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in common". Each owns his undivided share absolutely, independently of the United States or the state of New York. The individuals, however, only hold a fee equivalent to the ownership of the land they improve, with power to sell or devise among their own people, but not to strangers. It is a good title. The nation itself can not disturb it. Within the Six Nations each head of a family or a single adult has the right to enter upon unoccupied land, build upon it, and improve it, thereby acquiring a title, with authority to sell to another Indian or devise the same by will; but all these transactions must be between Indians.
The Cornplanters are Senecas of the Seneca nation, voting with them for officers annually, and having a representative in the nation's council. The band, although in Warren county, Pennsylvania, inherit a common interest in all the Seneca lands in New York, draw alike annuities, but do not vote in New York, except as Indians for their own officers, namely, officers of the Seneca nation. They are also heirs in Pennsylvania of Cornplanter, the probate court of Warren county, Pennsylvania, having partitioned the inheritance of Cornplanter (a special gift of gratitude from Pennsylvania) among them, inalienable except among themselves. They have been admitted to the privileges of citizenship in that state.
The conclusion is irresistible that the Six Nations are nations by treaty and law, and have long since been recognized as such by the United States and the state of New York, and an enlightened public will surely hesitate before proceeding to divest these people of long-established rights without their consent—rights recognized and confirmed in some cases by the immortvl Washington and by more than a hundred years of precedents and legislation.
The Six Nations of New York Indian question can not be settled permanently without action on the Ogden company's claim by the Congress of the United States.
The peacemaker courts are peculiar to the Seneca Indians of New York. They exercise probate jurisdiction and jurisdiction over minor offenses. Appeal may be taken to the council of the Seneca nation proper on the Allegany and Cattaraugus reservations, and to the separate council of the Tonawanda Senecas. The term of office of a peacemaker is for three years, one being elected annually for each reservation, but those of the Tonawanda band, as with all its officers, have no official relation to the other bands of Senecas.
The president of the Seneca nation sits as judge upon the impeachment of a peacemaker. Among the grounds of impeachment is taking a bribe, or, by relationship or otherwise, having interest in a case.
Divorces, as well as probate matters, come before this court. Petitions, summonses, answers, all pleadings, returns of process, and record follow the forms prescribed for state courts of like jurisdiction. During 1889 a contested election among the Tonawanda band was, upon application, decided by the state court of New York, sitting at Batavia, Geiiesee county, in which county the Tonawanda reservation is in part situated. A record of their proceedings is duly kept.
UNITED STATES INDIAN AGENT.
The civic establishment of the United States Indian agency at Akron, New York, consists of an agent, Timothy W. Jackson, the incumbent in 1890, whose salary is $1,000 per year; J. E. Paxon, messenger, at $400 per year; J. G. Rugg, physician, at $200 per }car, and Chester C. Lay, interpreter, at $150 per year.
The agency contains one frame building, the property of the United States, of the value of $250. As the office of the agent is usually at his residence, change in the incumbent removes the office. In July, 1891, the agent's office was at Salamanca, New York, A. W. Ferrin succeeding T. AVr. Jackson.
The United States Indian agent receives from the Commissioner of Indian Affairs annually and distributes, under bond, both cash annuities and goods, except for the Saint Regis Indians, who receive neither from the United States, and over whom the agent has no immediate charge.
The Indian agent is the official to whom is referred by the Commissioner of Indian Affairs all complaints by Indians preferred against each other or against the white people, and upon his investigation and report the Commissioner initiates relief or other action. He is especially charged with the investigation of all cases of trespass upon their lands or other rights, as also illegal sales of intoxicating liquors to the Iroquois, and, as their protector, places in the hands of the United States district attorney the proper evidence upon which to prosecute suits at law against offenders. It is also his duty to investigate and report upon all crimes of which the state courts of New York have jurisdiction; also to interest himself in local troubles between the Indians themselves, and to report annually to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs all births and deaths, as the basis of the annual distribution of goods or money.
The New York state agent and attorney have no official connection with the United States Indian agent. The former acts for the Onondaga Indians, and pays the state annuities to the Six Nations, while the latter, under special law, acts for the Saint Regis Indians. Each reservation has a state school commissioner.
OFFICERS OF THE LEAGUE OF THE IROQUOIS IN THE UNITED STATES. Eleventh Census: 1890. Six Nations of New York.
THE LEAGUE OF THE IROQUOIS FROM 1660 TO 1890.
The Indians of the league of the Iroquois, both in the United States and Canada, have passed through almost all stages of savage life and a portion of the progressive Anglo-Saxon, and almost all the vicissitudes of war and peace. How civilized ways and methods affect a savage nation the league of the Iroquois best illustrates.
The vitality of this people and the tenacity with which they hold to their traditions, even while adopting or accepting changes, have no parallel in aboriginal life.
In 1890 the census of the United States and the official report of Canada not only show that the league of the Iroquois probably numbers more now than at any period for more than a hundred years past, or than it ever has since first met by Europeans, but that it is steadily increasing.
League of the Iroquois in the United States, 1890 7,387
League of the Iroquois in Canada, 1890 8,483
LEAGUE OF THE IROQUOIS IN THE UNITED STATES IN 1890.
Six Nations of New York 5,239
Senecas and Onondagas in Warren county, Pennsylvania 98
Total in New York and Pennsylvania 5,337
Senecas and Cayngasat Quapaw agency, Indian territory 255
Members of the league enumerated, residing in Connecticut, Massachusetts, and New York 79
Oueidas in Wisconsin 1,718
Total in the United States 7,387
The following statement has been furnished through the kindness of Mr. E. D. Cameron, superintendent of Indian affairs at Brantford, Canada:
LEAGUE OF THE IROQUOIS IN CANADA IN 1890.
Oneidas of the Thames 715 Iroquois of Saint Regis (n) 1,190
Mohawksof Bay of Quinte 1,056 I Iroquois of Gibson 137
Six Nations of Grand river, Brautibrd 3,288 Iroquois of the Lake of Two Mountains 375
Iroquois of Caughnawaga (a) 1,722 1 Total 8,483
a A few Algonquins, mixed.
The Iroquois of Grand river are in detail as follows:
Mohawks 1,344 Onondagas 325
Oneidas 244 ' Tuscaroras 327
Senecas 183 I
Cayugas 865 Total 3,288
The following statement shows the total number of the league of the Iroquois, estimated and actual, at the several periods named:
1660 11,000 1736 7,350
1687 10,000 1779 o8,000
1689 12,850 , 1791 7,430
1698 6,150 I
a Not including emigrants, Mohawks, Onondagas, etc.
There is no record given of the number of the league between 1791 and 1877.
The emigration to Canada of a large portion of the league left a smaller portion in the United States after 1790.
In 1868 the Iroquois in Canada (all of the league) were given at 5,881; in 1874, 6,845; in 1875, 6,893; in 1876, 6,953; in 1890, 8,483.
In 1877 the total number of the league of the Iroquois in Canada and the United States was estimated to be 13,668, and in 1890 it was 15,870. The rate of increase in Canada and the United States is now about the same.
The Cherokees of Indian territory and the Eastern Cherokees, along with the Wyandottes (Wyandot, Wendot) of Quapaw agency, Indian territory, are of Iroquoian stock, but are not included in the membership of the league. (See Extra Census Bulletins on Eastern Cherokees and Five Civilized Tribes, and final report on Statistics of Indians, Eleventh Census.)
THE SIX NATIONS OF NEW YORK IN 1890. TOTAL rOrULATION OF THE SIX NATIONS OF NEW YORK AT SEVERAL PERIODS FROM 17!M5 TO 1890, INCLUSIVE.
1796, Morse 3,748 I 1865,
1818, Parrish . 4,575 I 1870,
1819, New York legislature 4,538 j 1870,
1821, Morse 4,056 1 1875,
1825, United States Secretary of War 5,061 1875,
1829, General Porter, United States Secretary of War 5,100 1877,
1845, United States Indian Office (a) 3,884 1880,
1855, New York state census 3,774 1885,
1855, United States Indian Office 4,149 1887,
1860, United States Indian Office 3,945 1890,
1865, New York state census 3,992 1890,
a Oneidas omitted (removed west).
United States Indian Office 3,956
United States census 4,962
United States Indian Office 4,804
New York state census 4,672
United States Indian Office 4,955
United States Indian Office 5,041
United States Indian Office 5,139
United States Indian Office 4,970
United States Indian Office 4,966
United States Indian Office 5,112
United States census J5,239
b Not including the Cornplanter Senecas in Warren county, Pennsylvania, 98 in number, which would give a total of 5,337.
POPULATION OF THE SIX NATIONS RESERVATIONS IN NEW YORK AND CORNPLANTER SENECA RESERVATION IN
all Onondagas reside on the Cornplanter reservation in Warren county, Pennsylvania, making the total Onondagas of the Six Nations 481.
6 87 Senecas reside on the Cornplanter reservation in Warren county, Pennsylvania, making the total Senecas in New York and Pennsylvania 2,767.
The total population of the Cornplanter reservation, Warren county, Pennsylvania, and adjoining the Allegany Seneca reservation, New York, is as follows: Onondagas, 11; Senecas, S7, and 1 white man; total, 99.
The total population of the Six Nations reservations in New York and 106 Oneidas off reservation is 5,309. This includes 70 white and colored persons. •
The total Indian population of the Six Nations reservations in New York and 106 Oneidas off reservation is 5,239.
The total Indian population of the Six Nations reservations in New York is 5,133. The births during the year were 181; deaths, 156; gain by births over deaths, 25. All reservations gained by births except Tuscarora, where the net loss by death was 6. The deaths by consumption were 39, or 7.6 to the 1,000 of population; the births 35.3 to the 1,000, and the deaths 30.4 to the 1,000.
The several causes of deaths are given in detail in the table on the following page. The deaths from June 30, 1889, to June 30, 1890, included 3 persons between the ages of 90 and 100, 4 persons between the ages of 80 and 90, 4 persons above 78 but less than 80, and 5 persons between the ages of 60 and 75, in a total Indian population of 5,133.