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4th. It met again on October 4th. The Gov- Russia, and Bosnia and the Herzegovina by ernment sent in the budget, and several plans Austria—in order to secure in this manner for an intended revenue reform were submitted proper guarantees for the reforms to be proto the House. The Czechio deputies early in posed. The Emperor of Austria, in his anthe session repeated their old tactics of having swer to this letter, which also remained a sean address read refusing to take part in the cret, is supposed to have stated that every proceedings. The President, Dr. Rechbauer, step taken in this matter must be characterized thereupon declared their seats vacant. by the same unity which had marked the pre

The Eastern question kept the Austrian di- vious steps of the great powers, and that it plomatists very busy during the year, Austria therefore depended upon the consent of all being, by its position and the composition of the powers whether the Porte should be proits population, one of the nations of Europe ceeded against in such a manner, and to whom most interested in the struggle. Even during the execution of this plan should be comthe rebellion in the Herzegovina, the Slavic mitted. In October the Czar sent another population of the Austrian Empire very plainly letter to the Emperor, which was believed to expressed their sympathies for their struggling renew his former propositions. A strong brethren in Turkey. After Servia and Mon- party, led by the Archduke Albert, was worktenegro had taken up arms in the movement ing for the same end in Austria. Immediately for å union of all the Slavic tribes, the situ- after the assembling of the Reichstag in Octoation became critical for Austria, as her Slavic ber two interpellations were addressed to the population appeared to be eager to join in the Government, one from the Germans and one war. On the other hand, the Government en- from the Slavi. On October 27th Prince Auersdeavored to preserve the strictest neutrality, perg, the president of the ministry, replied to

both. In answer to the Germans, he stated that, although the Constitution contained no clause regarding the interference of the cisLeithan Government with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, still such interference was warranted by the reaction of the foreign policy upon home affairs. The Government had always fulfilled its duties in this respect, and received most willing information from the Minister of Foreign Affairs on every phase of the political situation. A more direct interference had not been warranted, as the ministerial programme, repeatedly approved by the cisLeithan Government and the delegations, had been strictly carried out. The cis-Leithan Government would also state in the present phase of the Oriental question that the Minister of Foreign Affairs had, by a firm peace policy, dono much to preserve the peace of the empire and of Europe in general. The policy of the empire was, above all, the preservation of peace, which in itself excluded the idea of annexation of new territory. No one could appreciate the blessings of peace

more than the Government. The entire forBOHEMIAN PEAsants.

eign policy of Austria was a proof of the con

sistency of this desire. The Government, completely blockading the Turkish border. In therefore, was in a position to declare that the the negotiations which ensued between the Minister of Foreign Affairs, in full accord Turkish Government and the great powers of with the Government, would also, under the Europe, Austria took a prominent part. In circumstances mentioned in the interpellation, the middle of September it declared its con- strive in the first place to secure peace, and currence in the Anglo-Russian peace proposals would use every means to preserve it for the to be submitted to Turkey. At the close of empire. At the same time no doubt need be September the Czar Alexander of Russia ad- entertained but that these attempts would dressed a long autograph letter to the Emperor, find their natural limit in the duty to guard after having previously in June) had a confer- the safety and the interests of the empire ence with him at Prague. Both the contents at all times and under all circumstances. A of the letter and the proceedings of the con- programme which would demand peace withference remained a secret, although it was out this natural limitation would expose the generally surmised that in his letter the Czar interests of the monarchy in advance, and proposed the joint occupation of the Christian would be least adapted to secure peace. This provinces by the two powers—Bulgaria by was the idea on which the foreign polioy of


the empire had been and still was based, and The Minister of Finance, Baron von Holzgewhich the Government approved. In conclu- than, died June 20th, and was replaced by Barsion, he (Prince Auersperg) wished to add that on von Hofmann, who had occupied the posithe Minister of Foreign Affairs was deter- tion of chief of a section in the Ministry of mined not to let himself be deterred from the Foreign Affairs. course once taken by any warlike demonstra The seventeen provincial Diets of cis-Leithan tions, or any manifestations which might in- Austria met on March 1st. In none of them was jure the authority of the empire. In answer any business of importance transacted, with to the Slavic interpellation, he stated that it the exception of the Tyrol. This Diet, in which was not the business of the Minister of For- the Catholics have a decided majority, proeign Affairs to consider the interests of differ- tested against the encroachment upon the reent races, but to keep in view the interests of ligion of the province on the part of the Govthe whole monarchy, particularly as the inter- ernment, by authorizing the organization of ests of the whole were also the interests of Protestant congregations. This demonstraeach member of the monarchy. From the tion was immediately answered by the Govbeginning of the Oriental difficulties the Min- ernment by the closing of the Diet. The istry of Foreign Affairs had had, in full ac- Liberal members of the Diet also drew up a cord with the Government, two objects con- document protesting against the clerical demstantly in view: the preservation of European onstration. At the elections for the Diet in peace, and the improvement of the condition Galicia, held in October, the Ruthenians, formof the Christian population of Turkey. This ing the Constitutional party in that province, policy, which sought to give to the Christians were completely defeated by the Poles. of the East peace and civilization, was in the interest of the entire monarchy. The Government had heretofore pursued this policy, and would continue it in future. This speech created great excitement in the House, as many of the deputies thought that the Government also considered the interpellation of the deputies as one of those manifestations by which it would not let its policy be influenced. Prince Auersperg in consequence made the declaration, on October 30th, that he had only referred to demonstrations like those of the students of Hungary (see HUNGARY). A spirited debate followed from November 4th to November 7th in the House, in which the policy of the Government was defended by two speakers only, the deputy Plener, of the Constitutional party, and the most bitter opponent of the entire Constitution, Count Hohenwart, formerly

BREGENZ. president of the ministry. The opposition had a host of speakers, most of whom, however, dif During the month of February the provinces fered in the policy they wished to see pursued. of Upper Austria and Moravia were visited by Some proposed to join Russia

against Turkey, most disastrous floods, in which a large numsome wished to aid Turkey against Russia, and ber of houses were destroyed. A severe shock others advocated peace at any cost. M. Fan- of earthquake was felt on January 17th, through derlik, the leader of the Slavi, demanded of a large part of the empire, affecting the Danube the Government that it should take the part of basin from Passau in Bavaria to Presburg in the oppressed Slavi in Turkey, and even went Hungary. The shock was felt at Wittingar 30 far as to say that the Austrian Slavi would in Bohemia, Scheletau in Moravia, Budweis, never fight against Russia. Count Hohenwart Trebitsch, Tischnowitz, and Prerau, and elsein his speech declared himself satisfied with where to the north, while the southern limits the declaration of the Government that it were marked by Odenburg, Kindberg, and the would protect the interests and honor of Aus- Noric Alps. Rents were visible in many houses tria with the entire force of the Government in Vienna. Several chimneys had fallen. The if necessary, and laid particular stress upon river Danube receded from the right bank the fact that the Government must consider and passed in a great wave to the other side. the interests of the entire monarchy only, and The negotiations with Hungary continued not of any particular race.

during the year. On January 24th the House In June the Minister of War, Baron von resolved to request the Government “to proKoller

, resigned his office. The 'Emperor, in tect with firmness and decision the interests of accepting his resignation, conferred upon him Austria proper in the negotiations;" while the the grand cross of St. Stephen in recognition Herrenhaus, on two different occasions during of his eminent services. The Emperor ap- the same month, resolved not to sanction pointed in his place Count Bylandt-Rbeidt. any further loosening of the union of the two


parts of the monarchy, nor anything that would The delegations of the two parts of the emcause a further taxation of cis-Leithania, or an pire met on May 15th, in Pesth. The Governinjury to the credit system.

ment introduced the budget for the entire A new cominercial treaty with Roumania monarchy for 1877. On the 18th the Em was passed on February 27th.

peror received the delegations in Pesth, and In the beginning of October the Emperor in his answer to the addresses of the two created the following new life-members of the presidents stated that the events in the East Herrenhaus: The former Minister of War, had shown him clearly the necessity of strength Baron von Koller ; ex-Governor Mamula, of ening the bonds of union between the two parts Dalmatia; M. Moser, the Governor of the of the empire. He also expressed the hope "Boden-Credit-Anstalt;" the Prelate Charles, that the efforts of the Northern powers for of the Stift Mölk; two chiefs of sections, peace would be crowned with success. The Wehli, of the Ministry of the Interior, and Government had proposed an additional iter Vesque von Püttlingen, of the Foreign Office; of 7,000,000 florins in the budget of the Min Stāhlin, the President of the Court of Admin- istry of War. This latter proposition met with istration ; Napadievitch, the Ruthenian Presi- considerable opposition, but the entire budget dent of the Senate of the Supreme Court; and as proposed by the Government was finally Apfaltern, Count Thun, and the Italian Pace, passed. The delegations adjourned on the to represent the large real-estate owners. 2d of June.


BAER, Karl Ernst von, a Russian natu- wickelungsgeschichte der Thiere, Beobachralist, born in Esthonia, February 17 (29), tungen und Reflexionen” (2 vols., 1828–37: 1792, died November 29, 1876. His father this work remained unfinished ; Baer re wished him to prepare himself for a mili- ceived for it, in 1831, the golden medal of the tary career, but in 1810 he went to the Uni- Academy of Sciences in Paris); "Historische versity of Dorpat, where he studied medi- Fragen mit Hülfe der Naturwissenschaften cine, and graduated in 1814. He soon after beantwortet” (1874); and “Studien auf dem set out on a scientific journey through Ger-Gebiet der Naturwissenschaften " (1874). He many, and in Würzburg devoted himself to the also contributed a large number of articles to study of zoötomy. In 1819 he was appointed Pander's Beiträge zur Naturkunde, Bardach's Extraordinary and in 1822 Ordinary Professor Physiologie, Meckel and Müller's Archio far of Zootomy in Königsberg, where he also Physiologie, and to the publications of the formed the Zoological Museum. In 1829 he Academy of St. Petersburg. The “Kaspische went to St. Petersburg as member of the Im- Studien," which appeared in the latter, were perial Academy and Professor of Zootomy, but published separately, and are particularly re returned to Königsberg in 1830, where he re- markable as the best description of the Caspian mained until 1834, when he again went to St. Sea. He published, together with Helmersen, Petersburg. In 1837 he was commissioned by ' Beiträge zur Kunde des Russischen Reichs the Imperial Academy to make a voyage of (vols. i.-xvi., 1839–73). See his “ Autobiograexploration to Lapland and Nova Zembla. phy” (1866). From this journey he brought home a large BAKUNIN, MICHAEL, a Russian politician number of plants, but owing to various causes and agitator, born in 1814; died July 1, 1876 he was unable to execute his original project He was educated in the School for Cadets in of visiting the icebergs on the northern coast St. Petersburg, and, having passed his exami of Nova

Zembla. The results of this journey nation, received an appointment as ensign in he described in the Bulletin Scientifique of the artillery. He soon resigned this position, the Imperial Academy. In 1851–56 he was in order to devote himself to philosophica commissioned by the Government to examine studies. In 1841 he went to Berlin, where he the fisheries in Peipas Lake, in the Baltic and became a pupil of Hegel. The following year in the Caspian Sea, on which examination he he went to Dresden, where he continued his published a work of four volumes. In 1861 studies under Arnold Ruge, and contributed he and Rudolf Wagner called a meeting of philosophical essay under the nom de plum anthropologists in Göttingen. In 1862 he re- of Jules Elisard to the Deutsche Jahrbücher signed as a member of the Academy, but was In 1843 he went to Paris, where he kept up in immediately elected an honorary member. He timate relations with the Polish refugees. He was the author of a large number of works, then passed to Switzerland, where he came into of which the following are the most im- connection with the communist and socialis portant: “De ovi mammalium et hominis so ies. This caused the Russian Government genesi” (1827); “Untersuchungen über die to order him to return home, but he declined to Gefässverbindung zwischen Mutter und Frucht obey. In 1847 he delivered in the Polish ban in den Säugethieren" (1828); “Ueber die Ent- quet in Paris a speech, in which he proposed

the simultaneous rising of the Russians and the chemist, born September 30, 1802; died at the Poles against the authority of the Emperor. In close of March, 1876. He was successively consequence of this speech the Russian Gov- professor at the Royal College, at the School ernment succeeded in obtaining his expulsion of Pharmacy, and finally at the Faculty of from France. Having fled to Brussels, he Sciences, in Montpellier. The discovery of found himself in great danger in consequence bromine, in 1826, gained for him great reputaof a reward of 10,000 rubles offered for him tion. He was soon after called to Paris to take by the Russian Government. He returned to the place of Thénard as Professor of Chemistry Paris after the Revolution of February, 1848, in the Faculty of Sciences. In 1844 he was and in June of the same year took part in the elected a member of the Academy of Sciences. Slavic Congress at Prague, and the revolution. He was soon after appointed Master of Conferury movements succeeding it. He then went ences in the Normal School, and in 1861 sucto Berlin, but soon was ordered to leave the ceeded M. Pélouze as Professor of Chemistry Prussian dominions. In March, 1849, he went in the College of France. Besides his discovery to Dresden, where he became one of the or- of bromine, he made other useful and interestganizers and leaders of the riots of that year. ing discoveries, as extracting the sulphate of After their suppression he was compelled to soda directly from the sea-water. He did not flee, and on May 10th was captured in Chem- write any books, but furnished a large number nitz, together with Heubner. He was brought of articles to the Annales de Physique et de to the fortress of Königstein, and in May, 1860, Chimie and to the Mémoires of the Academy was sentenced to death. His sentence was, of Sciences. He exhibited chemical products however, commuted to imprisonment for life, at the Universal Exhibition of London in 1851, and in June of the same year he was delivered and was one of the jurors in the Exhibition of to Austria. Here he was also sentenced to Paris in 1855, and at London in 1862. In 1868 death, which was again changed to imprison- he was appointed Inspector-General of Superior ment for life, and he was then handed over to Instruction, and Honorary Professor in the Russia, there to be again tried for political of Faculty of Sciences in Paris. He

was decorated fenses. After having spent several years in with the cross of the Legion of Honor in 1887, the fortress at St. Petersburg, he was trans- was created an officer in 1855, and a commander ported to Eastern Siberia. Here he spent sev- in 1863. eral years as a penal colonist, and then received BALDASSERONI, GIOVANNI, an Italian permission from the Governor-General Korsa- statesman, born in Leghorn in 1790; died Ockoff to settle in the Russian territory of the tober 19, 1876. After holding several offices Amoor. From there he succeeded in escaping in the customs service in the grand-duchy of to Japan on an American vessel, and thence Tuscany, he was appointed administrator of he went by way of California to London. He finances. In this position he gained the conimmediately resumed his political activity, in- fidence of the grand-duke to such a degree that citing the Russians and the Poles in numerous in 1845 he was appointed councilor of state, addresses and pamphlets to rise against the and was intrusted with the actual direction of Government and the nobility, and to form a the finances of the country, although he was large Slavic federal republic. He entered into not created director of the finances until 1847. communication with Alexander Herzen and In the ministerial crises of 1847 and 1848 ho Ogarev, and took part in the publication of retained his position under all the varying the journal Kolokol; but in the end even fell governments. After having been appointed out with his own party by the excess of his senator, he was compelled to retire with the radicalism. In 1863 he went to Stockholm, to ministry of Ridolfi by the republican demonaid the expeditions against the Baltic provinces, stration of July 30, 1848. For a time he did fitted out by Russians and Poles. After the not take part in public affairs, but on May 24, failure of this plan he went to Switzerland, 1849, Leopold II. appointed him president of where he for some time took part in the work the new conservative ministry, while at the of the “International.” His attempt to create same time he took charge of the ministry of in this anion of working-men a secret society finance. In this position he remained until with the object of bringing about a general the overthrow of the grand-duke in 1869. He anarchy brought him into conflict with the wrote a biography of the Grand-duke Leopold other leaders of the union, and in the Congress II. (1871). of Hague, in 1872, he was with a large number BANDEL, JOSEPH Ernst von, a German of his friends formally expelled from the sculptor, born May 17, 1800; died September International,” since which time he has been 25, 1876. He received his first instruction in bitterly attacked in the radical press. His in- art in Nuremberg, and subsequently attended fluence on the young men of Russia continued the Art Academy in Munich. As early as 1820 for some time, but was also gone at the time he began to furnish for the Art Academy of of his death. In 1873 a difficulty arose be- Munich well-executed works, among which a tween him and Marx, and since then he ceased statue of Charitas in marble attracted special entirely to labor for the "International," and attention by its delicacy and artistic beauty. retired to private life.

Among the marble busts made by him, that BALARD, ANTOINE JÉRÔME, a French of King Maximilian of Bavaria was notice





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able. But the great work of his life was the


Ordained i colossal statue of Arminius, or Hermann, the

Ministers. Mersbership Deliverer of Germany, on the Grotenburg, near


1,183 Detmold. It was begun as early as 1835, but suspended in 1841, in consequence of the ex


Colorado.. haustion of his funds. In spite of frequent Connecticut

19,736 and bitter disappointment, Bandel never lost Dakota.

Delaware the hope of completing a work which he looked

District of Columbia.

i on as the first national monument of the great Florida....

17,200 battle in the Teutoburg Forest. After sacrific- Georgia...

1,998 1,185 174,543 ing his entire private property in the prosecu- Illinois..

66,854 tion of his labors, he saw at length, in 1871, Indiana. his work nearly finished. Then the Imperial

Indian Territory

Iowa. Government of Germany made an appropria- Kansas tion of 10,000 thalers for its entire completion, Kentucky


. and on August 17, 1875, the statue was unveiled in the presence of the German Emperor, Maryland

Massachusetts.. a number of German princes, and a vast con

Michigan.. course of people from all parts of the empire. Minnesota Simultaneously with the unveiling of the statue Mississippi

. on the Grotenburg, enthusiastic meetings in Nebraska commemoration of the event which this statue Nevada .. was to celebrate took place in all the large New Jersey..

29,6% cities of Germany. Even in foreign countries, New Mexico.

108,869 as in the United States, the German popula- New York,


118,414 tion took part in the celebration by sending tel- Ohio... egrams to the Emperor and Bandel, and by ap- Oregon


56,732 propriate addresses. The whole statue weighs Rhode Island. 76,570 kilogrammes (one kilogramme = 2.20 South Carolina. lbs.), of which 10,588 kilogrammes are copper,


100,192 Texas..


39,637 63,076 wrought-iron, and 2,906 cast-iron. The Utah height of the statue is 17.3 metres up to the top


8.250 Virginia


109,810 of the helmet, 19 metres to the end of the ex

Washington.. tended right hand, and 26 metres to the end of West Virginia.. the uplifted sword. The entire monument, Wyoming. therefore, inclusive of the foundation, 31.4 metres high, will attain the extraordinary height of


21,255 18,117

1,815.800 57.4 metres, or 183 feet. (For a full account Statistics, 1874...

21,510 13,354 1,761,171 of the statue, and the ceremony of unveiling it, see Annual CYCLOPÆDIA for 1875, page 355.) The annual meeting of the American BapAmong the other works of Bandel, the follow- tist_Publication Society was held at Buffalo, ing are particularly noteworthy: “ Amor and N. Y., May 25th. The report stated that the Psyche," " Venus," and the monument on the total receipts of the society for the year endgrave of Herr von Langer, the Director of the ing March 1, 1876, had been $564,064.05. Royal Art Academy in Munich. Bandel was of this, $73,699.42 were received in the peculiarly noted for his works in marble, in the Benevolent Department, leaving_$490,364.63 artistic finish of which he is ranked by critics as the amount received' in the Business Deamong the best sculptors of modern times. _In partment. Of the latter sum, $180,203.57 1846 he published, with Massmann, "Der Ex- had been given specifically for the publication sterstein in Westfalen."

building, leaving the actual ordinary business BAPTISTS. I. REGULAR BAPTISTS IN THE receipts of the year, $310,161.06. The new UNITED STATES.- In the following table is giv- building for the publication-house in Philaen a summary of the statistics of the Bap- delphia had been finished, at a total cost for tist churches in the United States for 1875, ground, building, and furniture, of $258,586.68, as they appeared in the American Baptist all of which was either paid or provided for, Year-Book for 1876 (published in January, and was formally opened February 29, 1876. 1876). The decrease from the previous year Eighteen new publications had been added to which is apparent in some of the items is the list of the society, of which 57,300 copies explained by the fact that the anti-mission had been printed. The total number of publiBaptists, included in the tables of the pre- cations on the catalogue of the society, March vious years, were omitted in the present 1, 1876, was 1,174. The Missionary Departone. They number 41,454 members. Had ment of the society had continued the Bible they been included, the table would have and Sunday-school work at Rome, Italy, and shown an increase of 95,583 members. The had sustained a general Sunday-school secrenumber of additions by baptism during the tary and State Sunday-school missionaries and year was 32,515 :

colporteurs in different States and Territories.

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