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John Bell, of Tennessee, March 7, 1841. Resigned
September 11, 1841.
James M. Porter, of Pennsylvania, March 8, 1843.
Resigned September 11, 1841.
Abel P. Upshur, of Virginia, September 13, 1841. Secretaries of Navy, David Henshaw, of Massachusetts, July 24, 1843.
Thomas W. Gilmer, of Virginia, February 15, 1844.
Died February 28, 1844.
(Francis Granger, of New York, March 6, 1841. RePostmasters-General, signed September 12, 1841.
Charles A. Wickliffe, of Kentucky, Sept. 13, 1841. Attorneys-General,
Hugh S. Legare, of South Carolina, Sept. 13, 1841.
(John Nelson, of Maryland, July 1, 1843. Speakers of the House of Representatives,
John White, of Kentucky, Twenty-eighth Congress, 1841.
John W. Jones, of Virginia, Twenty-ninth Congress, 1843. 1845, JANUARY 22. — Santa Anna was banished again from Mexico, and the sentence was declared to be perpetual.
From 1839, after the close of the war with France, until 1845, revolutions had succeeded each other, and Santa Bravo and Canalizo had successively been presidents.
1845, FEBRUARY. — Pennsylvania resumed payment.
1845, MARCH 1. — The President approved a bill for the annexation of Texas.
The debate upon this subject had been long and violent. President Tyler's term ended on the 3d of March. The resolutions, as finally adopted, read: “That Congress doth consent that the territory properly included within, and rightfully belonging to the republic of Texas, may be erected into a new state, to be called the state of Texas, with a republican form of government, to be adopted by the people of said republic, by deputies in convention assembled, with the consent of the existing government, in order that the same may be admitted as one of the states of this Union.” “That if the President of the United States shall, in his judgment and discretion, deem it most advisable, instead of proceeding to submit the foregoing resolutions to the republic of Texas as an overture on the part of the United States for admission, to negotiate with that republic; then, Be it resolved, that a state, to be formed out of the present republic of Texas, with suitable extent and boundaries, and with two representatives in Congress until the next apportionment of representation, shall be admitted into the Union, by virtue of this act, on an equal footing with the existing states, as soon as the terms and conditions of such admission, and the cession of the remaining Texan territory to the United States, shall be agreed upon by the governments of Texas and the United States.
“That the sum of one hundred thousand dollars be appropriated to defray the expenses of missions and negotiations to agree upon the terms of said admission and cession, either by treaty to be submitted to the senate, or by articles to be submitted to the two houses of Congress, as the President may direct."
1845. — CONGRESS passed acts admitting Florida and Iowa to the Union.
They had each formed constitutions, which were presented to Congress.
1845. — CONGRESS passed an act fixing the Tuesday next after the first Monday of November as the day for choosing presidential electors in all the states.
1845.-CONGRESS reduced the rate of postage.
It was made five cents on single letters not exceeding three hundred miles, and ten cents over that distance.
1845, MARCH 6. - The Mexican minister, Almonte, protested to the secretary of state against the annexation of Texas, and asked his passports.
Under instructions from his government, he spoke of it as dismembering an integral part of Mexican territory, and declared the purpose of Mexico to recover the territory she was thus despoiled of.
1845, MAY 1. — The Washington Union appeared at Washington.
It was published by Thomas Ritchie and John P. Heiss, and was made the organ of the government, and continued so during the administration of James K. Polk. On the 13th of September, 1847, two resolutions were introduced in the Senate, the first to exclude the editor of the Union from the privilege of the floor, for a libel upon the Senate, and the second to exclude the reporters of the Union from the reporters' gallery. They were debated two days, when, the second resolution having been withdrawn, the first was passed by a vote of twenty-seven to twenty-one. In 1849, with the inauguration of President Taylor, the Union ceased to be the organ of the government; but at the inauguration of Franklin Pierce, in 1853, it was restored to its position, and continued it when Buchanan was inaugurated in 1857, with John Appleton as editor, and ceased with the opening of the civil war.
1845, JUNE 3. — The True American appeared in Lexington, Kentucky.
It was edited by Cassius M. Clay, and advocated the abolition of slavery. The press was seized by a mob, but the paper was continued, being printed in Cincinnati, and published in Lexington, and then in Louisville.
1845.-- THE Mormons were driven from Nauvoo, and ordered to leave Illinois.
1845, JUNE 16. — The Texan congress accepted the terms of annexation to the United States.
At the same session, a peaceful settlement of the question offered by Mexico, by acknowledging the independence of Texas on certain conditions, was rejected.
1845, JULY 4. - The annexation of Texas was made complete. Information had been received of the action of the Texas senate.
1845, DECEMBER. - The President in his message to Congress, stated that he had “ deemed it proper, as a precautionary measure, to order a strong squadron to the coast of Mexico, and to concentrate a sufficient military force on the western frontier of Texas."
1845, DECEMBER 30.- Herrera, who had succeeded Canalizo as president, was displaced, and General Paredes appointed.
1845. — PETROLEUM was obtained in boring for salt near Ta. rentum, on the Alleghany, thirty-five miles above Pittsburg.
Two small springs continued to yield for years. Before this, the Seneca Indians gathered supplies of it, and it was known as Seneca oil, or Genesee oil, from its being found also near the head of the Genesee River.
1845. - MARGARET FULLER's Woman in the Nineteenth Century was published.
It demanded that every avenue, educational and industrial, should be open to women, and especially that she should be socially free.
1845. -- The naval school at Annapolis was established.
1845.— The new constitution of Louisiana was framed and adopted.
1846, JANUARY. — The army was ordered to take up a position on the left bank of the Rio Grande.
It had been at Corpus Christi since the previous August. No hostile act had been committed by the Mexicans. On the 28th of March, the army of occupation camped opposite Matamoras.
1846, JANUARY 3. — General Paredes was appointed to the presidency of Mexico.
He had headed an insurrection against Herrera, who resigned the office.
1846, MAY. - Colonel Fremont, on his third exploring expedition, arrived in the valley of the Sacramento, and took part in the movement for the independence of California.
It was accomplished before the arrival of Commodore Sloat at Monterey. With the arrival of the American forces, the Independents united with them.
1846, MAY 11. – The President sent a message to Congress, stating that Mexico had begun hostilities, and calling upon Congress to recognize the existence of war, and make provision for its vigorous prosecution.
On the 13th, both houses having passed the bills necessary for raising the requisite men and money, they were signed by the President, who issued a proclamation of war. The bill for the supplies contained in its preamble that war existed by the act of the republic of Mexico. To this statement objection was made.
1846. — A COMMUNITY, under the direction of J. H. Noyes, was formed at Putney, Vermont.
Being mobbed and driven away in 1848, they settled at Oneida, New York. They call themselves “ The Perfectionists,” and have a branch settlement at Wallingford, Connecticut.
1846. - A COMPANY_from Sweden, under the leadership of Olaf Olson, settled at Bishop Hill, in Illinois.
They were a religious community. In 1853 they were incorporated as an association by the legislature, and in 1860 divided their property, and in 1862 ceased to exist.
1846, JUNE 15.- A treaty between Great Britain and the United States settled the Oregon question.
The country was greatly excited concerning the question. Congress, after a long and violent discussion, had passed a resolution, which was approved by the President on the 27th of April, to give notice to Great Britain for the abrogation of the joint occupancy of Oregon as settled by the convention of August 6, 1827. The notice had been sent, and the suspense as to its reception by Great Britain was fortunately ended by the news of the treaty. The dividing line, by the treaty, was the forty-ninth degree of latitude, from the Stony Mountains west to the middle of the channel separating Vancouver's Island from the main land; thence southerly through the middle of the channel and of Fuca's Straits to the Pacific. The channel and straits to be free, as also the great northern branch of the Columbia River. The treaty was ratified and proclaimed by the President, August 5, 1846.
1846, JULY 3. — Congress passed a tariff act to take effect December 1. It was intended for revenue.
All articles not free were charged ad valorem duties. The duties were cash; and the bonded warehouse system was inaugurated. The collections were in coin, and the independent treasury system for the transaction of the government's business in cash was inaugurated. The tariff averaged twenty-four and a half per cent.
1846. — The first volume of the American Short-horn HerdBook was published.
1846, JULY 7. — The Pacific squadron took possession of Mon. terey, Mexico.
Commodore Sloat was in command of the squadron. 1846, JULY 9. - Commodore Montgomery captured Francisco.
1846, July 15.--Commodore Stockton took possession of Los Angeles, the capital.
He took possession in the name of the President of the United States. Colonel Fremont, with a party of Americans, had previously established an independent government at Francisco.
1846, JULY 22.-Congress authorized the issue of treasury notes, “not exceeding the sum of ten millions of dollars of this emission outstanding at any one time."
They were to be issued “as the exigencies of the government may require." Or the president might borrow, giving stock for the sum he borrowed, provided that “the sum so borrowed, together with the treasury notes," did not exceed ten millions. The treasury notes and the stock were to bear six per cent. interest, and no part was to be disposed of “at less than par.”
1846.- CONGREȘs passed a warehouse bill.
It authorized the storage in public stores of imported articles, the duty to be paid when they were withdrawn for consumption.
1846, AUGUST 6. — The independent treasury was re-established, and the receipts and disbursements of the government were ordered to be in gold.
An issue of treasury notes, and a loan or loans to the amount of twenty-eight million dollars were authorized.
1846.- The Smithsonian Institute was founded.
1846, SEPTEMBER 10. – A patent for a sewing machine was granted to Elias Howe, Jr., of Cambridge, Massachusetts.
It had the eye of the needle near the point, and, by the use of a shuttle, made a lock stitch. In 1850, the Singer machine was patented; in 1851, the Wheeler and Wilson; in 1852, the Grover and Baker; in 1857, the Wilcox and Gibbs, besides various others, modifications and improvements upon the original idea.
1846. — A PATENT for a carpet power-loom, for making two and three ply ingrain, was granted to Erastus B. Bigelow, of Massachusetts.
1846, SEPTEMBER 20. — The American army, under General Taylor, stormed Monterey, in Mexico.
The contest lasted three days, when the garrison capitulated.
1846, SEPTEMBER 24. — Monterey surrendered to the forces under General Taylor.
1846, OCTOBER 16. - The first public application of ether, to deaden pain in surgical operations, was made at the Massachusetts General Hospital.
It had been used before in dental operations. There are three claimants to the credit of first suggesting it. Dr. Morton and Dr. Jackson, of Boston, and Dr. Wells, of Hartford, Connecticut.
1846, DECEMBER 23. — Santa Anna was elected provisional president of Mexico, and Gomez Farias vice-president.
Santa Anna had returned, and the constitution of 1824 had been re-established.
1847, JANUARY 9.- A decree was passed by the congress of Mexico authorizing the government to raise fifteen millions of dollars, to carry on the war with the United States, by the sale or mortgage of the real estate then in possession of the Church.
The decree was approved by the president, and protested against by the archbishop.