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I cannot fee. For besides the disgrace bestowed on them, who in framing these that must attend us, if any of our interests laws, have greatly injured the community; are supinely disregarded, I have no small and that the odium should fall on him, apprehenfions of the consequence, (the The whole freedom and sincerity are of imbans affected as they are towards us, and portant service to us all. Until these rethe Phocians exhausted of their treasures) gulations be made, you are not to think if Philip be left at full liberty to lead his any man fo great that he may violate these armies into these territories, when his pre- laws with impunity; or so devoid of reason, fent enterprises are accomplished. If any as to plunge himself into open and foreseen one among you can be so far immersed in deftru&tion. indolence as to suffer this, he must chuse to And be not ignorant of this, Athenians, be witness of the misery of his own coun that a decree is of no significance, unless try, rather than to hear of that which attended with resolution and alacrity to ftrangers suffer; and to seek affiftants for execute it. For were decrees of themhimself, when it is now in his power to selves sufficient to engage you to perform grant assistance to others. That this must your duty, could they even execute the be the consequence, if we do not exert things which they enact ; so many would ourselves on the present occasion, there not have been made to so little, or rather can scarcely remain the least doubt among to no good purpose; nor would the infous.

Jence of Philip have had lo long a date. But, as to the necessity of sending fuc- For, if decrees can punish, he hath long cours, this, it may be said, we are agreed since felt all their fury. But they have no in ; this is our resolution. But how shall such power : for, though proposing and rewe be enabled ? that is the point to be folving be first in order, yet, in force and explained. Be not surprised, Athenians, efficacy, action is superior. Let this then if my sentiments on this occasion seem re be your principal concern; the others you pugnant to the general sense of this afiem- cannot want: for you have men among bly. Appoint magistrates for the inspec- you capable of advising, and you are of tion of your laws : not in order to enact all people most acute in apprehending: any new laws; you have already a suffi- now, let your interest direct you, and it cient number; but to repeal those, whose will be in your power to be as remarkable ill effects you now experience. I mean the for acting. What season indeed, what oplaws relating to the theatrical funds (thus portunity do you wait for, more favourable openly I declare ii) and some about the than the present? Or when will you exert soldiery. By the first, the soldier's pay goes your vigour, if not now, my countrymen? as theatrical expences to the useless and Hath not this man seized all those places inactive; the others screen thoie from that were ours ? Should he become master justice, who decline the service of the field, of this country too, must we not fink into and thus damp the ardour of those disposed the lowest state of infamy? Are not they to serve us. When you have repealed whom we have promised to allift, whenthese, and rendered it consistent with safe. ever they are engaged in war, now attackty to advise you justly, then seek for some ed themselves ? Is he not our enemy? Is person to propose that decree, which you he not in possession of our dominions? Is all are sensible the common good requires. he not a barbarian? Is he not every base But, till this be done, expect not that any thing words can express ? If we are inman will urge your true interest, when, for sensible to all this, if we almost aid his deurging your true intereft, you repay him figns; heavens! can we then alk to whom with destruction. Ye will never find the consequences are owing? Yes, I know such zeal; especially since the consequence full well, we never will impute them to can be only this; he who offers his opi. ourselves. Just as in the dangers of the nion, and moves for your concurrence, suf- field: not one of those who fly will accuse fers fome unmerited calamity; but your himself; he will rather blame the general, affairs are not in the least advanced : nay, or his fellow-soldiers : yet every single this additional inconvenience must arise, man that filed was accesiáry to the defeat

. that for the future it will appear more dan- He who blames others might have maingerous to advise you, than even at present. tained his own post; and, had every man And the authors of these laws should also maintained his, luccess must have enfued. be the authors of their repeal. For it is Thus then, in the present case, is there a not just that the public favour should be man whose counsel seems liable to objec

tion? Let the next rise, and not inveigh ricles. But since we have had speakers, against him, but declare his own opinion. who, before their public appearance, alk Doth another offer fome more falutary you, What do you desire ? What shall I counsel ? Pursue it, in the name of Heaven. “ propose ? How can I oblige you ?” The “ But then it is not pleasing.” This is interest of our country hath been facrificed not the fault of the speaker, unless in that to momentary pleasure, and popular fahe hath neglected to express his affection vour. Thus have we been distressed ; in prayers and wishes. To pray is easy, thus have these men risen to greatness, and Athenians; and in one petition may be you funk into disgrace. collected as many instances of good for And here let me intreat your attention tune as we please. To determine juftly, to a summary account of the conduct of when affairs are to be considered, is not so your ancestors, and of your own. I shall easy. But what is most useful should ever mention but a few things, and these well be preferred to that which is agreeable, known (for, if you would pursue the way where both cannot be obtained.

to happiness, you need not look abroad But if there be a man who will leave us for leaders) our own countrymen point the theatrical funds, and propose other sub- it out. These our ancestors, therefore, fidies for the fervice of the war, are we not whom the orators never courted, never rather to attend to him? I grant it, Athe- treated with that indulgence with which nians ! if that man can be found. But I you are flattered, held the fovereignty of should account it wonderful, if it ever did, Greece with general consent, five and forty if it ever can happen to any man on earth, years; deposited above ten thousand tathat while he lavishes his present poffef- ients in our public treasury ; kept the king sions on unnecessary occasions, some future of this country in that subjection, which funds should be procured, to supply his a barbarian owes to Greeks; erected moreal necessities. But such proposals find numents of many and illustrious actions, a powerful advocate in the breast of every which they themselves atchieved by land hearer. So that nothing is so easy as to and fea; in a word, are the only persons deceive one's self; for what we wilh, that who have transmitted to pofterity such glory we readily believe; but such expectations as is superior to envy. Thus great do they are oftentimes inconsistent with our affairs. appear in the affairs of Greece. Let us On this occasion, therefore, let your af now view them within the city, both in fairs direct you; then will you be enabled their public and private conduct. And, to take the field; then you will have your first, the edifices which their administrafull pay. And men, whose judgments are tions have given us, their decorations of well directed, and whose souls are great, our temples, and the offerings deposited could not support the infamy which must by them, are so numerous and fo magniattend them, if obliged to desert any' of ficent, that all the efforts of pofterity canthe operations of a war, from the want of not exceed them. Then, in private life, money. They could not, after snatching fo exemplary was their moderation, their up their arms, and marching against the adherence to the ancient manners fo scruCorinthians and Megareans, suffer Philip pulously exact, that if any of you ever disa to inflave the states of Greece, through the covered the house of Aristides, or Miltiades, want of provisions for their forces. I say or any of the illustrious men of those times, not this wantonly, to raise the resentment he must know that it was not diftinguithed of fome among you.

No; I am not so by the least extraordinary splendor. For unhappily perverse as to study to be hated, they did not so conduct the public business when no good purpose can be answered by as to aggrandise themselves; their sale it: but it is my opinion, that every honest great object was to exalt the state. And speaker should prefer the in:erest of the thus, by their faithful attachment to Greece, ftate to the favour of his hearers. This by their piety to the gods, and by that (I am assured, and perhaps you need not equality which they maintained among be informed) was the principle which ac themselves, they were raised (and no wontuated the public conduct of those of our der) to the summit of prosperity. ancestors who spoke in this assembly (men, Such was the state of Athens at that whom the present set of orators are ever time, when the men I have mentioned were ready to applaud, but whose example they in power. But what is your condition by no means imitate): such were Aristides, under these indulgent ministers who now Nicias, the former Demosthenes, and Pe. direct us? Is it the same, or nearly the same?

Other

Other things I shall pass over, though that they who are engaged in low and groI might expatiate on them. Let it only veling pursuits, can entertain great and be observed, that we are now, as you all generous sentiments. No! such as their fee, left without competitors; the Lace. employments are, so muft their dispositions demonians loft ; the Thebans engaged at prove. And now I call Heaven to withome; and not one of all the other states ness, that it will not surprise me, if I sufof consequence sufficient to dispute the fo- fer more by mentioning this your condivereignty with us. Yet, at a time when tion,

than they who have involved you in we might have enjoyed our own dominions it! Freedom of speech you do not allow in security, and been the umpires in all on all occafions; and that you have now disputes abroad; our territories have been admitted it, excites my wonder. wrested from us; we have expended above But if you will a: length be prevailed one thousand five hundred talents to no on to change your conduct; if you will purpose; the allies which we gained in war take the field, and act worthy of Athehave been lost in time of peace; and to nians; if these redundant fums which you this degree of power have we raised an receive at home be applied to the advanceenemy against ourselves. (For let the ment of your affairs abroad; perhaps, my man stand forth who can shew, whence countrymen! perhaps some instance of Philip hath derived his greatness, if not consummate good fortune may attend you, from us.)

and ye may become so happy as to de« Well! if these affairs have but an un spise those pittances, which are like the “ favourable aspect, yet those within the morsels that a physician allows his patient.

city are much more flourishing than For these do not restore his vigour, but ever.

.” Where are the proofs of this ? just keep him from dying. So, your distriThe walls which have been whitened? butions cannot serve any valuable purpose, the ways we have repaired ? the supplies but are just sufficient to divert your attenof water, and such trifles ? Turn your eyes tion from all other things, and thus into the men, of whose administrations these crease the indolence of every one among are the fruits. Some of whom, from the you. lowest state of poverty, have arisen sud But I shall be asked, “ What then ! is denly to a Muence; fome from meanness to “ it your opinion that these sums should renown: others have made their own pri pay our army?"-And besides this, that vate houses much more magnificent than the state should be regulated in such a the public edifices. Just as the state hath manner, that everyone may have his share fallen, their private fortunes have been of public business, and approve himself an raised.

useful citizen, on what occasion soever his And what cause can we assign for this ? aid may be required. Is it in his power How is it that our affairs were once so to live in peace? He will live here with flourishing, and now in such disorder? Be- greater dignity, while these supplies precaufe formerly, the people dared to take vent him from being tempted by indigence up arms themselves ; were themselves to any thing dishonourable. Is he called masters of those in employment, disposers forth by an emergency like the present? themselves of all emoluments: so that every Let him discharge that facred duty which citizen thought himself happy to derive he owes to his country, by applying these honours and authority, and all advantages sums to his support in the field. Is there whatever from the people. But now, on a man among you past the age of service ?. the contrary, favours are all dispensed, Let him, by inspecting and conducting the affairs all transacted by the ministers; public business, regularly merit his hare while you, quite enervated, robbed of your of the distributions which he now receives, riches, your allies, stand in the mean rank without any duty enjoined, or any return of servants and allistants: happy if these made to the community. And thus, with men grant you the theatrical appoint- scarcely any alteration, either of abolishments, and send you scraps of the public ing or innovating, all irregularities are remeal. And, what is of all most fordid, moved, and the state completely settled ; you hold yourselves obliged to them for by appointing, one general regulation, that which is your own, while they con which shall entitle our citizens to receive, fine you within these walls, lead you on and at the same time oblige them to take gently to their purposes, and soothe and arms, to administer justice, to act in all tame you to obedience. Nor is it poslible, cases as their time of life, and our affairs

requirc.

require. But it never hath, nor could it as sheweth, that his former remonhave been moved by me, that the rewards Itrances had not che desired effect. of the diligent and active thould be beitowed on the useless citizen: or that you I AM persuaded, Athenians! that you fhould fit here, supine, languid, and irre. would account it less valuable to possess solute, listening to the exploits of fome ge- the greatest riches, than to have the true neral's foreign troops (for thus it is at pre- intereit of the state on this emergency feni)-not that I would reflect on him clearly laid before you. It is your part, who serves you in any in!ance. But you therefore, readily and chearfully to atyourselves, Athenians, should perform those tend to all who are disposed to offer their Services, for which you heap honours upon opinions. For your regards need not be others, and not recede from that illultri- confined to those, whole counsels are the ous rank of virtue, the price of all the effect of premeditation: it is your good forglorious toils of your ancestors, and by tune to have men among you, who can at them bequeathed to you.

once suggeit many points of moment. From Thus have I laid before you the chief opinions, therefore, of every kind, you points in which I think you interested. It may easily chufe that most conducive to is your part to embrace that opinion, which your interest. the welfare of the state in general, and that And now, Athenians, the present juncof every single member, recommends to ture cails upon us; we almolt hear its your acceptance.

Leland. voice, declaring loudly, that you yourselves

mutt engage in these affairs, if you have the $ 4. The third Olinthiac Oration : pro- luait attention to your own fecurity. You nounced in the jume Year.

cutertain I know not what sentiments, on

this occasion: my opinion is, that the reinINTRODUCTION.

forcements should be instantly decreed; The preceding oration had no further that they should be raised with all posible

effect upon the Athenians, than to expedition; that fo our succours may be prevail on them to send orders to fent from this city, and all former inconCharidemus, who commanded' for veniencies be avoided ; and that you should them at the Hellespont, to make an

fend ambaffadors to notify thete things, attempt to relieve Olynthus. He ac and to secure our interefts by their precordingly led some forces into Chal- fence. For as he is a man of consummate cis, which, in conjunction with the policy, compleat in the art of turning forces of Olynthus, ravaged Pallene, every incident to his own advantage; a peninsula of Macedon, towards there is the utmost reason to fear, that Thrace and Bottia, a country on the partly by conceflions, where they may be confines of Chalcis, which' among seasonable; parıly by menaces, (and his other towns contained Pella, the ca menaces may be believed) and partly pital of Macedon.

by rendering us and our absence fufpected; But these attempts could not divert he may tear from us something of the

Philip from his resolution of reducing lait importance, and force it into his own
Olynthus, which he had now public service.
ly avowed. The Olynthians, there Thore

very

circumstances, however, tore, found it necessary to have once which contribute to the power of Philip, more recourse to Athens : and to re are happily the most favourable to us. For queft, that they would send troops, that uncontrolled command, with which he composed of citizens, animated with governs all transactions public and fecret; a fincere ardor for their intercit, their his intire direction of his army, as their

own glory, and the common cause. leader, their sovereign, and their treasurer; Demosthenes, in the following oration, and his diligence, in giving life to every

infifts on the importance of saving part of it, by his preience; these things Olynthus; alarms his hearers with greatly contribute to carrying on a war the apprehension of a war, which with expedition and success, but are powactually threatened Attica, and even erful obitacles to that accommodation, the capital; urges the necesity of which he would gladly make with the personal service; and returns to his Olynthians, For the Olynthians ice charge of the mifapplication of the plainly, that they do not now fight for public money; but in such a manner, glory, or for part of their territory, but to

Mm

defend

defend their state from diffolution and And, in my opinion, Athenians! if a flavery. They know how he rewarded man were to bring the dealings of the gods those traitors of Amphipolis, who made him towards us to a fair account, though many matter of that city; and those of Pydna, things might appear not quite agreeable to who opened their gates to him. In a word, our wishes, yet he would acknowledge that free states, I think, must ever look with we had been highly favoured by them; and fufpicion on an absolute monarchy: but a with great reaton: for that many places have neighbouring monarchy must double their been lost in the courte of war, is truly to be apprehensions.

charged to our own weak conduct. But that Convinced of what hath now been offer. the difficulties, arifen from hence, have not ed, and poffefled with every other juft and long affected us; and that an alliance now worthy fentiment; you must be resolved, presents itself to remove them, if we are Athenians; you must exert your spirit; you disposed to make the just use of it; this I must apply to the war, now, if ever; your cannot but ascribe to the divine goodness. fortunes, your persons, your whole powers, But the same thing happens in this case, as. are now demanded. There is no excuse, in the use of riches. If a man be careful no pretence left, for declining the perfor- to fave those he hath acquired, he readily mance of your duty. For that which you acknowledges the kindness of fortune: but were all ever urging loudly, that the Olyn- if by his imprudence they be once loft; thians should be engaged in a war with with them he also loses the sense of gratiPhilip, hath now happened of itself; and tude. So in political affairs, they who negthis in a manner molt agreeable to our in lect to improve their opportunities, forget terest. For, if they had entered into this the favours which the gods have beitowed; war at our persuasion, they must have been for it is the ultimate event which generally precarious allies, without steadiness or re- determines mens judgment of every thing folution : but, as their private injuries have precedent. And, therefore, all affairs heremade them enemies to Philip, it is probable after thould engage your strictest care ; that enmity will be lafting, both on account that, by correcting our errors, we may wipe of what they fear, and what they have al off the inglorious itain of pait actions. But ready suffered. My countrymen ! let not thould we be deaf to these men too, and to favourable an opportunity escape you : Tould he be suffered to subvert Olyndo not repeat that error which hath been thus ; say, what can prevent him from fo often fatal to you. For when, at our marching his forces into whatever territoreturn from aflifting the Eubeans, Hierax ry he pleases? and Stratocles, citizens of Amphipolis, Is there not a man among you, Athemounted this gallery, and pressed you to nians! who reflects by what Iteps, Philip, send out your navy, and to take their city from a beginning so inconsiderable, hath under your protection; had we discovered mounted to this height of power ! First, that resolution in our own cause, which we he took Amphipolis: then he became mafexerted for the safety of Eubæa; then had ter of Pydna; then Potidæa fell; then MeAmphipolis been yours; and all those diffi thone: then came his inroad into Thessaly:culties had been avoided, in which you have after this, having disposed affairs at Phera, been since involved. Again, when we re at Pegasæ, at Magnesia, intirely as he ceived advice of the fieges of Pydna, Poti- pleased, he marched into Thrace. Here, dea, Methone, Pegasz, and other places, while engaged in expelling fome, and efta(for I would not detain you with a parti- blishing other princes, he fell fick. Again, cular recital) bad we ourselves marched recovering, he never turned a moment with a due spirit and alacrity to the relief from his course to ease or indulgence, but of the first of these cities, we should now instantly attacked the Olynthians. His exfind much more compliance, much more peditions against the Illyrians, the Pæohumility in Philip. But by ftill neglecting nians, against Arymbas, Í pass all over.the prelent, and imagining our future in But I may be asked, why this recital, now? tereits will not demand our care; we have That you may know and see your own aggrandized our enemy, we have raised error, in ever neglecting some part of your him to a degree of eminence, greater than affairs, as if beneath your regard : and that any king of Macedon hath ever' yet en active spirit with which Philip pursueth his joyed. - Now we have another opportu- defigns: which ever fires him; and which nity. That which the Olynthians, of them never can permit him to rest fatisfied with felves, present to the itate: one no less those things he hath already accomplished. considerable than any of the former.

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