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WILD BEASTS AND GAME.
Occasionally, wolves annoy the fanner to a small extent; in the more settled districts sheep are usually protected by. a fold. The farmer may sometimes lose a stray hog by the bears; but there are many farmers who have lived all their lives in the province without seeing wolf or bear. As in other countries, foxes and smaller animals are destructive to poultry that is not looked after carefully.
Game is mentioned as forming one of the natural resources of the country. The animals hunted are the elk, or moose-deer; the cariboo, a species of reindeer; and the Virginian red deer. Of the smaller animals, which are taken either by hunting or trapping, there are the beaver, otter, mink, musk-rat, marten (a species of sable), fox, fisher (or pine marten), lynx, raccoon, porcupine, woodchuck, ermine, and northern hare. Of birds, there are wild geese, wild ducks, in great variety, and wood grouse, usually called partridges. Snipe and woodcock afford some fine shooting, in their season. There are several sorta of curlew, some very large, and an infinite variety of the plover tribe. The passenger-pigeon sometimes visits the province in great numbers.
As has been already stated, all the rivers, lakes, and streams of New Brunswick abound with fish, in considerable variety; and if a man thinks proper, in the worda of Izaak Walton, "to be pleasant, and eat a trout," he can gratify his taste almost anywhere in the province.
There are in New Brunswick two tribes of Indians, differing widely from each other in their language, customs, implements, and habits of life. The marked distinction, in almost every particular, between these tribes, inhabiting the same country, and evidently sprung from the same stock, constitutes a remarkable point of interest.
First in order, not only as the most numerous, but as
possessing both moral and physical superiority over the others, are the Micmacs—a tall and powerful race of men, ■who speak a dialect of the Algonquin language, and frequent the northern or gulf shore of the province. The less numerous and inferior body are the Milicetes, who speak a dialect of the Huron language, and frequent the river St. John and its tributary waters. The Micmacs are strongly attached to the seaside, near which they are generally found; hence the Milicetes call them "saltwater Indians." The Milicetes, on the contrary, have great aversion to salt water; they are thorough woodsmen, and confine themselves to the lakes and streams of the interior, for navigating which their light canoes are well adapted.
An enumeration of the Indians of the province was made by the writer, in 1841, when it was found that their nnmbers stood thus:—Of Micmacs; adults—males, 229; females, 255; under 14—boys, 215; girls, 236; total, 935. Of Milicetes ;'adults—males, 111; females, 113; uuder 14—boys, 107; girls, 111; total, 442. The whole number of Indians in the province, in 1841, was, therefore, 1,377. By the census of 1851, it appears that the numbers then found- amounted to 1,116 only; and there is reason to believe, from inquries recently made, that their numbers do not now reach 1,000. That they are steadily decreasing, is beyond a doubt; and this, in a great degree, is owing to the ravages made among their adults by small-pox and typhus fever, and among children by measles, whoopingcough, scarlet fever, and other diseases to which children are subject. Very few submit to be vaccinated, and hence small-pox is their great scourge. Their unwillingness to undergo regular medical treatment, is the reason why diseases are fatal among them, and not so to persons of European descent.
The Micmacs subsist during the summer chiefly by fishing and fowling; during winter many of them find employment with lumbermen in the forest. On the Miramichi and Richibncto rivers several Micmac families have turned their attention to the cultivation of the soil, and have comfortable houses, with some stock. The Milicetes hunt and trap during the winter; in rammer they make baskets and other light articles, varying their labor with fishing and shooting. The people of both tribes live on the most friendly terms with their white neighbors; and they are often engaged by sportsmen as their attendants on excursions along the coast or up the rivers; an employment of which they are very fond.
The observations of Lord Durham, with respect to the capabilities and advantages of the British North American colonies, are specially applicable to New Brunswick. It possesses great natural resources for the maintenance of large and flourishing communities. A wide range of the best soil still remains unsettled, and may be rendered available for the purposes of agriculture. The wealth of forests of the best timber, and of extensive regions containing valuable minerals, yet remains untouched. AloDg the whole line of sea-coast, around each island, and in every river, are to be found the most productive fisheries in the world. The best fuel and most abundant waterpower are available for manufactures. Trade with other countries is favored by the possession of a large number of safe and commodious harbors. Numerous rivers, long and deep, supply the means of easy internal intercourse; the structure of the country, generally, affords the utmost facility for every species of communication by land. Unbounded materials of agricultural, commercial, and manufacturing industry are present. These elements of wealth and special advantages need only capital and labor to be turned to profitable account, and render New Brunswick, with a large and flourishing population, one of the fairest and richest portions of British colonial empire.
PROGRESS OF POPULATION.
The total population of New Brunswick, in 1824, was 74,176 souls; in 1834, it was 119,457 souls; in 1840, it was 154,000 souls; and in 1851 (in the last census), it was 193,800 souls. At present the population is estimated at 210,000 souls, and upwards.
The increase of population in New Brunswick has been greater than that in the neighboring State of Maine, by 7.29 per cent.; than that of New Hampshire, by 11.79 per cent.; and than that of Vermont, by 16.07 per cent.; and it has exceeded their aggregate and average ratio by 10.86 per cent.
AH ACCOUNT OF THE NUMBER Or IMMIQBANTS* ABBTVED IN THE PROVINCE OF NEW BRUNSWICK BETWEEN THE TBABS 1844 AND 1860, BOTH YEARS INCLUSIVE.
Immigrants arrived at the port of St John in 1860, 315
Total for New Brunswick in 1860, 323
DESCRIPTION OF THE PROVINCE BY COUNTIES.
Bestigotjche.—This is the northernmost county in the
province. It has a large frontage on the Bay of Chaleur,
and is bounded northerly by the forty-eighth parallel of
north latitude, which is the dividing line between NewBrunswick and Canada in that quarter. It abuts westwardly on Victoria county, and is bounded southerly by Gloucester and Northumberland.
* A duty of is. 6i currency, or 2s. Id. sterling, was imposed by an act of the Colonial Legislature on each immigrant arriving in the province. In the year ending 31st December, 1860, the sum of £40 7». 6A currency was collected in this colony on account of immigrant duty.
Restigouch6 county contains 1,426,560 acres of which 156,979 acres are granted, and 1,269,581 acres are still vacant. The quantity of cleared land is 8,895 acres only.
The population, in 1851, was 4,161; of whom 2,353 were males, and 1,808 were females. Lumbering is carried on extensively in Restigouche, which will account for the excess of males. This county is divided into five parishes —Addington, Colborne, Dalhousie, Durham, and Eldon. The shire town is Dalhousie, a neat town at the month of the River Restigouche. It is built on an easy slope, at the base of a high hill; the streets are broad and clean. A crescent-shaped cove in front of the town is well sheltered, and has good holding ground for ships, in six and seven fathoms water. There are excellent wharves, and safe timber ponds at Dalhousie, affording every convenience for loading ships of the largest class. The eastern point of Dalhousie harbor is in latitude 48° 4' north, longitude 66° 22' west. Variation of the compass, 20° 45' west Neap tides rise six feet, and spring tides nine feet. From Dalhousie to the village of Campbelton the distance by the river is about eighteen miles. The whole of this distance may be considered one harbor, there being from four to nine fathoms throughout, in the main channel. At Campbelton the river is about three-quarters of a mile wide; above this place, the tide flows six miles, but large vessels do not go further up than Campbelton. In 1853, ninety vessels, of the burden of 18,217 tons, entered the port of Dalhousie.
The soil in this county is very fertile, and produces large crops; it is especially noted for the excellent quality of its grain. The best wheat grown there weighs sixty-five pounds per bushel; barley, fifty-six pounds per bushel; black oats, forty-two pounds per bushel; white oats, fortyseven pounds per bushel. The productiveness in Resti