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parisons of the results of the seventh census with those of preceding censuses and with data derived from European sources; and, in addition, much valuable information as to the cost of the first seven censuses; the administrative features of the census of 1850; an abstract of the census legislation from 1790 to 1850, inclusive; copies of the schedules adopted at each census to 1850; copies of the instructions to marshals and assistants at the censuses of 1840 and 1830, including a detailed explanation of the schedule inquiries at the latter census; remarks upon the schedules of 1850, etc.; copies of the blank forms used in the census office for condensing information in 1850, and a brief synopsis of the European census systems. By direction of Congress, the returns of the population and industry of California, as shown by the State census of 1852, are appended to the census tables of 1850 for that State.

The statistics contained in this quarto report related to population, agriculture, illiteracy, school attendance, schools, libraries, churches, and newspapers and periodicals, but did not comprehend the statistics of mortality or manufactures. The report (a) on mortality was published late in 1855, in accordance with a resolution of the House of Representatives passed December 13, 1854. The report on manufactures was published in March, 1859, as a Senate document, (8) being condensed from the digest prepared under the direction of the Secretary of the Interior, in conformity with the first section of the act of June 12, 1858, by which the sum of $3,500 was appropriated for the purpose. A compendium of the seventh census was also published late in 1854, having been ordered by a resolution of the House of Representatives passed January 12, 1854, and this publication was in the main a condensation of the large quarto report published in 1853, with the addition of partial data relating to mortality and manufactures.

For the supervision of the work of enumeration and the compilation of the results, Mr. Joseph C. G. Kennedy, of Pennsylvania, who had served as secretary of the Census Board from May 1, 1849, to May 31, 1850, was appointed by the Secretary of the Interior, in accordance with the provisions of the census act, as superintending clerk, or, as more commonly known, Superintendent of the Census. Mr. Kennedy was succeeded by Mr. James D. B. De Bow, of Louisiana, who was appointed superintending clerk March 18, 1853, and under whose direction the compilation of the census returns was completed. When the work of compiling the compendium was brought to a close, late in 1854, Mr. De Bow resigned his office as Superintendent of the Census, to take effect December 31, 1854, and the census office was disbanded. It was revived early in 1855 in order to prepare the report

a House Ex. Doc., Thirty-third Congress, second session, No. 98.

b Senate Ex. Doc., Thirty-fifth Congress, second session, No. 39. S. Doc. 194 4

on mortality, for which purpose Mr. De Bow was reappointed, and upon the completion of this work, in November, 1855, the office was again disbanded. In the preparation of the digest of the statistics of manufactures, ordered by the act of June 12, 1858, the services of Mr. Joseph C. G. Kennedy were utilized, and upon its completion, in December, 1859, he remained as superintending clerk from January 1 to May 31, 1860, when he was appointed Superintendent of the Eighth Census.

The total population returned at the census of 1850 was 23,191,876.

The total cost of the seventh census was $1,423,350.75, distributed as follows: For preparing forms and schedules (by census board), $9,496.52; for transmitting papers relating to census through the postoffice, $12,000; for payment to marshals and assistants for enumerating inhabitants, etc., $952,401.18; for paper and printing of returns, $43,016.61; for binding schedules of seventh and preceding censuses, $2,328.87; for all other expenses, including clerk hire, etc., for compilation of census returns, $104,107.57.


A census or enumeration of the inhabitants of the Territory of Minnesota was taken by the marshal thereof, prior to its admission as a State, in accordance with the provisions of section 4 of the act of February 26, 1857, in order to determine the number of representatives in Congress to which it would be entitled, and an appropriation of $20,000 was made for the purpose. This census was taken by direction of Congress, under the supervision of the Department of the Interior, but the results were not finally reported until July 23, 1858.


The census of 1860 was taken under the act of May 23, 1850, upon the recommendation of the Secretary of the Interior that the provisions of that act should be adhered to, following the requirement for the taking of the eighth or any subsequent census under its provisions, if no law therefor was passed before January 1 of the year in which the census was required to be taken, under the Constitution. By act of May 5, 1860, a classified clerical force was provided for the census office, consisting of a chief clerk, six clerks of class 4, nine clerks of class 3, ten clerks of class 2, and such number of clerks of class 1 as might be necessary, and the Secretary of the Interior on June 1, 1860, appointed Mr. Joseph C. G. Kennedy as Superintendent of the Eighth Census.

The same schedules of inquiry were used as in 1850, with a few additions and extensions, the most important being those on the schedule for free inhabitants, which required that the “profession, occupation, or trade of each person, male and female, over 15 years of age” should be returned, instead of only that of males over 15 years of age, and that under the value of estate owned a separate return was made of the value of real estate and of personal estate, instead of the value of real estate only. An inquiry was also added on the schedule for slave inhabitants, calling for the number of slave houses, while on the schedule relating to the productions of agriculture a return was required as to the quantity of beeswax and honey separately, instead of combined, as in 1850. The detailed instructions were also modified, to overcome the difficulties which arose in the course of the enumeration in 1850 and to avoid all misapprehension as to the intent of the inquiries. With the exception of these slight changes, however, the eighth census was carried on under the same plans and in accordance with the same methods which governed the seventh census; nor did the census of 1860 suffer particularly from the effects of the civil war, which developed soon after the completion of the enumeration, in the way of a detention or loss of any of the returns, and the only delay arising therefrom came from the interruption of communication with many of the marshals, necessary to insure, through correspondence, completeness in the arrangement of some of the minor details. (a)

There were employed in the fieldwork the 64 marshals of the judicial districts of the country, a few special agents in the unorganized territory, and 4,417 assistants. In November, 1860, there were 127 clerks employed in the census office, 168 clerks and 16 messengers, laborers, and watchmen in May, 1862, and a total of 110 persons, including clerks, laborers, messengers, and watchmen, in November, 1862. The census office was practically abolished May 31, 1865, the services of the superintending clerk being dispensed with on that date, and a portion of the clerks engaged on the census work were transferred to the General Land Office, where the work was completed, including the publication of two volumes of the census report, under the direction of the Commissioner of the General Land Office.

The first published results of the eighth census were contained in a preliminary Report of the Eighth Census, consisting of 310 octavo pages, which was transmitted to Congress early in May, 1862, and of which 105,000 copies were ordered printed by a resolution of the House of Representatives passed May 21, 1862.

The final Report of the Eighth Census was contained in four quarto volumes, one relating to population, one to agriculture, one to manufactures, and one to mortality and miscellaneous statistics. These volumes contain in each case many pages devoted to a careful analysis of the statistics contained therein, besides much descriptive and historical data concerning the several classes and industrial interests considered.

a Population of the United States in 1860, pp. iii, iv.

The volume on agriculture contains a table, omitted from the volume on population, giving the number of slaveholders and slaves in 1860 by counties and a recapitulation by States and Territories, with a similar recapitulation by States and Territories for 1850. The final volume of this report, which is devoted to mortality and miscellaneous statistics, contains, in addition to mortality statistics, those relating to religion, education, libraries, schools, colleges, etc., real and personal estate, the public press, pauperism, crime, wages, families and free population, banks and insurance, railroads, canal and river improvements, and the fisheries, and a preliminary chapter of “observations on the census ” in the United States and foreign countries.

The total population of the United States at the census of 1860 was 31,443,321.

The total amount appropriated and expended for the eighth census was $1,969,376.99, of which, approximately, $1,329,749.07 was paid to marshals and assistants, and to special agents in Territories for enumerating the inhabitants, etc.; but some of the claims of marshals and assistants in the South were not finally adjusted, on account of conditions arising from the civil war, until several years after the service was rendered.


The ninth census was taken in accordance with the terms of the act of May 23, 1850, although an effort was made to have new legislation effected for the government of its operations. While the census of 1850 was a decided improvement over its predecessors, and the census of 1860 was, as stated by a Congressional committee, "the most complete census that any nation has ever had,” it was recognized that the law of 1850 was entirely inadequate to meet the changed conditions under which the census of 1870 would have to be taken. A special committee of the House of Representatives, in the second session of the Forty-first Congress, was, therefore, charged with the duty of considering the census needs, and required to report as to what legislation, if any, was essential to the proper taking of the ninth census. This special committee, under the able leadership of General Garfield, made a careful study of census methods, calling to their counsels many experts, including Gen. Francis A. Walker and Dr. Edward Jarvis, and the results of their deliberations were presented in an extended report, in which a comprehensive plan for taking the ninth census was submitted in the form of a bill, accompanied by an exhaustive exposition of the entire subject of the census here and abroad. This report (a) was made January 18, 1870, and the bill was passed by the House of Representatives, but was defeated in the Senate, thereby compelling the census of 1870 to be taken under the antiquated law of

a House Reports, Forty-first Congress, second session, Vol. I, No. 3.

1850, which by its own provisions was made applicable thereto after January 1, 1870, but the operation of which, by the resolution of December 22, 1869, had been suspended and postponed until February 1, 1870, pending action by Congress. Although the painstaking work of this committee came to naught, so far as the ninth census was concerned, it was not wholly lost, but formed the ground work of the plan which was embodied in the law governing the work of the tenth census.

The census of 1870, therefore, was carried on under the law of 1850, but several additions and alterations were made in the schedules of inquiry. Gen. Francis A. Walker, at that time the chief of the bureau of statistics in the Treasury Department, was appointed February 7, 1870, by the Secretary of the Interior, as Superintendent of the Ninth Census, and under his skillful guidance and direction the best census that it was possible to take under the provisions of the existing census law was brought to its completion early in 1873, and the printed results given to the public at an earlier date than ever before. The only legislation that was had in 1870–71 which affected the conduct of the census work was that of the act of May 6, 1870, the resolution of June 9, 1870, and section 8 of the act of March 3, 1871. The act of May 6, 1870, is as follows:

That the time allowed for transmitting the said copy of the returns of the assistant marshals to the census office is hereby further limited so that the returns of population upon schedule numbered one in the act of May twenty-third, eighteen hundred and fifty, shall be sent to that office on or before the tenth day of September next, and complete returns upon all the schedules annexed to and made a part of that act, excepting upon the schedule therein designated as number two, which schedule is hereby revoked, canceled, and declared to be no longer a part of said act, shall be forwarded to the census office before the first day of October following: Provided, That the Secretary of the Interior shall be authorized to extend the time allowed for returns on the schedules other than those of population in any case where it shall appear to him to be necessary: Provided further, That whenever, from the loss or destruction of returns, or from causes beyond the control of the officers charged with the enumeration, it shall be shown to be impracticable to comply with the requirements of this section, the Secretary of the Interior is authorized to extend the time allowed for rendering returns of population, not beyond the first day of October next.

SEC. 2. That the penalty provided in the fifteenth section of said act of May twenty-third, eighteen hundred and fifty, shall apply to any refusal whatever to answer either of the inquiries authorized by said act.

Sec. 3. That each assistant marshal or agent shall be paid for making out and returning complete copies of the original census returns, as required in the eleventh section of the act, to which this is a supplement, eight cents for each page of the two copies of the original census returns required by the said eleventh section.

Sec. 4. That the oath to be taken by assistant marshals employed to take the census shall be the oath required by the act of eighteen hundred and fifty, of which this is an amendment.

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