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the streets of London and of Paris are crowd- faculties, and born under the same laws of ed. Call over thore millions by name, and nature. ask them one by one, of what country they We shall see the fame virtues and vices, are: how many will you find, who from flowing from the same principles, but varied different parts

of the earth come to inhabit in a thousand different and contrary modes, these great cities, which afford the largest according to that infinite variety of laws opportunities and the largest encourage- and cuítoms which is established for the ment to virtue and vice? Some are drawn fame universal end, the preservation of soby ambition, and some are sent by duty; ciety. We shall feel the same revolution many resort thither to improve their minds, of seasons, and the same fun and micon will and many to improve their fortunes; others guide the course of our year. The same bring their beauty, and others their elo. azure vault, bespangled with stars, will be quence to market. Remove from hence, every where spread over our heads. There and go to the utmost extremities of the is no part of the world from whence we may Eatt or West: visit the barbarous nations not admire those planets which roll, like of Africa, or the inhospitable regions of ours, in different orbits round the same cen. the North ; you will find no climate so bad, tral sun; from whence we may not discover no country so savage, as not to have some an object ftill more stupendous, that army people who come from abroad, and inhabit of fixed stars hung up in the immense space those by choice.

of the universe; innumerable suns, whose Among numberless extravagances which beams enlighten and cherish the unknown pass through the minds of men, we may worlds which roll around them: and whilst juftly reckon for one that notion of a secret I am ravished by such contemplations as affection, independent of our reason, and these, whilst my soul is thus raised up to superior to our reason, which we are sup- heaven, it imports me little what ground I posed to have for our country; as if there tread upon. were some physical virtue in every spot of

Bolingbroke. ground, which neceffarily produced this eftect in one born every

§ 49. The Love of Fame.


can by no means agree with you in Amor patriæ ratione valentior omni. thinking, that the love of fame is a passion,

which either reason or religion condemns. This notion may have contributed to the

I confess, indeed, there are some who have security and grandeur of states. It has represented it as inconfiltent with both; therefore been not unartfully cultivated, and I remember, in particular, the excellent and the prejudice of education has been author of 'The Religion of Nature deliwith care put on its side. Men have come in this case, as in many others, from be- ard absurd. As the pasiage falls in so

neated, has treated it as highly irrational lieving that it ought to be fo, to persuade thoroughly with your own turn of thought, others, and even to believe themselves that

you will have no objection, I imagine, to it is so.

my quoting it at large; and I give it you, Cannot hurt a refleting Man.

at the fame time, as a very great authority

on your side. “ In reality,” says that writer, Whatever is best is fafest ; lies out of the “ the man is not known ever the more reach of human power; can neither be to pofterity, because his pame is tranfgiven nor taken away. Such is this great “ mitted to them : Hc doth not live because and beautiful work of nature, the world. “ his name does. When it is said, Julius Such is the mind of man, which contem « Cæsar subdued Gaul, conquered Pompey, plates and admires the world, whereof it &c. it is the same thing as to say, the makes the noblest part. These are inse conqueror of Pompey was Julius Cæsar, parably ours, and as long as we remain in • i.e. Cæfar and the conqueror of Pompey one, we shall enjoy the other. Let us is the same thing; Cæfar is as much march therefore intrepidly wherever we “ known by one designation as by the are led by the course of human accidents. “ other. The amount then is only this: Wherever they lead us, on what coait fo " that the conqueror of Pompey conquerever we are thrown by them, we shall not “ ed Pompey; or rather, since Pompey is ind ourselves absolutely strangers. We “ as little known now as Cæfar, some body Thail meet with men and women, creatures conquered somebody. Such a poor busict the fame iguie, endowed with the same “ ncis is this boasted immortality! and

a such

“ such is the thing called glory among us! birth, is herself represented as rejoicing that “ To difcerning men this fame is mere air, all generations should call ber blerjed. “ and what they despise, if not thun.”

To be convinced of the great advantage But surely "' 'twere to confider too cu of cherishing this high regard to posterity,

riously, as Horatio says to Hamlet, this noble defire of an after-life in the "to consider thus.”. For though faine breath of others, one need only look back with posterity thould be, in the strict upon the history of the ancient Greeks and analysis of it, no other than what it is here Romans. What other principle was it, described, a mere uninteresting proposition, which produced that exalted itrain of viramounting to nothing more than that some- tue in those days, that may well serve as a body acted meritoriously; yet it would not model to these? Was it not the confentiens neceffarily follow, that true philofophylaus bonorum, the incorrufta vox bene judi would banish the desire of it from the hu cantum (as Tully calls it) the concurrent man breast. For this passion may be (as approbation of the good, the uncorrupted most certainly it is) wisely implanted in our applause of the wife, that animated their fpecies, notivithstanding the corresponding most generous pursuits ? object should in reality be very different To confess the truth, I have been ever from what it appears in imagination. Do inclined to think it a very dangerous atnot many of our most refined and even tempt, to endeavour to lessen the motives contemplative pleasures owe their existence of right cordućt, or to raise any suspicion to our mistakes? It is but extending (I concerning their folidity. The tempers will not say, improving) some of our senfes and dispositions of mankind are so extremeto a higher degree of acuteness than we ly different, that it seems necessary they now possess them, to make the firest views should be called into action by a variety of of nature, or the nobleit productions of art, incitements. Thus, while some are wilappear horrid and deformed. To see ling to wed virtue for her personal charms, things as they truly and in themselves are, others are engaged to take her for the lake would not always, perhaps, be of advan of her expected dowry: and since her foltage to us in the intellectual world, any lowers and admirers have so little hopes more than in the natural. · But, after all, from her in present, it were pity, mewho shall certainly afure us, that the plea thinks, to reason them out of any imasure of virtuous fame dies with its poffeffor, gined advantage in reverfion. and reaches not to a farther scene of ex

Firzoborne's Letters. istence! There is nothing, it should seem, either absurd cr unphilosophical in fuppor

$ 50. Enthufiam. ing it posible at least, that the prailes of Though I rejoice in the hope of seeing the good and the judicious, that sweeteit enthutiain expelled from her religious domusic to an honest ear in this world, may minions, let me intreat you to leave her in be echoed back to the manlions of the the undisturbed enjoyment of her civil posnext : that the poet's description of fame sellions. To own the truth, I look upon may be literally true, and though she walks enthufiasm, in all other points but that of upon earth, the may yet lift her head into religion, to be a very necessary turn of heaven.

mind; as indeed it is a vein which nature But can it be reasonable to extinguish a feems to have marked with more or less pasiion which nature has universally lighted strength in the tempers of moit men. No up in the human brealt, and which we con matter what the object is, whether business, Itantly find to burn with most strength and pleasures, or the fine arts; whoever purbrightness in the noblest and best formed sues them to any purpose muít do so con boloms? Accordingly revelation is so far amcre: and inamoratos, you know, of every from endeavouring (as you suppose) to kind, are all enthusiasts. There is indeed eradicate the feed which nature hath'thus a certain heightening faculty which unideeply planted, that the rather seems, on verfally prevails through our species; and the contrary, to cherish and forward its we are all of us, perhaps, in our several fagrowth. To be exalted quith boncur, and vourite pursuits, pretty much in the cirto be had in everlasting remembrance, are in cumitances of the renowned knight of the number of those encouragements which La Mancha, when he attacked the barte Jewish difpenfation offered to the vir- ber's brazen bason, for Mambrino's go.dun tuous; as the person from whom the sacred helmet. author of the Christian system received his What is Tully's aliquid imieniem 13

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đai 411 14,

finitumque, which he professes to aspire after about religion, in order to model our faith in oratory, but a piece of true rhetorical to the fashion of his lordship’s svitem. We Quixotism? Yet never, I will venture to have now nothing to do, but to throw away afirm, would he have glowed with so much our bibles, turn the churches into theatres, eloquence, had he been warmed with less and rejoice that an act of parliament now enthusiain. I am persuaded indeed, that in force gives us an opportunity of getting nothing great or glorious was ever per- rid of the clergy by transportation. I was formed, where this quality had not a prin- in hopes the extraordinary price of these cipal concern; and as our passions add vi. volumes would have confined their infiu. gour to our actions, enthusiasm gives spirit ence to persons of quality. As they are to our passions. I might add too, that it placed above extreme indigence and ablo. even opens and enlarges our capacities. lute want of bread, their loole notions would Accordingly I have been informed, that have carried them no farther than cheating one of the great lights of the present age at cards, or perhaps plundering their counnever fits down to Itudy, till lie has railed try: but if these opinions spread among his imagination by the power of music. the vulgar, we shall be knocked down at For this purpose he has a band of instru- noon-day in our freets, and nothing will ments placed near his library, which play go forward but robberies and murders. till he finds himself elevated to a proper The instances I have lately seen of free. height; upon which he gives a signal, and thinking in the lower part of the world, they instantly cease.

make me fear, they are going to be as But those high conceits which are suge fashionable and as wicked as their betters. gested by enthusiasm, contribute not only I went the other night to the Robin Hood, to the pleasure and perfection of the fine where it is usual for the advocates against arts, but to most other effects of our action religion to allemble, and openly avow their and industry. To strike this spirit there- infidelity. One of the questions for the fore out of the human constitution, to re- night was, “ Whether lord Bolingbroke duce things to their precise philosophical had not done greater service to mankind standard, would be to check fome of the by his writings, than the apostles or eranmain wheels of society, and to fix half the gelists?”. As this fociety is chiefly comworld in an useless apathy. For if enthu- posed of lawyers clerks, petty tradesmen, fiasın did not add an imaginary value to and the loweit mechanics, I was at first surmost of the objcets of our pursuit ; if fancy prized at such amazing erudition among did not give then their brighieit colours, them. Toland, Tindal, Collins, Chubb, they would generally, perhaps, wear an and Mandeville, they seemed to have got appearance too contemptible to excite de. by heart. A moe-maker harangued his

five minutes upon the excellence of the

tenets maintained by lord Bolingbroke: Weary'd we should lie down in death, This cheat of life would take no more,

but I soon found that his reading had not If you thouglit fame an empty breath,

been extended beyond the Idea of a Patriot I Phillis but a perjur'd whore. PRIOR. King, which he had mistaken for a glorious

system of free-thinking. I could not help In a word, this enthusiasm for which I am smiling at another of the company, who pleading, is a beneficent enchantress, who took pains to sew his disbelief of the gosnever exerts her magic but to our advan- pel, by unfainting the apostles, and calling tage, and only deals about her friendly thein by no other citle than plain Paul or spells in order to raise imaginary beauties, plain Peter. The proceedings of this so. or to improve real ones. The worst that ciety have indeed almost induced me to can be laid of her is, that she is a kind de- wish that (like the Roman Catholics) they ceiver, and an obliging flatterer.

were not permitted to read the bible, rather Fitzojborne's Lett.

than they should read it only to abuse it. $ 51. Free-thinking, the various Abuses com- tradesmen fettling the most important ar.

I have frequently heard many wise miited by the Vulgar in this point,

ticles of our faith over a pint of beer. The publication of lord Bolingbrcke's baker took occasion from Canning's affair posthumous works has given new life and to maintain, in opposition to the scriptures, spirit to free-thinking. We seem at present that man might live by bread alone, at to be endeavouring to unlearn our cate. leait that woman might; " for elfe,” said chism, with all that we have been caught he, “ how could the girl have been sup.


fire :

« ported for a whole month by a few hard matter is God, and God is matter; and “ crusts?” In answer to this, a barber. that it is no matter whether there is any surgeon set forth the improbability of that God or no. fory; and thence inferred, that it was im I believe also, that the world was not pollible for our Saviour to have falted forty made; that the world made itself; that it days in the wilderness. I lately heard a had no beginning; that it will last for ever, midshipman swear that the bible was all a world without end. lie: for he had failed round the world with I believe that a man is a beast, that the lord Anson, and if there had been any Red soul is the body, and the body is the foul; Sea, he must have met with it. I know a and that after death there is neither body bricklayer, who while he was working by nor soul. line and rule, and carefully laying one brick I believe that there is no religion ; that upon another, would argue with a fellow- natural religion is the only religion; and labourer that the world was made by chance; that all religion is unnatural. and a cook, who thought more of his trade I believe not in Moses; I believe in the than his bible, in a dispute concerning the first philosophy; I believe not the evangemiracles, made a pleasant mistake about lifts; I believe in Chubb, Collins, Toland, the nature of the first

, and gravely asked Tindal, Morgan, Mandeville, Woolston, his antagonist what he thought of the sup- Hobbes, Shafteibury; I believe in lord Boper at Cana.

lingbroke; I believe not St. Paul. This affectation of free-thinking among Î believe not revelation ; I believe in the lower class of people, is at prefent hap- tradition; I believe in the talmud; I bepily confined to the men. On Sundays, lieve in the alcoran; I believe not the biwhile the husbands are toping at the ale- ble; I believe in Socrates; I believe in house, the good women their wives think Confucius ; I believe in Sanconiachon; I it their duty to go to church, say their believe in Mahomet ; I believe not in prayers, bring home the text, and hear the Christ. children their catechism. But our polite Laltly, I believe in all unbelief. ladies are, I fear, in their lives and conver

Connoisseur. sations, little better than free-thinkers. Going to church, since it is now no longer

§ 52. Fortune not to be trusted. the fashion to carry on intrigues there, is

The sudden invasion of an enemy overalmost wholly laid aside: And I verily be throws such as are not on their guard; but lieve, that nothing but another earthquake they who foresee the war, and prepare can fill the churches with people of quality. themselves for it before it breaks out, land The fair sex in general are too thoughtless without difficulty the first and the fiercest to concern themselves in deep enquiries into onset. I learned this important leffon long matters of religion. It is sufficient, that ago, and never trutled to fortune even they are taught to believe themselves an while she seemed to be at peace with me. gels. It would therefore be an ill compli. The riches, the honours, the reputation, ment, while we talk of the heaven they and all the advantages which her treachebestow, to persuade them into the Maho- rous indulgence poured upon me, I placed metan notion, that they have no fouls: so, that the might snatch them away withthough perhaps our fine gentlemen may out giving me any disturbance. I kept a imagine, that by convincing a lady that great interval between me and them. She The bas no soul, she will be less scrupulous took them, but she could not tear them about the disposal of her body.

from me. No man suffers by bad fortune, The ridiculous notions maintained by but he who has been deceived by good. free-thinkers in their writings, scarce de- If we grow fond of her gifts, fancy that serve a serious refutation; and perhaps the they belong to us, and are perpetually to best method of answering them would be remain with us; if we lean upon them, and to select from their works all the absurd expect to be considered for them; we shall and impracticable notions which they fofink into all the bitterness of grief, as foon ftiffly maintain in order to evade the belief as these false and transitory benefits pass of the Christian religion. I fall here away, as soon as our vain and childish throw together a few of their principal te- minds, unfraught with solid pleasures, benets, under the contradictory title of come deftitute even of those which are The Unbeliever's Creed.

imaginary. But, if we do not suffer our

selves to be traníported with prosperity, I believe that there is no God, but that neither shall we be reduced by adversity.

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Our souls will be proof against the dangers and gives them a lively joy upon every of both these states: and having explored prosperous event, as well as a piercing our strength, we shall be sure of it; for in grief, when they meet with crosses and adthe midst of felicity, we shall have tried verfity. Favours and good offices cafily how we can bear misfortune.

engage their friendship, while the smalleń Her Evils difarmed by Patience.

injury provokes their resentment. Any

honour or mark of distinction elevates them Banishment, with all its train of evils, above measure; but they are as senibly is so far from being the cause of contempt, touched with contempt.

People of this that he who bears up with an undaunted character have, no doubt, much more livespirit against them, while so many are de- ly enjoyments, as well as more, pungent jected by them, erects on his very misfor- sorrows, than men of cool and sedate temiune a trophy to his honour: for such is pers: but I believe, when every thing is the frame and temper of our minds, that balanced, there is 110 one, who would not nothing strikes us with greater admiration rather chuse to be of the latter character, than a man intrepid in the midst of mif- were he entirely maiter of his own dispofortunes. Of all ignominies, an ignomi- fition. Good or ill fortune is very little nious death must be allowed to be the at our own disposal: and when a person greatest; and yet where is the blafphemer who has this sensibility of temper meets who will presume to defame the death of with any misfortune, his forrow or resentSocrates! This faint entered the prison ment takes entire posseflion of him, and with the same countenance with which he deprives him of all relith in the common reduced thirty tyrants, and he took off ig- occurrences of life; the right enjoyment nominy from the place; for how could it of which forms the greatest part of our be deemed a prison when Socrates was happiness. Great pleasures are much less there? Ariftides was led to execution in frequent than great pains; so that a fenfi. the fame city; all those who met the fad ble temper cannot meet with fewer trials proceflion, cast their eyes to the ground, in the fo:mer way than in the latter: not and with throbbing hearts bewailed, not to mention, that men of such lively passions the innocent man, but Justice herself, who are apt to be transported beyond all bounds was in him condemned. Yet there was a of prudence and discretion, and to take false wretch found, for monsters are sometimes steps in the conduct of life, which are often produced in contradiction to the ordinary irretrievable. rules of nature, who fpit in his face as die paffed along. Ariftides wiped his cheek, Delicacy of Taste defirabl. smiled, turned to the magiftrate, and said, There is a delicacy of talte observable “ Admonish this man not to be so naity for in some men, which very much resembles " the future."

this delicacy of paflion, and produces the ignominy then can take no hold on vir- fame fenfibility to beauty and deformity of tue; for virtue is in every condition the every kind, as that does to prosperity and fame, and challenges the same respect. We adversity, obligations and injuries. When applaud the world when the propers; and you present a poem or a picture to a man when fre falls into adversity we applaud posiefed of this talent, the delicacy of his her. Like the temples of the gods, she is feelings makes him to be touched very fenvenerable even in her ruins. After this, fibly with every part of it; nor are the mult it not appear a degree of madness to maiterly strokes perceived with more exdefer one moment acquiring the only arms quifite relish and satisfaction, than the negcapable of defending us against attacks, ligencies or abfurdities with difguit and which at every moment we are exposed to ? uneasiness. A polite and judicious converOur being miserable, or not miferable, fation affords him the highest entertainwhen we full into misfortunes, depends on ment; rudeness or impertinence is as great the manner in which we have enjoyed prof. a puni!hment to him. In fhort, delicacy perity.

Bolingbroke. of tase has the same effect as delicacy of $ 53. Delicacy eca;fitutional, and often

pasion; it enlarges the sphere both of our

happiness and mifery, and makes us fenfidangerous.

ble to pains as well as pleasures which efSome people are ft:hject to a certain de- cape the reit of mankind. licacy of pation, which makes them ex I believe, however, there is no one, who tremely scisible to all lie accidents of life, will nct agree with me, that, norwithtand

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