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rice of wool did much to make up for such osses, and gave an impetus to the business. Mining.—This industry was carried on with more than average success during the year. The most important mining discovery of the year was at San Pedro. The “Big Copper” mine at that place was run successfully through the year, employing about 300 men, but nothing else of consequence was being done in the vicinity, when the news suddenly spread of a wonderful discovery of rich carbonates in the “Lucky” mine, in the immediate vicinity of the “Big Copper.” The “Lucky” was being worked to a small extent for iron ore for fluxing, when the new ore was struck. Considerable shipments immediately began, and a rush of miners to San Pedro quickly ensued. Other similar discoveries have since been made. Constitutional Convention. — An election was held on Aug. 6 to choose delegates to a Constitutional Convention. The number elected was seventy-three. They met at Santa Fé on Sept. 3, and chose J. Francisco Chavez as president. The result of their labors, which ended on Sept. 21, was the adoption of a Constitution for the proposed State of New Mexico, which should be submitted to the electors of the Territory at the regular election in November, 1890, unless the passage of an enabling act by Congress meanwhile should render an earlier election necessary. The convention appointed a committee to present the Constitution to Congress, and to urge, in behalf of the Territory, its admission thereunder. When Congress assembled for its December session, the matter was laid before it. NEW YORK, a Middle State, one of the original thirteen, ratified the Constitution July 26, 1788; area, 49,170 square miles; population, according to the last decennial census (1880), 5,082,871; capital, Albany. Government.—The following were the State officers during the year: Governor, David B. Hill, Democrat; Lieutenant-Governor, Edward F. Jones; Secretary of State, Frederick Cook; Comptroller, Edward Wemple; Treasurer, Lawrence J. Fitzgerald; State Engineer and Surveyor, John Bogart; Attorney-General, Charles F. Tabor: Superintendent of Public Instruction, Andrew S. Draper; Superintendent of Prisons, Austin Lathrop; Superintendent of Insurance Department, Robert A. Maxwell; Superintendent of Bank Department, Willis S. Paine, succeeded by Charles W. Preston; Superintendent of Public Works, James Shanahan, succeeded in December by Edward Hannan; Chief Judge of the Court of Appeals, William C. Ruger; Associate Judges, Charles Andrews. Robert Earl, George F. Danforth, Rufus W. Peckham, Francis M. Finch, and John Clinton Gray. Finances.—The State is practically out of debt. The amount outstanding is being paid as rapidly as the law permits. For the fiscal year ending Sept. 30, it was reduced to $6,774,854.87 by the payment of $100,000 Niagara reservation bonds, and of $90,500 canal bonds. The amount of cash and securities held in the various trust funds of the State on Sept. 30 was $13,241,097.24. For the year 1889 the State tax was $12,557,352.74, the rate being 3.52 mills, and the valuation of property $3,567,429,757. For

1888 the total tax was $9,089,303.86. The receipts from the corporation tax increased this ear over the receipts in 1888 by $178,921.91. he amount collected was $1,172,299.73. The State Comptroller says: “Since my last annual report the {. of Appeals has rendered a decision in favor of the State in the case of the People er rel. Platt as President of the United States Express ..". vs. Wemple (116 N. Y.), which was instituted by me to test the liability of joint-stock associations, including the large express companies, to pay the tax upon their capital, under section 3 of the law.” he receipts of the treasury for the fiscal year were $15,971,002.02, to which should be added a balance of $5,396,454.75 on hand on Oct. 1, 1888. The payments for all purposes during the year were $15,940,847.72, leaving a balance of $5,426,609.05 in the treasury on Oct. 1, 1889. The general fund balance on the latter date was $2,640,774.58. The amount expended by the State on the Capitol building, up to Oct. 1, has been $18,399,195.29. The assessed valuation of the State for the year 1889, was: Personal, $354,258,556; real, $3,213,171,201 ; total, $3,567,429,757. This shows an increase, in one year, on real estate of $90,583,117; personal estate of $7,646,695; total, $98,229,812. Legislative Session.—The one hundred and twelfth Legislature was in session for twenty weeks, the average time for the past fifteen years. The number of bills introduced in the Senate was more than 800, and in the House more than 1,300, about the average number. The only constitutional amendment passed was one for extra justices of the Supreme Court, and this must voted upon in November, 1890. This Legislature exposed the method of changing the ceiling of the Assembly chamber from a structure of stone to a structure of wood. The cost of this and of re Airing the Assembly staircase was about $350,000. When the Assembly met, the special committee of five members of the last Assembly who had the work in charge demanded an investigation before they would approve the work. This was given to the Committee on Appropriations, which hired experts, and reporto that the Assembly Committee on Construction had neglected its duties; that the contractor had not fulfilled his contract; and that about $100,000 had been cleared by him. A vote of virtual want of confidence was carried, and the investigation was transferred to a special committee of five Assemblymen, which took still further testimony, and reported that the contractor and the Superintendent of Public Buildings had conspired to rob the State. But the Assembly sustained the report of the Appropriation Committee and discarded the report of the special committee. The matter was then put in charge of the original Ceiling-Construction Committee, and an effort was made to prove a conspiracy, so as to work forfeiture of the contract. Later in the year the Attorney-General instituted an action against the alleged conspirators. Owing to the ceiling affair, little effort was made toward finishing the Capitol. Estimates were made by the Capitol Commissioner that a little over $2,000,000 would complete the building. Thirty-two weeks of school are now required during the year, instead of twenty-eight as formerly. The school year in every district begins on July 25, instead of Aug. 20; and the annual school meeting will be held on the first Tuesday of August. All applicants for admission to normal schools must residents of this State; or, if not, they can be admitted only upon the payment of tuition fees, or upon such other terms as shall be prescribed. Medical schools may hold property to the amount of $2,000,000. A supplementary examination by the regents is required of graduates of medical colleges and others desiring to practice medicine. fee of $15 and a degree of doctor of medicine from a legally incorporated medical college are required before the same degree will be given by the reso of the university. The following cities ave been authorized to issue bonds for school rounds and buildings in the amounts named : §. York, $2,500,000; Brooklyn, $1,500,000; Buffalo, $150,000; Lockport, $85,000; and Utica not to expend more than $30,000 in a year. The veto of a bill allowing St. Lawrence Theological Seminary to hold $3,000,000 of property led to the enactment of a general law authorizing all colleges and universities to hold property with an annual income not to exceed §o. Libraries are added to the list of objects for which any five or more persons of full age, citizens of the United States, a majority of whom shall be also citizens of this State, may incorporate themselves. Plattsburgh was given a normal school. New York city may spend $300,000 for buildings and accommodations for the zoölogical collection in Central Park, and $400,000 for an addition to the American Museum of Natural History. The latter amount may also be spent for completin the Metropolitan Museum of Art. In each war of the city at least three free lectures to workin men and women shall be delivered every wee between Oct. 1 and April 1. Charters were granted to the Sevilla Home for the education of poor female children and Webb's Academy and Home for Shipbuilders. The new labor laws are these: Requiring payment of wages by corporations in other currency than “store orders”; regulating wages on public works at $2 a day; for registering trade-marks of unions. The prison laws were codified. The convicts are divided into three classes. The first is considered corrigible, and shall be taught trades; the second is less corrigible, and is held to somewhat severe labor; the third is the incorrigible, and will be given the most severe labor. It is forbidden to have more than 100 prisoners employed in any one industry. The most important insurance law, the “antirebate,” provides that no life-insurance company doing business in this State shall make or permit any distinction or discrimination between individuals insured in the same class and of equal expectation of life in the amount of payment of premiums or rates charged on policies of life or endowment insurance, or in the dividends or other benefits payable thereon, or in any other of the terms and conditions of a contract it makes, Among other laws are these: For the incorporation of co-operative or assessment associations and societies for insurance upon the lives of horses, mules, jacks, and jennies; allowing cas


ualty companies to insure the connections of steam boilers as well as the boilers themselves; providing that any number of persons not less than nine may associate themselves for the relief of beneficiaries upon the mutual-assessment plan. The canals were voted $600,000 to continue the work of lengthening the locks. At this rate all the locks will be lengthened in two years. The new railroad laws are these: Permitting railroad companies to collect ten cents more than the regular fare from passengers who fail to buy tickets, such passengers to be given a receipt upon which they can secure the return of the j . paid at any ticket office of the company; prohibiting local authorities from restricting the speed of trains below 30 miles an hour within the limits of cities of fewer than 50,000 inhabitants: exempting from the anti-car-stove law cars of foreign railroads passing for not more than 30 miles through the State; allowing railroads under 100 miles in length to begin to acquire right of way when but $5,000 a mile is subscribed and $3,000 a mile lo down; requiring the use of automatic freight-car couplers. A State board of lunacy has been created consisting of three commissioners, one of whom is a physician, another a lawyer, and another a reputable citizen. The commission has the power of a court to investigate cases of alleged cruelty, etc., hitherto undertaken by the Board of Charities; and it supersedes the commissioner in lunacy. It has autocratic powers over private asylums. Another law regulates the commitment, custody, and discharge of the insane, more particularly in regard to ã. manner in which they shall enter institutions. Among the new militia laws were these: Imroving the Creedmoor Rifle Range and the State Camp at Peekskill; extending the system of the National Guard to a State naval militia; incorporating the Mount McGregor Memorial Association, to take charge of the cottage wherein Gen. Grant died ; incorporating the Grand Army of the Republic Department of New York; providing for soldiers' monuments in #o. Troy, and Gettysburg. Cornell University was designated as the only college in the State entitled to receive the benefits of the law of the United States relating to agricultural experiment stations ; and another law establishes a State meteorological bureau and weather service at that university. The New York Dairymen's Association has been voted $4,000 to extend dairy knowledge throughout the State; and about $50,000 already paid into the treasury from racing associations during the past two years has been turned over to the State Agricultural Society for distribution among the county societies. Other laws are these: Establishing a license fee of $1 instead of 50 cents on dogs, and requiring an annual registry; making the amount of tare upon bales of hops grown and sold in the State five pounds instead of six pounds; extending the time to Jan. 1, 1890, within which veterinary surgeons must register; charging the State Dairy Commissioner with the enforcement of the law to prevent deception in the sale of vinegar. A new commission is to codify the laws relating to corporations, so as to avoid special legislation in the future. The bank department is given more power to examine the books of banks. The penal code has been amended so that if any agent of a life or trust company shall receive any deposit, knowing that the concern is insolvent, he shall be held guilty of larceny and be fined double the amount received, together with imrisonment. Other laws were enacted as folow: Allowing any other than business corporations to hold property to the amount of $2,000,000; allowing social clubs to hold real estate to the amount of $500,000; forbidding pipe lines of natural-gas companies to be run #. any municipality without the consent of the authorities; allowing trust funds to be invested in securities of the City of New York; allowing foreign-born children and the descendants of a woman born in the United States but disqualified by residence or marriage abroad, to hold real estate, if she has an ancestor who was a citizen of the United States; forbidding deception in articles containing trade-marks; providing that creditors may resist all transfers against the estate of a deceased person, if their claims are more than $100 in amount; granting to a widow $1,000 from an estate, even if the real property does not amount to that sum: for the suppression of bucket shops; allowing the Governor to proclaim any day a legal holiday, and to limit its operation to any particular county. The Governor vetoed a bill applying high license to the larger cities of the State, and also a general bill taxing the sales of liquor. What is known as the Saxton electoral reform bill, modified from the bill of 1888 and patterned after the Australian system, was also vetoed. Education.—For the school year ending Aug. 30, the amount expended in the State for education was $16,691,178.24, of which there was expended for public schools $15,876,844.91, bein an increase of $896,003.44 over the sum expende in the previous year. Of this amount $9,798,044.79 was in the cities and $6,078,800.12 in the towns. The number of children of school age (between five and twenty-one years) was 1,803,667, the cities having 1,029,411 and the towns 774,256. There was an increase of 32,256 children in the cities, and a decrease of 1,547 in the towns. There were employed during the year 5,549 male and 26,438 female teachers. The average annual salary of teachers in cities was $688.65, and in towns $270.07, the average for the State being $418,76. There were enrolled in the public schools, 1,033,813 pupils—488,203 in the cities and 545,610 in the towns. The number of school-houses was 11,985, of which 49 were log, 10,132 frame, 1,456 brick, and 348 stone, and $3,744,559.64 was expended for buildings. The State tax for the support of schools is one mill on a dollar. The apportionment of the sum thus raised, $3,460,406, is according to population. Therefore there are but three counties— Kings, New York, and Westchester—that receive back smaller sums than they pay in taxes. The nine normal schools }. a total enrollment of 6,468, and an average attendance of 4,835. The number graduated was 537 against 426 the previous year. The amount expended for normal schools during the year was $272,581.85 against $243,131.71 the previous year. The sum of $80,975.52 was expended for permanent improvements to normal-school property.

Charities.—The number of insane in the State on Oct. 1, 1889, as reported by the Commission of Lunacy, was 15,507, distributed as follow: State asylums for acute insane, 2,063; State asylums for chronic insane, 3,138; State Asylum for Insane Criminals, 219; State Emigrant Hospital, 22; counties of New York, Kings and Monroe, 6,970; city almshouses, 6; almshouses of exempted counties, 385; private and quasi-public asylums, 856. This shows an increase of 593 over the number on Oct. 1, 1888. The total number of inmates of all charitable, correctional, and reformatory institutions in the State on Oct. 1, 1889, was 67,781, against 64,322 on Oct. 1, 1888, as follow: Insane, 15,482; idiotic and feeble-minded, 1,330; epileptic, 584; blind, 627; deaf and dumb, 1,328; orphan and dependent children 20,949; juvenile offenders and delinquents, 4,765; adult reformatory prisoners, 944; sick and otherwise disabled soldiers and sailors, 973; hospital and infirmary patients, 3,782; adult and aged persons in asylums and homes for the friendless, 7,007; poor-house and almshouse inmates other than the above-named classes, 9,980. The receipts devoted to charitable, correctional, and reformatory work in the State for the fiscal year ending Sept. 30, 1889, amounted to $16,156,466, against $14,591,817 for the fiscal year ending Sept. 30, 1888. Prisons.—The number of convicts in the three go; on Sept. 30, was 3,480, against 3,408 on pt 30, 1888. The highest number of convicts during the year was 3,787, in March. The State Superintendent says, in his annual report: “By the provisions of Chapter 586 of the laws of 1888, the pursuit of usual industrial operations in the State prisons was almost wholly suspended and the increased population of the prisons was doomeed to idleness in spite of the sympathetic efforts of the administrative officers. wo results were inevitable—the minor one is the greatest deficit in years, the major result is the distinct and deplorable disintegration of prison industries and deterioration of the morale of the prisoners as a mass and an unprecedented death rate and unequaled numerical lapse of convicts into insanity.” The number of deaths was 64, and the number transferred to insane asylums, 65. The report remarks that the present law regulating prison management and labor, passed in June, 1889, had but little tangible effect on the actual operations of the prisons u to the close of the fiscal year. There were still 500 men idle at Auburn Prison and 150 at Sing Sing. The deficit for the year is $369,274, against $153,924 in 1888. Banks.-The aggregate resources of all the banks in the State on Sept. 30, 1889, were $245,163,888, and the net increase in banking capital during the fiscal year, $2,262,000. The capital of the banks organized during the year aggreated $2,675,000; that of the banks which closed uring the year amounted to $255,000. The increase in the capital of banks previously organized was $300,000, and the decrease, $100,000. Twenty-two new banks were authorized to do business during the year, with a total capitalization of $2,675,000. Three national banks were organized in the State—the Farmers' and the Citizens', of Adams, and the Elmira National Bank, with a total capitalization of $315,000. On Sept. 30 there were 149 State banks. Four new trust companies, two each in New York and Brooklyn, with an aggregate capital of $2,500,000, have been authorized to do business during the year. On Sept. 30 there were thirty trust companies and miscellaneous corporations. Railroads.-The report of the railroad commissioners for 1889 presents the following #. ures: Gross earnings of railroads, $153,537,208.19; operating expenses, $101,729,493.88; net earnings, $51,807,714.31; interest charges, $26,793,733.43; taxes paid, $5,269,481.86; dividends, $14,617,334.99; surplus, $4,544,800.98; miles of road built, 7,466; stock and debt, $1,275,883,953.58; cost of road and improvements, $1,214,531,088.93. All these figures show a moderate increase over 1888, except in case of the surplus, which is reduced more than $800,000. Floods.-The effects of the May floods, almost unparalelled in our history, though not to be compared with those in Pennsylvania and M. land, were quite serious in western New York. Among the most notable visitations was that of Elmira, the streets of which were flooded five feet deep, resulting in the destruction of man thousand dollars of merchandise. The railroad bridge, weighted by two heavy freight trains, stood the pressure, but forced the waters of the Chemung river back into the city. Late on the night of June 1, the railroad embankment gave way, carrying off the railway tracks, portions of the adjacent buildings, and lumber yards. Several lives were lost, and the people living on the flats were saved with great difficulty. The freshet at Andover submerged houses and crops for miles, and destroyed a dozen bridges in and about the town. The bursting of two mill-dams added to the danger, and ople were forced to the tops of houses for safety. About ten miles of railway track were destroyed and fifteen feet of mud and débris were left in some cases. At Wellsville, the outer portions of the town were submerged to the eaves of the roofs. Canisteo was badly devastated and the river flooded the streets to a height of from five feet to seven feet. The merchants lost heavily by the destruction of goods. Many houses were swept from their foundations and two costly blocks were tumbled into ruins. Several people lost their lives and there were many narrow escapes from death. Though more or less ruin was wrought in other sections, the above-mentioned were the more notable instances of the havoc wrought. The loss in the State is estimated at $500,000. Execution by Electricity.—In 1886 a law was enacted, creating Elbridge T. Gerry, of New York, Dr. A. P. Southwick, of Buffalo, and Matthew Hale, of Albany, a commission to investigate and report to the Legislature, in January, 1887, the most humane and practical method known to modern science of carrying into effect the sentence of death in capital cases. It was provided that such report shall be in detail, accompanied by drawings and specifications of any appliance recommended by such commission for that purpose, together with the cost of construction and maintenance and probable durability. The commissioners undertook the work at once. A circular was first prepared soliciting views upon the present so of punishment, asking

for observations made at hangings, and inquiring for suggestions in regard to a more humane method. Electricity, prussic acid or other poison, the §. and the garrote were submitted. Suggestions were also invited in regard to the disposition of the body of the person executed, with a view of increasing the deterrent effect of capital punishment. The circular was widely distributed, especially among judges, district-attorneys, sheriffs, and physicians. About 200 replies came, 80 of wo Were against a change, 87 favored electricity, 8 poisons, 5 the guillotine, 4 the garrote, and the rest were for various methods or were non-committal. The commissioners were obliged to ask that their time be extended until January, 1888, and at that time they made an elaborate report. This began with a long description of the penalties attached to 33 offenses under the Mosaic law, and it gave an outline of 34 methods of capital punishment in use from that time to the present, as follow: Auto da fé, beating with clubs, beheading, blowing from cannon, boiling, breaking on the wheel, burning, burying alive, crucifixion, decimation, dichotomy, ão: ment, drowning, exposure to wild beasts, flaying alive, knout, garrote, guillotine, hanging, harakara, impalement, iron maiden, peine forte et dure, poisoning, pounding in mortar, precipitation, pressing to death, rack, running the gantlet, shooting, stabbing, stoning, strangling, suffocation. The investigation into the present methods of execution in civilized countries showed that 29 allow executions to be public, while 7 of them require privacy. The countries o public executions are as follow, . with the method employed: Austria, gallows; Belgium, guillotine ; Ši. sword or cord; Denmark, guillotine; Ecuador, musket; France, guillotine; Holland, gallows; Italy, sword or gallows (abolished): Oldenberg, musket; Portugal, sword; Russia, musket, sword, or gallows; Spain, garrote; Switzerland (15 cantons), sword; Switzerland (2 cantons), guillotine. The 7 countries requiring that executions shall be private are these: Bavaria, guillotine; Brunswick, axe ; Hanover, guillotine: Prussia, sword; Saxony, guillotine ; Switzerland (2 cantons), guillotine. A summary shows that 10 countries use the guillotine, 19 the sword, 3 the gallows, 2 the musket, 1 the axe, and 1 the cord. The commissioners reported that the element of barbarous cruelty is so prominent in each of these methods that none of them can be considered as embodying suggestions of improvement over that now in use in this State. The chief objections to the guillotine by the commissioners were that it is too bloody and that it is associated with the scenes of the French revolution. The garrote is objectionable because physicians say the fatal screw can not be depended upon to be so quick and certain in operation that there may not be great agony on the part of the criminal. Shooting, if used in civil life would sometimes lack celerity, would require a large number of executioners, and would be demoralizing because of its tendency to encourage the populace to think lightly of the fatal use of firearms. The first objection to hanging, the commissioners reported, is, that the effect of giving stimulants to the condemned immediately before the execution is demoralizing. The prevalence of the practice is well known even in prisons where criminals are debarred from alcoholic drinks. When the Anarchists were hanged in Chicago, the county physician, at the suggestion of the sheriff, asked them to take stimulants. Another objection to hanging is the danger of an attempt by the condemned man to commit suicide, and of some horrible scene afterward. There are four cases on record where men who had cut their throats just before the time of their execution arrived, were hanged. Still another objection to this form of punishment is the public horror and revulsion against hanging women. The electric current is one hundred times as rapid as the nerve force, and resuscitation after the passage of such a current through the body and functional centers of the brain is impossible. The current, if applied to the brain, would deaden that organ before any sensation could reach it. A chair with metal plates at the head and footrests would be necessary, electrodes being connected with each rest. If the current of electricity were supplied from electric-light wires, the chair and wires could be easily connected. The cost of maintenance and operation would be merely nominal. It was recommended that electric appliances be placed in the prisons at Sing Sing, Auburn, ...} Dannemora. In regard to the time of execution and the disposition of the body of a criminal, the commissioners had definite views. They say he ought to be doomed from the hour of his sentence, kept by himself in prison, and executed on a day to be set by the warden, while opportunity for the display of sentiment ought to be curtailed to the furthest extent. His body should not be paraded like that of a hero. but should belong to the authorities for dissection or destruction; or, if it is given to the family, the law should forbid them to exhibit it. The commissioners believe that by shutting a criminal out from the world from the time of his sentence, leaving him from that moment to the sternness of the law, with the knowledge that only punishment was in store for him, capital crimes would be more effecturally deterred than by any other means. Criminals meet death with bravado when they contemplate elaborate descriptions of their demise in the newspapers, and public funerals afterward; and the effect is to diminish the horrors of crime and hanging. The commissioners also described several experiments with electricity as a means of destroying animals; and they quoted an opinion from Thomas A. Edison, that dynamo-electric machinery which employs intermittent currents would be the most suitable o The passage of the current from these machines through the body, even by the slightest contact, causes instant death. The commissioners added to their report a bill, which became a law in 1888, to take effect on Jan. 1, 1889, and to apply to all convictions for crimes punishable by death, committed on or after that date. It was provided that the punishment of death must be inflicted by causing a current of electricity to pass through the body of the convict, and the application of such current must be continued until such convict is dead; and that the punishment of death must be in

flicted within the walls of the State prison designated in the warrant, or within the yard or inclosure adjoining thereto. The existing laws were amended so that the warden, or other person in charge of the State prison, should have the control of the execution, instead of the sheriff of the county in which the criminal is confined. It is the duty of the agent and warden to be present at the execution, and to invite the presence, by at least three days' notice, of a justice of the Supreme Court, the district attorney, and the sheriff of the county wherein the conviction was had, together with two physicians and twelve reputable citizens of full age, to be selected by said agent and warden. Such agent and warden must, at the request of the criminal, permit ministers of the Gospel, priests, or clergymen of any religious denomination, not exceeding two, to be present at the execution; and, in addition to the persons designated above, he may also appoint seven assistants or deputy sheriffs who may attend the execution. É. shall permit no other person to be present at such execution except those designated. Immediately after the execution an examination of the body of the convict shall be made by the physicians present, and their report in writing, stating the nature of the examination so made by them. shall be annexed to a certificate and filed there with. After such examination the body, unless claimed by some relative of the person executed, shall be interred in the graveyard or cemetery attached to the prison, with a sufficient quantity of quick-lime to consume such body without delay: and no religious or other services shall be held over the remains after such execution, except within the walls of the prison where said execution took place, and only in the presence of the officers of said prison, the person conducting said services, and the immediate family and relatives of said deceased prisoner. No account of the details of any such execution, beyond the statement of the fact that such convict was, on the day in question, duly executed according to law at the prison, shall be published in any newspaper. It is made a misdemeanor to violate, or neglect to comply with, any provision of this law. In November, 1888, a special committee of the Medico-Legal Society of the United States, appointed to investigate as to the best method of executing criminals by electricity under the new law, reported that a stout table, covered with a rubber cloth and having holes along its borders for binding-posts, or a strong chair should be procured. The prisoner, lying on his back, or sitting, should be firmly bound. One electrode should be so inserted into the table or into the back of the chair that it will impinge upon the spine between the shoulders. The head should be secured by means of a helmet fastened to the table or the back of the chair, and to this helmet the other pole should be so joined as to press firmly with its end upon the top of the head. The committee preferred the chair to the table. The instrument for closing the circuit can be attached to the wall. The electrodes should be of metal, not over one inch in diameter, somewhat ovoid. The skin and hair at the point of contact should be thoroughly wet with warm water. The hair should be cut short. A dynamo generating an electro-motive force of at

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