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The settlement, covering about 3,000 printers, provided a $4-raise retroactive to June 7, an additional $1 retroactive to August 10, and a S3-raise effective June 7, 1959. A half holiday (Christmas Eve) was also added to bring the total number of holidays to 6%.

Threat of a strike by members of the American Newspaper Guild against 7 newspapers in the New York City area was averted in early November with agreement on a $7-a-week “package” increase spread over 2 years. The amounts going to wages and to fringe benefits varied among newspapers. The Guild represents about 6,200 workers in the editorial, news, and commercial departments of the 7 papers.

Other Manufacturing. About 3,000 employees of the United Biscuit Co.'s plants in several States, represented by the American Bakery and Confectionery Workers' Union (AFL-CIO), received a 12-cent-an-hour pay increase effective November 1. The 2-year contract included changes in “fringe" benefits and made provision for an additional 11-cent increase in 1959.

Agreement on terms of a new 2-year contract was reached on November 6 by the United Glass and Ceramic Workers Union and 4 flat glass companies for about 2,500 workers. The settlement included an 8-cent wage increase, effective November 1, 1958, for workers paid on an incentive basis, 10 cents for hourly paid production workers, and 12 cents for maintenance employees. Similar wage increases were scheduled for 1959. The settlement also provided for increased pension benefits and an improved hospitalization and insurance program.

reopening clause of a 2-year contract signed in 1957.10

Findings of 2 industrial salary surveys resulted in 57-percent pay increases for 2 groups of local government employees in the Los Angeles area. About 10,000 employees of the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power along with about 24,000 other city employees received their raise effective December 1 and November 30, respectively, while pay scales for about 35,000 Los Angeles county employees were scheduled to advance on January 1, 1959.

Basic accord on new contracts affecting about 12,000 bus drivers, maintenance, terminal, and office employees of 5 Greyhound Corp. lines was reached on November 3 between company representatives and the Amalgamated Association of Street, Electric Railway and Motor Coach Employes. Terms of the 2-year contracts, covering the Atlantic, Central, Southeastern, Southwestern, and Richmond lines, provided a 10-cent-an-hour wage increase for all hourly rated employees, with varying divisional increases for drivers paid on a mileage basis to provide a uniform rate. An additional 8-cent increase in hourly rates or 0.2cent a mile for drivers was scheduled for 1959. Other changes included increased holiday pay and a fourth week of vacation after 25 years' service.

On November 20, members of the Transport Workers Union ratified a 10-cent-an-hour wage increase, effective November 16, and an additional 8-cent pay advance for January 15, 1960, for about 6,700 operating and maintenance employees of the Philadelphia Transit Co. Minimum pension benefits were raised by $10 a month, to $180 including social security, and were to be increased to $190 in 1960. An unusual feature of the contract-scheduled to run until January 15, 1961—is a clause reportedly providing that there will be no layoffs of TWU members until March 15, 1960, and after that date, any layoffs will be subject to review and arbitration.

About 5,000 truckdrivers employed by bulk gas and oil companies in the Chicago area received 10- or 12-cent wage increases, effective November 1, under terms of a 1-year contract negotiated by the Teamsters. New pay scales brought the hourly rate to $2.85 for daywork and $2.97 for nightwork; other contractual improvements called for increased employer contributions to the health and welfare and pension funds.

Communications, Transportation, and Government. Pay raises averaging $2.25 weekly were agreed to in mid-November by members of the International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers employed by the New Jersey Bell Telephone Co. The increases—affecting about 10,000 plant, engineering, and accounting department employees ranged from $1.50 to $3.

Western Electric Co. (sales division) and the Communications Workers of America agreed on November 4 upon pay increases of 5 to 9 cents an hour for 10,000 warehouse and repair shop employees. Negotiations were conducted under a

1. See Monthly Labor Review, November 1957, p. 1379.

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Agreement on a portwide seniority hiring system for New York dockworkers, represented by the International Longshoremen's Association (Ind.) and employed by members of the New York Shipping Association, Inc., was announced on November 11. Basic terms for most of the agreement were worked out between the employer's association and the union in the summer of 1958; unresolved issues were submitted to an arbitrator. The hiring system was to be based on the various types of "gangs" working at the piers. Permanent vacancies in gangs are to be filled on a seniority basis, first from men of the same pier in which the vacancy occurs, second from men of the same geographic section of their pier, and finally from all other workers. Other provisions define the procedures used in filling temporary vacancies and for hiring nongang workers, such as baggage porters.

The problem of waterfront automation was the topic of a mass meeting attended by about 17,500 members of the same union on November 18. The dockers—who left their jobs from noon to 7 p. m.--heard speakers attack automation as a threat to their jobs, and served notice on the New York Shipping Association, Inc., that it would have to "share the benefits" of automation with the workers who might be displaced. Of particular concern to the union was the use of conveyor belts and cargo elevators in ships, and of large containers and trailers loaded away from the piers. One means of sharing the benefits of increased productivity, according to Anthony Anastasia (an ILA international vice president), would be to increase the call-in guarantee to 6 hours from the present 4 hours. A speech read for Thomas W. Gleason (the union's international general organizer who was unable to attend because of illness) stated the union was "prepared to sit down now with the operators” to work out the problems. The union's contract with the Shipping Association expires on September 30, 1959.

An agreement between Local 153 of the Office Employes International Union and the Belgian Line in the port of New York reportedly made provision for retraining of office workers affected by technological changes. A major feature of the contract, reportedly, was a total 27-percent

Other Wage Developments. The Bureau of Labor Statistics' Consumer Price Index for October remained, for the third consecutive month, at 123.7 percent of the 1947-49 average. The cost-ofliving allowances for about 800,000 of the workers affected by contracts with escalator clauses geared to the October CPI were left unchanged. Approximately 200,000 workers, at Westinghouse Electric Corp., Deere and Co., and some aircraft plants, however, were due for a 1-cent-an-hour reduction in their quarterly allowances.

The executive council of the Textile Workers Union of America announced on November 19 that it would seek a general wage increase for its members. The union asserted that in the 2 years since the industry's latest general wage increase, workers in other industries had received increases "ranging from 23 cents to 34 cents an hour," and living costs had risen 5.1 percent. Specific goals were to be spelled out in February when union delegates meet to discuss bargaining strategy relative to spring negotiations with northern cotton, rayon, and woolen manufacturers.

Opposition to a general wage increase in the textile industry was expressed by J. Spencer Love, chairman and president of the unorganized Burlington Industries, Inc., but he proposed a 2-step increase in the Federal minimum wage from $1 to $1.25. He stated that intense competition among textile concerns would prevent the industry from following any increases put into effect even by leaders in the industry and would put companies granting an increase at a distinct cost disadvantage. He also stated that a raise in the minimum wage "would require upward adjustments in

“ textile pay classifications all along the line." “This would be desirable," he qualified, "if accompanied by a general uplifting of the overall economy of the industry.”

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Union Activities

Cutters, the Hotel and Restaurant Workers, and the Operating Engineers-had made "considerable progress” toward full compliance with the federation's ethical practices codes. Although progress of two other unions—the United Textile Workers and the Distillery Workers—was termed "completely satisfactory,” their monitorship would be continued for the time being.

The president of the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners, Maurice A. Hutcheson, had been invited to appear before the council to explain allegations made in testimony before two Congressional committees.12 Mr. Meany said, however, that the Carpenters convention, held in St. Louis the week following the council's meeting had prevented Hutcheson's attendance in Washington, but that the council was willing to hold a special meeting at a week's notice to accommodate him, or to discuss the problem with him at its next regularly scheduled meeting in Febru

ary 1959.

AFL-CIO Executive Council. The quarterly meeting of the AFL-CIO Executive Council, held in Washington, D. C., November 6 and 7, focused on organized labor's legislative goals and the problem of corruption within its ranks. For achieving “an end to recession and mass unemployment,” the council called upon the Congress to adopt a 10-point program including the following features: (1) Implementation of the Employment Act of 1946 through such measures as public works and assistance to depressed areas; (2) Federal aid to education; (3) revisions in the Fair Labor Standards Act, including an increase in the minimum wage from $1 to $1.25 an hour and extended coverage, particularly to workers in the service trades; (4) modernization of the unemployment compensation system; and (5) a more comprehensive public housing program.

The council reiterated its views on proposed labor legislation and, in particular, urged repeal of section 14 (b) of the Labor Management Relations Act of 1947 which gives precedence to State laws on compulsory unionism if they are more restrictive than provisions of the Federal act. All State laws have taken the form of "right to work" laws.

On the issue of corruption in unions, the council noted that it had taken “major steps” to clear its ranks, but that “our anticorruption campaign cannot reach unions outside our ranks. .. and renewed its pledge to seek the adoption of proposals, such as those in the defeated Kennedy-Ives bill,11 to "eliminate opportunities for corruption while at the same time preserving the traditional and legitimate functions of trade unions.” A 4-man committee, to be headed by AFL-CIO President George Meany, was created and directed to "devote itself immediately to the problem of securing this . . . legislation.”

The council reviewed "cleanup" steps taken by several AFL-CIO affiliates in light of revelations by the U.S. Senate Select Committee on Improper Activities in the Labor or Management Field. According to Mr. Meany, three unions—the Meat

Other Union Activities. At the quadrennial convention of the Carpenters union, delegates reelected President Hutcheson to a new 4-year term. He flatly denied before the convention all charges of misconduct that have been leveled against him. Dissatisfaction with AFL-CIO jurisdictional policies involving the Carpenters led the delegates to adopt a resolution empowering the executive board to withdraw the 850,000-member union from the AFL-CIO. The resolution declared that "actions and policies by the AFL-CIO and statements by (its) leaders ... threaten and jeopardize the best interests and welfare of the union. Hutcheson assured the convention that the executive board “has no intention of abusing [the] authority" to withdraw and that it would be used "only as a last resort."

In other developments, the convention approved another resolution charging the AFL-CIO Industrial Union Department with encroaching on “traditional craft jurisdiction” and voted down adoption of the AFL-CIO ethical practices codes.

The executive board of the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union assembled in Puerto Rico on November 17 for its regular semiannual meeting. Policies approved by the board included one calling for an increase in the Federal

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11 See Monthly Labor Review, August 1958, pp. 904-905. 12 The Carpenters' president has been faced with a charge of conspiring to bribe an Indiana State official in a highway land scandal (in Monthly Labor Review, November 1957, p. 1383), and of alleged misuse of union funds (in Monthly Labor Review, August 1958, p. 905).

minimum wage from $1 to $1.25 in the United States and by 25 cents (current minimums range from 40 cents to $1) for Puerto Rican workers. David Dubinsky, international president, reported on the growth of the garment industry in Puerto Rico—from 10,500 workers in 1949 to 22,000 currently.

Sheet Metal Workers and that the company therefore enjoyed a "tremendous competitive advantage." The union's action, he said, was taken in order to protect "wage standards and working conditions."

Other Developments

Investigations. The U.S. Senate Select Committee on Improper Activities in the Labor or Management Field resumed in November its probings into labor-management relations, stressing investigation of charges of illegal secondary boycott activities. Much of the testimony was concerned with dynamiting and other violence connected with the enforcement of hot-cargo clauses (agreements that permit employees of one company to refuse to handle goods of another company involved in a labor dispute). One trucking employer testified his unorganized employees were subjected to a "campaign of violence, sabotage, and terror" after he had refused to sign with the Teamsters union. He said his company had subsequently suffered a $1-million revenue loss before a court injunction halted a boycott based upon hot-cargo clauses.

Another aspect of secondary boycotts was aired when the committee looked into the jurisdictional dispute between the Sheet Metal Workers International Union and the United Steelworkers of America over the former union's refusal to install industrial ventilating equipment manufactured by members of the Steelworkers at the Burt Manufacturing Co. of Akron, Ohio.13 F. C. Sawyer, executive vice president of the company, charged that the Sheet Metal Workers actions had cost the company between $3 and $4 million. William 0. Frost, business manager of the Sheet Metal Workers' Local 70 in Akron, denied that his union had engaged in a secondary boycott or that it was attempting to wrest the collective bargaining contract away from the Steelworkers. He contended workers at Burt were paid substandard wages compared with similar shops organized by the

Rulings. In a 2-1 decision, the National Labor Relations Board ruled on November 14, that members of a striking union must tell other workers on the same job the purpose of a walkout to avoid the charge of an illegal secondary boycott. The Board's ruling was based upon a dispute between the Seafarers' International Union and a derrick company in which the picketing Seafarers had refused to answer longshoremen's questions about the strike. Dissenting Board member John Fanning argued that the ruling would unduly curb the right of unions to strike and picket at work projects employing members of more than one union.

The NLRB also ruled in late November that in cases concerning the Board's jurisdictional 14 standards with respect to the volume of business of a company, an employer's refusal to provide the Board "with information relevant to (its] jurisdictional determinations,” was not ground for delaying the Board's determination of its jurisdiction. The Board said that if an employer believed his company too small to fall within the NLRB's jurisdictional standards, then the employer must provide "relevant evidence as to the effect of its operations on commerce," or the board would proceed as if the company were within its jurisdiction. The case was based on a Teamsters local union petition for a representation election at Tropicana Products, Inc., of Bradenton, Fla.

The U. S. Department of Labor announced that effective February 2, 1959, it was increasing the salary limits used in determining who may be excluded as executives and as professional and administrative employees from coverage of the hours provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act to $80 and $95 a week, respectively. They had been $55 and $75. The minimum for higher paid employees, who qualify for exemption under "shortened duty tests," will be raised from $100 to $125. Exemption regulations pertaining to duties and responsibilities were left unchanged.

13 See Monthly Labor Review, October 1957, p. 1257.

14 These standards were recently revised effective in early October. See Monthly Labor Review, November 1958, p. 1274.

· Book Reviews and Notes

Editor's Note.—Listing of a publication in this

section is for record and reference only and does not constitute an endorsement of point of view or advocacy of use.

among civil servants a "quality of mind which finds honor and integrity in doing the job according to the ideals of a professional group.'

The author points out that in recent years progress in this direction was held up by the indiscriminate and ignorant attacks upon the public service and the excesses of the loyalty and security programs. He suggests that it may take a generation to overcome the fears and the loss of pride generated by these suspicions and distrust. Fortunately, the tide has turned and now great emphasis is being given to eliminating the obstacles to recruitment and retention of able personnel.

The final chapter outlines the progress made in Federal, State, and city governments in meeting the ideals of efficiency, competence, democratic control, and protection of the public interest in administration. States, as a whole, have lagged behind the Federal Government and the cities, but even here, there are notable examples of progress. Critics of public administration are advised to take a new look at the arrangements in government which are gradually being built up to check and direct the actions of employees and to provide channels for regularizing administrative practices.

Professor Redford's analyses and recommendations should prove a valuable addition to the literature on public administration.

Special Reviews

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Former Associate Director of the Bureau of Labor Standards, U. S. Department of Labor

Ideal and Practice in Public Administration. By

Emmette S. Redford. Birmingham, Ala.,
University of Alabama Press, 1958. 168 pp.

$2.50. This series of lectures on ideals and practices in public administration is a forthright, wellexpressed, and perceptive analysis of the subject and should prove valuable in increasing the understanding of the role and responsibility of administrators for constructive service for the welfare of all people.

Professor Redford poses certain questions: "Is there a public philosophy for administration? Can the philosophy be stated with reasonable clarity? Is the philosophy consonant with reality, with things as they are or as they may be? Have we built a behemoth in our midst which moves only by the propulsions of circumstance toward no end at all? Or is there virtue, measured by the needs and ideals of man, in the inner workings and outward effects of this new giant?” To provide answers to these questions he considers in detail five ideals which permeate the practice of public administration-efficiency, the rule of law, competence and responsibility, democracy, and public interest. He shows how these ideals are embodied or could be most effectively embodied in administrative practice.

Service by competent and responsible men is recognized as the key to good administration. Progress in the development of professionalization of the public service and the strength and weaknesses of this development are clearly stated. Ways and means are outlined for developing

The World of Work: Industrial Society and Human

Relations. By Robert Dubin. Englewood
Cliffs, N. J., Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1958.

448 pp., bibliography. $7.95. Robert Dubin's World of Work is the first of two volumes entitled Industrial Society and Human Relations. The second volume will treat Working Union-Management Relations. The first volume is an attempt to integrate insights from the behavioral studies with man's workaday world. It is divided into five parts: Work in Modern Society, Organization of Work, Working Population, Getting Work Done, and Management of Work Organizations.

It is difficult to assess the importance of the material presented. One does get the feeling that it sometimes belabors the obvious and

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