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Democratic Press (Philadelphia), daily, 1829.
Evening Post (New York), daily, 1835-1839.
Evening Transcript (New York), daily, 1834-1836.
Lynn Record, daily, 1834.

Morning Courier and New York Enquirer, daily, 1833-1836. National Gazette and Literary Register (Philadelphia), semiweekly, 1838-1839.

New Era (New York), weekly, 1837.

New York Journal of Commerce, daily, 1833-1839.
Niles' Weekly Register (Baltimore), 1835-1838.
Pennsylvanian (Philadelphia), daily, 1835-1838.
Plaindealer (New York), weekly, 1836.

Poulson's American Daily Advertiser (Philadelphia), 1828-1833.
Public Ledger (Philadelphia), daily, 1836-1838.
Register of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia), daily, 1833-1839.
United States Telegraph (Washington), semi-weekly, 1834-1835.
Washingtonian, daily, 1836.

The following labour papers have been preserved: (See the Bibliography for the preceding period for a fuller statement on the labour papers during the thirties.)

Delaware Free Press, weekly, 1830.
Co-operator (Utica, N. Y.), weekly, 1832-1833.

Mechanics Free Press (Philadelphia), weekly, 1828-1831.
The Man (New York), weekly, 1834-1835.

National Laborer (Philadelphia), weekly, 1836-1837.
National Trades' Union (New York), weekly, 1836-1837.
Radical Reformer and Working Man's Advocate (Philadelphia),

weekly, 1836.

Working Man's Advocate (New York), weekly, 1829–1836.


The bibliography of this period consists chiefly of contemporary sources, many of which are quoted in the Documentary History of American Industrial Society. These contemporary sources may be roughly divided into three classes: the newspaper press, the reform press, and public documents.

The newspaper press, then as now, contained current news items which, taken together, afford a fairly definite picture of the economic conditions of the time and of the labour and reform movements which were initiated for the purpose of chang

ing these conditions. A part of the press, such as the New York Herald, opposed all reforms and reformers and tolerated organisations of the workers themselves only as the lesser of two evils; a much larger part were indifferent chroniclers, without criticism or approval, of the events which happened in industrial life from day to day; and a few, led by the New York Tribune, not only served as open forums for all of the isms of the time, but took an active editorial stand on many of the labour issues which arose during the period.

The reform press was as varied in content as the issues which they advocated. Each new ism was heralded by a paper, a pamphlet, or a book. Like the reforms which they advocated, the papers were short-lived; the series of pamphlets were equally short; and the books serve as monuments or as milestones, according as they were entirely forgotten or helped to influence the public opinion which crystallised into action then or later. The Working Man's Advocate and the Republik der Arbeiter are good examples of reform papers. The Proceedings of the Industrial Congress of any given year illustrate the propagandist pamphlets of the time. Of the reform publications which attained the dignity of books, Albert Brisbane's The Social Destiny of Man, or Association and Reorganisation of Industry (Philadelphia, 1840) and E. Kellogg's Labor and Other Capital; the Rights of Each Secured and the Wrongs of Both Eradicated (New York, 1849) serve as examples.

Public documents referred to in this section consist chiefly of legislative reports such as the New York Assembly Journal for a given year of the Laws of the state in question. A few special documentary reports were consulted, such as the Report of the Committee on Internal Health (Boston City Document, No. 66, 1849).

Trade union records of the period are not numerous and consist mainly of the minutes of the meetings of local organisations. None of these is in separate published form.

Secondary sources consist of biographical publications such as Horace Greeley's Recollections of a Busy Life (New York, 1868); and special historical treatises like Gustavus Myers' History of Tammany Hall (New York, 1901), and Herman

Schlüter's Die Anfänge der deutschen Arbeiterbewegung in Amerika (Stuttgart, 1907). The secondary literature of the period is very limited.


Commissioner of Labor. Ninth Annnal Report, 1893, "Building and Loan Associations."

Laws of California, 1853.

Laws of Maine, 1848.

Laws of New Hampshire, 1847.

Laws of New York, 1853.

Laws of Ohio, 1852.

Laws of Pennsylvania, 1848, 1855.

Laws of Rhode Island, 1853.


Co-operation in Massachusetts," in Massachusetts Bureau of Labor Statistics, Report, 1877, pp. 51-137. Massachusetts House Documents, Nos. 50 and 81, 1845. Massachusetts House Reports, 1853, No. 122; 1855, No. 180.

Massachusetts Senate Document, 1855, No. 107.

New Hampshire Bureau of Labor, Report, 1894.

New Hampshire House Journal, 1846.

New Hampshire Senate Journal, 1847.

"The Policy of Our Labor Organisations," in New Jersey Bureau of Labor, Report, 1887, pp. 77-86.

New York Assembly Document, 1848, No. 78.

New York Assembly Journal, 1847, 1848, 1850, 1852, and 1853.

Pennsylvania House Journal (1846).

Pennsylvania Senate Journal, 1837.

Rhode Island Report of an Investigation into Child Labor, 1853.
Wisconsin Assembly Journal, 1848 and 1851.
Wisconsin Senate Journal, 1849.


Andrews, Stephen P. Cost the Limit of Price (New York, 1852).
True Constitution of Government (New York, 1882).
Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography.
Arthur, P. M. 'Rise of Railway Organization," in George E. Mc-
Neill, The Labor Movement (Boston, 1887), 312ff.
Bailie, William. Josiah Warren (Boston, 1906).
Bartlett, D. W. Modern Agitators (New York, 1856).
Bemis, E. W. Co-operation in New England, in American Eco-
nomic Association, Publications (Baltimore, 1886).
Brisbane, Albert. Concise Exposition of the Doctrine of Associa-

tion (New York, 1844).

Brisbane, Albert. Social Destiny of Man (Philadelphia, 1840).
A Mental Biography by His Wife (Boston, 1893).
Bromwell, William T. History of Immigration (New York, 1856).
Brownson, Henry F. Orestes Brownson's Early Life (Detroit,


Brownson, Orestes. Collected Works (Detroit, 1882-1907). The Convert, or Leaves from My Experience (New York, 1857).

"The Labouring Classes," in Boston Quarterly Review, 1840, III.

Butterfield, C. W. History of Fond du Lac County, Wisconsin

(Chicago, 1880).

Campbell, John. A Theory of Equality; or, the Way to Make
Every Man Act Honestly (Philadelphia, 1848).
Negro-Mania (Philadelphia, 1851).

Clark, F. C. "A Neglected Socialist," in American Academy of Political and Social Science, Annals, 1894-1895, V, 718-739. Commons, J. R. "An Idealistic Interpretation of History," in Labor and Administration (New York, 1913); same, entitled "Horace Greeley and the Working Class Origins of the Republican Party," in Political Science Quarterly, 1909, XXIV, 468– 488.

Cooke, G. W. The Poets of Transcendentalism (Boston, 1903). Curtis. "Report" in Transactions of the American Medical Association (Boston, 1849).

Curtis, Francis. History of the Republican Party (2 vols., New

York, 1904).

Devyr, Thomas A. Our National Rights (n. p., n. d.).

"Dwellings and Schools for the Poor," in North American Review, 1852, LXXIV, 464–489.

Ely, R. T. French and German Socialism (New York, 1883). Evans, F. W. Autobiography of a Shaker (Mount Lebanon, N. Y.,


Forney, J. W. Anecdotes of Public Men (New York, 1873-1881). Kellogg, Edward. Labor and Other Capital: the Rights of Each Secured and Wrongs of Both Eradicated (New York, 1849). Kingsbury, Susan. Labor Laws and their Enforcement, with Special Reference to Massachusetts (New York, 1911).

Lockwood, G. B. The New Harmony Movement (New York,


Masquerier, Lewis. Sociology: or the Reconstruction of Society, Government, and Property (New York, 1877).

Minutes of the Cigar Maker's Society of Baltimore, 1856. In Library of Johns Hopkins University.

Myers, Gustavus. History of Tammany Hall (New York, 1901). Murray, David. "The Anti-Rent Episode in the State of New

York," in Annual Report of the American Historical Society, 1896, I, 139-173.

National Cotton Mule Spinners' Association of America, Constitution and By-laws (1890).

Noyes, John H. History of American Socialisms (Philadelphia, 1870).

Parton, James. The Life of Horace Greeley (Boston, 1872). Persons, C. E. "The Early History of Factory Legislation in Massachusetts: From 1825 to the Passage of the Ten-Hour Law in 1874," in Labor Laws and their Enforcement, with special reference to Massachusetts (New York, 1911), 1–124. Schlüter, Herman. Lincoln, Labor and Slavery (New York, 1913).

Podmore, E. P. Robert Owen (2 vols., London, 1906). Weitling, Wilhelm. Das Evangelium eines armen Sünders (Bern, 1845).

Garantien der Harmonie und Freiheit (New York, 1879). Wrigley, Edward. The Working Man's Way to Wealth (Philadelphia, 1872).


The Awl (Lynn, Mass.), weekly, 1844-1846.
Bee (Albany), daily, 1845.

Pittsburgh Chronicle, daily, 1850.

Pittsburgh Daily Commercial Journal, 1848.
New York Evening Post, 1841.

New York Globe, daily, 1850.

Harbinger (Boston and New York), weekly, 1845-1849.

New York Herald, daily, 1850.

Mechanic (Fall River), weekly, 1844.

The Herald of the New Moral World (New York), weekly, 1841. Nonpareil (Cincinnati), weekly, 1851.

Philadelphia North American and United States Gazette, daily,


People's Paper (Cincinnati), weekly, 1843.

Phalanx (New York), weekly, 1843-1845; continued as Harbinger.
Public Ledger (Philadelphia), daily, 1844-1848.

Pittsburgh Daily Morning Post, 1848-1849, 1853.
Quaker City (Philadelphia), daily, 1849.

Die Reform (New York), weekly, 1853-1854.

Republik der Arbeiter (New York), weekly, 1850-1855.
Spirit of the Age (New York), weekly, 1849-1850.
Baltimore Sun, daily, 1855.

New York Sun, daily, 1853.

New York Times, daily, 1853-1857.

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