact that is most gratifying, when the magnitude of the work is considered.
The special enumeration of the names and service of the survivors of the war of the rebellion called for by the census act was made and considerable work was done toward the correction and classification of the results. No provision was made by Congress, however, for the printing of this huge directory of surviving veterans of the late war, which, if published, would occupy 8 large quarto volumes of 1,000 pages each, and the schedules were subsequently turned over, by direction of Congress, to the Bureau of Pensions. Incidental thereto, however, by means of a special inquiry on the population schedule, it was possible to show for all surviving veterans, Union and Confederate, at the time of the census, their approximate number, present ages and occupations, and general nativity and color, and these results are presented in part 2 of the report on population.
All of the volumes of the census report are profusely illustrated by maps and diagrams, as at the census of 1880, and the more important and valuable of them are reproduced in the statistical atlas, which Congress directed should be prepared, the same as for the census of 1870. There was no statistical atlas prepared as a government publication for the census of 1880, but one was published by Charles Scribner's Sons as a private enterprise.
The population of the United States on June 1, 1890, as shown by the general enumeration for all the States and organized Territories, was 62,622,250. Including 325,464 Indians and other persons in the Indian Territory and on Indian reservations and 32,052 persons in Alaska, specially enumerated under the law, the entire population of the country was 62,979,766.
The total cost of the eleventh census was $11,547,127.13, and of this amount $260,553.10 was paid to supervisors as compensation and for clerk hire, etc.; $2,485,861.57 for the compensation of the census enumerators; approximately, $1,531,500 for printing, engraving, and binding, this sum being the total amount appropriated for that purpose, and $7,269,212.46 for all other expenses. Of the whole amount appropriated at the eleventh census, $1,330,000 was specifically provided for covering the cost of the special investigation relating to farms, homes, and mortgages, under the act of February 22, 1890, and was practically all expended for that purpose.
CONDITION OF CENSUS RECORDS.
By the organic law of 1790, under which the first enumeration of the inhabitants of the United States was made, it was provided that the original returns transmitted to the marshals by the assistants appointed by them to make the enumeration should be filed by said marshals with the clerks of their respective district courts for careful preservation, and this provision remained in force at the first four
At the censuses of 1830 and 1840, however, the assistants were required to forward two copies of their returns to the marshals, one copy to be forwarded to the Secretary of State and one copy to be filed with the clerks of the district or superior courts. It was also provided by the resolution of May 28, 1830, that the original returns filed in the offices of the clerks of the several district and superior courts, under the provisions of the law governing the first four censuses, should be transmitted to the Secretary of State, and these returns, together with the copies of the returns of the censuses of 1830 and 1840, were transferred to the custody of the Department of the the Interior upon its organization in 1849, the work of the census being made a function of that Department. At the censuses of 1850, 1860, and 1870, a copy of the returns of the assistant marshal was required to be transmitted to the Secretary of the Interior, in addition to the copies required to be deposited with the clerks of county courts and with the secretaries of the States and Territories, but at the census of 1880 the original schedules were sent direct to the central office at Washington, and a copy of only a part of the information returned on the population schedule deposited with the clerks of the county courts. At the census of 1890, the original schedules were forwarded to Washington, as in 1880, and no copy of any kind was required to be filed in the offices of the county clerks, but municipalities were furnished at Washington, upon their request, with a copy of certain details on the population schedule for such municipalities, in the manner prescribed by the census act.
Under the provisions of the several census laws, therefore, there should be in the custody of the Department of the Interior a complete set of the returns made at the eleven decennial enumerations from 1790 to 1890, inclusive, but an examination of the census records on file in the Department of the Interior building shows that, in all probability, the provisions of law requiring the original returns of the first four enumerations to be transmitted to the Secretary of State were not fully complied with by the clerks of the district and superior courts, as in many instances the returns for the entire State or district are missing. These omissions are best shown by the following table:
States and Territories.
Date of organ- Schedules
reported at census specified.
Mar. 3, 1817
Mar. 1, 1809
April 7, 1798
14, 255 34, 277 59,096 82, 548 162, 686 252, 433 12, 282
5, 641 24, 520 73, 677 220,955
4, 762 8, 765 8,850 40,352 20, 845 66, 557 184, 139 211, 119 245, 562 277, 426
45, 365 230, 760
35, 691 105, 602 261, 727 747, 610 880, 200 11,594
Nov.29, 1802 (6)
a One of the original thirteen States.
The foregoing table shows that, for the various States and Territories specified, there are no returns on file for the census year or years indicated, but for which period the population as specified in the last column is reported, and that the missing returns for the several States and Territories relate to one or more of the first four enumerations, as the case may be, with the exception of Colorado and Washington, for which the missing returns are those of the census of 1860.
The schedules on file in the Department of the Interior, so far as they relate to the first ten enumerations, from 1790 to 1880, inclusive, are in bound form and are contained in 4,597 volumes, relating to the various subjects specified in the following table:
a 588 volumes of schedules for free inhabitants; 81 volumes of schedules for slave inhabitants. 6711 volumes of schedules for free inhabitants; 49 volumes of schedules for slave inhabitants. c For defective, dependent, and delinquent classes only. dThere are also on file at the Department of the Interior 5 volumes of schedules used in the special census of Minnesota ordered by Congress in 1857.
A thorough examination of these bound volumes of schedules has not been made, so that it is impossible to state, especially for the earlier enumerations for which no printed forms of schedules were used, whether the schedules relating to any specified subject are complete for the entire country at each census period, or whether a careful examination would not reveal the absence of schedules for a portion of a district or State, in addition to the States and Territories already specified, for which no returns whatever appear to be on file.
The general schedules relating to population and manufactures at the census of 1890 are still unbound, but it has been estimated that the population schedules alone, if bound in volumes of uniform thickness, would make about 30,000 volumes, owing to the form of the schedule (a) adopted for the eleventh census. All of the original schedules relating to mortality, crime, pauperism, and benevolence, and the special classes (deaf, dumb, blind, insane, etc.), and a portion of the transportation and insurance schedules were badly damaged by fire in March, 1896, and, by order from the Department of the Interior, were destroyed. The agricultural schedules, which it was determined not to bind for preservation in the Department of the Interior, were
a Family schedule, that is, a separate schedule for each family enumerated.