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know, that I mean as well in the religion are, or may be wrong, I leave it to God I now profess, as I can poslibly ever do in alone to mend or retorm them; which, another. Can a man who thinks fo, justify whenever he does, it must be by greater a change, even if he thought both equally instruments than I am. I am not a papist, good? To luch an one, the part of join- for I renounce the temporal invasions of ing with any one body of Christians might the papal power, and deteft their arrogated perhaps be easy; but I think it would not authority over princes and states. I am be so, to renounce the other.

a catholic in the strictest sense of the word. Your lordship has formerly advised me if I was born under an absolute prince, I to read the best controversies between the would be a quiet subject: but I thank churches. Shall I tell you a secret ? I did God I was not. I have a due sense of the so at fourteen years old, (for I loved road- excellence of the British constitution. In ing, and my father had no other books); a word, the things I have always wished there was a collection of all that had been to fee, are not a Roman Catholic, or a written on both sides in the reign of king French catholic, or a Spanish catholic, but James the Second : I warmed my head a true catholic: and not a king of Whigs, with them, and the consequence was, that or a king of Tories, but a king of EngI found myself a papist and a protestant by land. Which God of his mercy grant his turns, according to the last book I read. present majesty may be, and all future I am afraid molt seekers are in the same majesties. You see, my lord, I end like a case; and when they itop, they are not so preacher: this is jermo ad cerum, not nd properly converted, as outwicted. You populum. Believe me, with infinite obligasee how little glory you would gain by my tion and sincere thanks, ever your, &c. conversion. And, after all, I verily be

Pope. lieve your lordship and I are both of the fame religion, if we were thoroughly un

43. Defence against a noble Lord's Rcderstood by one another; and that all ho.

flections. neft and reasonable Christians would be There was another reason why I was 1o, if they did but talk enough together silent as to that paper-I took it for a every day; and had nothing to do toge- lady's (on the printer's word in the titlether, but to ferve God, and live in peace page) and thought it too presuming, -as with their neighbour.

well as indecent, to contend with one of As to the temporal side of the question, that sex in altercation: for I never was so I can have no dispute with you; it is cer mean a creature as to commit my anger cain, all the beneficial circumftances of life, against a lady to paper, though but in a and all the thining ones, lie on the part private letter. But soon after, her denial you would invite me to. But if I could of it was brought to me by a noble person bring myself to fancy, what I think you of real honour and truth. Your lordship do but fancy, that I have any talents for indeed faid you had it from a lady, and active life, I want health for it; and be the lady said it was your lordnip's; some fides it is a real truth, I have less inclina- thought the beautiful by-blow had two fatien (if poflible) than ability. Contem- thers, or (if one of them will hardly be alplative life is not only my scene, but it is lowed a man) two mochers; indeed I think my habit too. I begun my life, where both sexes had a share in it, but which was most people end theirs, with a difrelish uppermost, I know not; I pretend not to of all" that the world calls ambition: I determine the exact me:hod of this witty don't know why 'tis called so, for to fornication : and, if I call it yours, my lord, me it always seemed to be rather stoop- 'tis only because, whoever got it, you ing than climbing. I'll tell you my brought it forth. politic and religious sentiments in a few Here, my lord, allow me to observe the words. In my politics, I think no fur- different proceeding of the ignoble poet, ther than how to preserve the peace of and his noble enemies. What he has writmy life, in any government under which ten of Fanny, Adonis, Sappho, or who you I live; nor in my religion, than to pre- will, he owned, he published, he fet his ferve the peace of my conscience, in any name to: what they have published of church with which I communicate. I hope him, they have denied to have written; all churches and all governments are fo far and what they have written of him, they of God, as they are rightly understood, have denied to have published. One of and rightly administered and where they there was the case in the paft libe!, and the


other in the present; for, though the pa. well paid as some writers (much his inferent has owned it to a few choice friends, riors) have been fince; but your lordship it is such as he has been obliged to de- will reflect that I am no man of quality, ny, in the most particular terms, to the either to buy or sell scribbling so high : and great person whose opinion concerned him that I have neither place, pension, nor most.

power to reward for secret services. It Yet, my lord, this epifle was a piece cannot be, that one of your rank can have not written in haste, or in a passion, but the least envy to such an author as I am; many months after all pretended provo- but, were that possible, it were much better cation ; when you was at full leisure at gratified by employing not your own, but Hampton-Court, and I the object fingled, fome of those low and ignoble pens to do like a deer out of season, for so ill-timed, you this mean office. I dare engage you'll and ill-placed a diversion. It was a deli- have them for less than I gave Mr. Broom, berate work, directed to a reverend person, if your friends have not raised the market. of the most serious and sacred character, Let them drive the bargain for you, my with whom you are known to cultivate a lord ; and you may depend on seeing, every strict correspondence, and to whom, it will day in the week, as many (and now and not be doubted, but you open your secret then as pretty) verses, as thefe of your sentiments, and deliver your real judgment lordship. of men and things. This, I say, my lord, And would it not be full as well, that with fubmiflion, could not but awaken all my poor person should be abused by them, my reflection and attention. Your lord as by one of your rank and quality? Canhip's opinion of me as a poet, I cannot not Curi do the same? nay, has he not help; it is yours, my lord, and that were done it before your lordship, in the fame enough to mortify a poor man; but it is kind of language, and almost the same not yours alone, you must be content to words? I cannot but think, the worthy and share it with the gentlemen of the Dun- discreet clergyman himself will agree, it is ciad, and (it may be) with many more in- improper, nay unchriltan, to expose the nocent and ingenious gentlemen. If your personal defects of our brother ; that both lordship destroys my poetical character, such perfect forms as youss, and fuch unthey will claim their part in the glory; fortunate ones as mine, proceed from the but, give me leave to say, if my moral hand of the same Maker, who falhionetk character be ruined, it muit be wholly the his vessels as he pleaseth; and that it is work of your lordship; and will be hard not from their shape we can tell whether even for you to do, unless I myself co- they were made for honour or dishonour. operate.

In a word, he would teach you charity to How can you talk (my most worthy lord) your greatest enemies ; of which number, of all Pope's works as so many libels, af- my lord, I cannot be reckoned, ance, firm, that he has no invention but in defa. though a poet, I was never your flatmation, and charge him with selling an terer. other man's labours printed with his own Next, my lord, as to the obscurity of name? Fye, my lord, you forget yourself. my birth (a reflection copied also from He printed not his name before a line of Mr. Curl and his brethren) I am forry the person's you mention ; that person to be obliged to such a presumption as to himself has told you and all the world, in name my family in the same leaf with your the book itself, what part he had in it, as lord/hip’s: but my father had the honour, may

be seen at the conclusion of his notes in one initance, to resemble you, for he to the Odyfey. I can only suppose your was a younger brother. He did not inlordship (not having at that time forgot deed think it a happiness to bury his elder yoar Greek) despiled to look upon the brother, though he had one, who wanted transiation; and ever since entertained too some of those good qualities which yours mean an opinion of the translator to cast an pofleft. How fincerely glad could í be, eye upon it.

Besides, my lord, when yon to pay to that young nobleman's memory said he sold another man's works, you the debt I owed to his friendship, whose oughe in justice to have added that' he early death deprived your family of as bought them, which very much alters the much wit and honour as he left behind him sase. What he gave him was five hundred in any branch of it! But as to my father, pounds : his receipt can be produced to I could affure you, my lord, that he was no your lordlhip. I dare not afirm he was as mechanic (neither á hatter, nor, which

might please your lordship yet better, a fears): it is not now indeed a time to think cobler) but in truth, of a very tolerable of myself, when one of the nearest and family: and my mother of an ancient one, longest ties I have ever had is broken all as well born and educated as that lady, on a sudden, by the unexpected death of whom your lordihip made choice of to be poor Mr. Gay. An inflammatory fever the mother of your own children; whose hurried him out of this life in three days. merit, beauty, and vivacity (if transmitted He died last night at nine o'clock, not deto your pofterity) will be a better present prived of his senses entirely at last, and than even the noble blood they derive only poffeffing them perfectly till within five from you: a mother, on whom I was ne hours. He asked for you a few hours bever obliged so far to reflect, as to say, the fore, when in acute torment by the inflam. spoiled me; and a father, who never found mation in his bowels and breast. His ef. himself obliged to say of me, that he dif fects are in the Duke of Queensbury's cul. approved my conduct. In a word, my tody. His fifters, we suppose, will be his lord, I think it enough, that my parents, heirs, who are two widows; as yet it is such as they were, never cost me a blush; not known whether or no he left a will. and that their son, such as he is, never cost Good God! how often are we to die bethem a tear.

fore we go quite off this stage? In every I have purposely omitted to consider friend we lose a part of ourlelves, and the your lordship's criticisms on my poetry.


part. God keep those we have left! As they are exactly the same with those of Few are worth praying for, and one's self the forementioned authors, I apprehend the least of all. they would justly charge me with partiali I shall never see you now, I believe ; one ty, if I gave to you what belongs to them; of your principal calls to England is at an or paid more distinction to the fame things end. Indeed he was the most amiable by when they are in your mouth, than when far, his qualities were the gentleft; but I they were in theirs. It will be shewing love you as well, and as firmly. Would to both them and you (my lord) a more par- God the man we have lost had not been so ticular respect, to observe how much they amiable, nor so good! but that's a with are honoured by your imitation of them, for our own fakes, not for his. Sure, if which indeed is carried through your whole innocence and integrity can deserve hap. epistle. I have read somewhere at school piness, it must be his. Adieu ! I can add (though I make it no vanity to have for- nothing to what you will feel, and diminish got where) that Tully naturalized a few nothing from it.

Ibid. phrases at the instance of some of his friends. Your lordship has done more in

§ 45. Ervy. honour of these gentlemen; you have au Envy is almoit the only vice which thorized not only their affertions, but thcir is practicable at all times, and in every style. For example, A flow that wants place; the only passion which can never skill to reitrain its ardour,-a dictionary lie quiet for want of irritation; its efthat give us nothing at its own expence. fects, therefore, are every where disco-As luxuriant branches bear but little verable, and its attempts always to be fruit, so wit unprund is but raw fruit- dreaded. While you rehearse ignorance, you ftill It is iinpoffible to mention a name, which know enough to do it in verse-Wits are any advantageous diftinction has made but glittering ignorance. - The account of eminent, but some latent animosity will how we pass our time-and, The weight burit out. The wealthy trader, however on Sir R. Wa's brain. You can ever he may abstract himself from public afa receive from no head more than such a head fairs, will never want those who hint with (as no head) has to give : your lordship Shylock, that ships are but boards, and would have said never receive initead of that no man can properly be termed rich ever, and any head instead of no head. But whose fortune is at the mercy of the winds. all this is perfectiy new, and has greatly The beauty adorned only with the unamenriched our language.

Pore. bitious graces of innocence and modesty,

provokes, whenever the appears, a thousand § 44. The Death of Mr. Gay.

murmurs of detraction, and whispers of It is not a time to complain that you fufpicion. The genius, even when los have not answered my two letters in the endeavours only to entertain with pleala laft of which I was impatient under some ing images of nature, or infruct by ur

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contested principles of science, yet suffers formed by their pride, who have loft their persecution froni innumerable critics, whose virtue. acrimony is excited merely by the pain of It is no Night aggravation of the in. seeing others pleased, of hearing applauses juries which envy incites, that they are which another enjoys:

committed against those who have given The frequency of envy makes it fo fa- no intentional provocation ; and that the miliar, that it escapes our notice; nor do fufferer is marked out for ruin, not bewe often reflect upon its turpitude or ma- cause he has failed in any duty, but be. lignity, till we happen to feel its influence. cause he has dared to do more than was When he that has given no provocation to required. malice, but by attempting to excel in some Almost every other crime is practifed by useful art, finds himself pursued by multi- the help of fome quality which might have tudes whom he never saw with implaca- produced esteem or love, if it had been well bility of personal resentment; when he employed; but envy is a more unmixed perceives clamour and malice let loose and genuine evil ; it pursues a hateful end upon him as a public enemy, and incited by despicable means, and desires not so by every stratagem of defamation ; when much its own happiness as another's mihe hears the misfortunes of his family, or fery. To avoid depravity like this, it is the follies of his youth, exposed to the not necessary that any one thould aspire world; and every failure of conduct, or to heroism or sanctity; but only, that he defect of nature, aggravated and ridiculed; fould resolve not to quit the rank which he then learns to abhor those artifices at nature assigns, and wish to maintain the which he only laughed before, and discovers dignity of a human being. how much the happiness of life would be

Rambler. advanced by the eradication of envy from the human heart.

§ 46. EPICURUS, a Review of his Envy is, indeed, a stubborn weed of

Character. the mind, and seldom yields to the culture I believe you will find, my dear Hamilof philosophy. There are, however, con ton, that Aristotie is ftill to be preferred to fiderations, which, if carefully implanted, Epicurus. The former made fome useful and diligently propagated, might in time experiments and discoveries, and was enoverpower and repress it, since no one gaged in a real pursuit of knowledge, alcan nurse it for the sake of pleasure, as though his manner is much perplexed. its effects are only shame, anguilh, and per- The latter was full of vanity and ambition. turbacion.

He was an impostor, and only aimed at deIt is, above all other vices, inconfiftent ceiving. He seemed not to believe the with the character of a social being, be. principles which he has asserted. He comcause it facrifices truth and kindness to very mitted the government of all things to weak temptations. He that plunders a chance. His natural philosophy is absurd. wealthy neighbour, gains as much as he His moral philosophy wants its proper basis, takes away, and improves his own condi- the fear of God." Monsieur Bayle, one of tion, in the same proportion as he impairs his warmest advocates, is of this laft opianother's; but he that blasts a flourishing nion, where he says, On ne fauroit pas dire reputation, must be content with a small afez de bien de l'honnéteté de ses næurs, ni dividend of additional fame, so small as can cliez de mal de les opinions sur la religion. afford very little consolation to balance the His general maxim, That happiness con. guilt by which it is obtained.

fitted in pleasure, was too much unguarded, I have hitherto avoided mentioning that and mult lay a foundation of a most dedangerous and empirical morality, which itructive practice : although, from his temcures one vice by means of another. But per and constitution, he made his life suffienvy is so base and detestable, so vilc in its ciently pleasurable to himself, and agreeoriginal, and so pernicious in its effects, able to the rules of true philofophy. His that the predominance of almost any other fortune exempted him from care and soli. quality is to be defired. It is one of those citude; his valetudinarian habit of body lawless enemies of society, against which from intemperance. He passed the greatest poisoned arrows may honestly be used. part of his time in his garden, where he Let it therefore be constantly remem

enjoyed all the elegant amusements of life. bered, that whoever envies another, con There he studied. There he taught his feftis his superiority, and let those be re. philosophy. This particular happy firuze

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tion greatly contributed to that tranquillity virtue of one generation was transfused, of mind, and indolence of body, which he by the magic of example, into several : made his chief ends. He had not, how- and a spirit of heroism was maintained ever, resolution sufficient to meet the gra- through many ages of that commondual approaches of death, and wanted that wealth. constancy which Sir William Temple ascribes to him: for in his last moments,

Dangerous, when copied without Judgment. when he found that his condition was der Peter of Medicis had involved himself perate, he took such large draughts of in great difficulties, when those wars and wine, that he was absolutely intoxicated calamities began which Lewis Sforza first and deprived of his senses; so that he died drew on and entailed on Italy, by flat. more like a bacchanal, than a philosopher. tering the ambition of Charles the Eighth, Orrery's Life of Swift.

in order to gratify his own, and calling the

French into that country. Peter owed his § 47. Example, its Prevalence.

distress to his folly in departing from the Is it not Pliny, my lord, who says, that general tenor of conduct his father Lauthe gentleit, he should have added the rence had held, and hoped to relieve himmost effectual, way of commanding is by self by imitating his father's example in example ? Mitius juhetur exemplo. The one particular instance. At a time when harshest orders are softened by example, the wars with the Pope and king of Naples and tyranny itself becomes persuasive. had reduced Laurence to circumstances of What pity it is that so few princes have great danger, he took the resolution of golearned this way of commanding ! But ing to Ferdinand, and of treating in perfon again; the force of example is not con with that prince. The rcfolution appears fined to those alone that pass immediately in history imprudent and almost desperate : under our sight: the examples that me were we informed of the secret reasons on mory suggests have the same effect in their which this great man acted, it would apdegree, and an habit of recalling them will pear very possibly a wise and safe measure. foon produce the habit of imitating them. It succeeded, and Laurence brought back In the same epistle from whence I cited a with him public peace and private security. pairage just now, Seneca says, that Clean- When the French troops entered the dothes had never become so perfect a copy of minions of Florence, Peter was ftruck with Zeno, if he had not passed his life with a panic terror, went to Charles the Eighth, him; that Plato, Aristotle, and the other put the port of Leghorn, the fortreffes of philosophers of that school, profited more Pisa, and all the keys of the country into by the example than by the discourses of this prince's hands : whereby he disarmed Socrates. (But here by the way Seneca the Florentine commonwealth, and ruined mistook; Socrates died two years accord- himself. He was deprived of his authoing to some, and four years according to rity, and driven out of the city, by the just others, before the birth of Aristotle : and indignation of the magistrates and people ; his mistake might come from the inaccu- and in the treaty which they made afterracy of those who collected for him ; as wards with the king of France, it was stiErasmus observes, after Quintilian, in his pulated that he should not remain within judgment on Seneca.) But be this, which an hundred miles of the state, nor his bro. was scarce worth a parenthesis, as it will, thers within the same distance of the city he adds, that Metrodorus, Hermachus, and of Florence. On this occafion GuicciarPolyxenus, men of great note, were formed din obferves, how dangerous it is to govern by living under the same roof with Epicu- ourselves by particular examples; since to rus, not by frequenting his school. These have the same success, we must have the are initances of the force of immediate ex same prudence, and the same fortune; and ample. But your lordship knows, citizens since the example must not only answer the of Rome placed the images of their ancel. case before us in general, but in every tors in the vestibules of their houses; so minute circumstance. Belingbroke. that whenever they went in or out, these venerable bustoes met their eyes, and re

§ 48. Exile only an imaginary Evil. called the glorious actions of the dead, to To live deprived of one's country is infire the living, to excite them to imitate tolerable. Is it so ? How comes it then and even emulate their great forefathers. to pass that such numbers of men live out The success answered the design. The of their countries by choice? Observe how


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