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Figure 28.-PERCENT CHANGE, 1940 TO 1950, IN THE SIZE OF THE LABOR FORCE AND IN THE NUMBER OF PERSONS 14 YEARS OLD AND OVER, BY SEX, BY STATES-Con.
pacitated workers, and seasonal workers neither working nor seeking work at the time of the census, were frequently included among gainful workers; but, in general, such persons are not included in the labor force. On the other hand, the census included in the labor force for 1940 and 1950 persons seeking work without previous work experience, that is, new workers. Such new workers as there were at the time of the 1920 and 1930 Censuses were probably for the most part not reported as gainful workers.
In 1920, the census date was January 1, whereas that for 1930, 1940, and 1950 was April 1. For this additional reason, the number of gainful workers reported for 1920, especially in agricultural areas, may not be altogether comparable with the statistics for later years.
tistics does not appear to differ from that for 1940 because of these measures.
The 1940 data for employed persons in this volume vary in some cases from the figures originally published in the 1940 reports. The appropriate 1940 figures for the employed shown in the present report have been adjusted to exclude the estimated number of men in the armed forces at that time. This was done to achieve comparability with the 1950 employed total which is limited to civilians.
Current Population Survey.—The estimated size of the civilian labor force in the United States based on the Current Population Survey is about 5 percent above the corresponding figure from the 1950 Census. The discrepancy lies chiefly in the count of incidental workers. Examination of the census returns for a sample
of households that were also included in the Current Population Survey for April 1950 indicates that although differences of all kinds were found, on balance, the Current Population Survey enumerators, who are much more experienced than were the temporary census enumerators, reported more completely the employment or unemployment of teen-agers and women 25 years old and over. This difference is reflected in higher labor force participation rates and unemployment rates for those groups and a more accurate reporting of persons employed in industries, such as agriculture, trade and personal services, where part-time or occasional work is widely prevalent. These are the groups for whom variability in response is relatively great in labor force surveys. On the other hand, the differences were at a minimum for men and for young women-the major components of the "fulltime" labor force. Table Q compares the labor force participation rates-i. e., the proportion of the population in the labor force-for broad age groups by sex and color, based on reports for identical persons obtained by census and by Current Population Survey enumerators.
It may be estimated on the basis of the above analysis that perhaps 3 percent of the total population 14 years old and over in April 1950 were actually in the labor force but were classified outside the labor force in the census returns. This percentage varies from State to State and between one population group and another. For example, misclassification was somewhat greater for nonwhite than for white persons as shown in table Q. This difference reflects in large measure the fact that proportionately more nonwhite workers are unemployed, or employed as service workers or laborers, groups that were particularly subject to misclassification in the census.
Other data. Because the 1950 Census employment data were obtained by household interviews, they differ from statistics based on reports from individual business establishments, farm enterprises, and certain government programs. The data based on household interviews provide information about the work status of the whole population.
Persons employed at more than one job are counted only once as employed and are classified according to the job at which they worked the greatest number of hours during the census week. In statistics based on reports from business and farm establishments, on the other hand, persons who work for more than one establishment may be counted more than once. Moreover, other data, unlike those presented here, generally exclude private household workers, unpaid family workers, and self-employed persons, and may include workers less than 14 years of age. An additional difference arises from the fact that persons with a job but not at work are included with the employed in the statistics shown here, whereas only part of this group is likely to be included in employment figures based on establishment payroll reports. Furthermore, the household reports include persons on the basis of their place of residence regardless of where they work, whereas establishment reports relate persons to their place of work regardless of where they live; the two types of data may not be comparable for areas where a significant number of workers commute
For a number of reasons, the unemployment figures of the Bureau of the Census are not directly comparable with the published figures for unemployment compensation claims or claims for veterans' readjustment allowances. Certain persons such as private household and government workers are generally not eligible for unemployment compensation. Further, the place where claims are filed may not necessarily be the same as the place of residence of the unemployed worker. In addition, the qualifications for drawing unemployment compensation differ from the definition of unemployment used by the Bureau of the Census. Persons working only a few hours during the week and persons classified as "with a job but not at work" are sometimes eligible for unemployment compensation but are included by the Bureau among the "employed."
HOURS WORKED DURING CENSUS WEEK
The data on hours worked were derived from answers to the question, "How many hours did he work last week?" asked of persons who reported they had worked during the week prior to their enumeration. The statistics refer to the number of hours actually worked during the census week, and not necessarily to the number usually worked or the scheduled number of hours. For persons working at more than one job, the figures relate to the combined number of hours worked at all jobs during the week. The data on hours worked presented in this report provide abroad classification of young employed persons into full-time and parttime workers. The proportion of persons who worked only a small number of hours is understated because such persons were omitted from the labor force count more frequently than were full-time workers.
WEEKS WORKED IN 1949 Definitions
The statistics on weeks worked are based on replies to the question, "Last year, in how many weeks did this person do any work at all, not counting work around the house?" This question was asked of a 20-percent sample of persons 14 years old and over. The data pertain to the number of different weeks during 1949 in which a person did any work for pay or profit (including paid vacations and sick leave) or worked without pay on a family farm or in a family business. Weeks of active service in the armed forces are also included. It is probable that the number of persons who worked in 1949 is understated, because there is some tendency for respondents to forget intermittent or short periods of employment.
In 1950, no distinction was made between a part-time and a full-time work week, whereas in 1940 the enumerator was instructed to convert part-time work to equivalent full-time weeks. A fulltime week was defined as the number of hours locally regarded as full time for the given occupation and industry. A further difference is that, in the 1940 reports, the data were shown for wage and salary workers only and were published in terms of months rather than weeks.
OCCUPATION, INDUSTRY, AND CLASS OF WORKER
In the 1950 Census of Population, information on occupation, industry, and class of worker was collected for persons in the experienced civilian labor force. All three items related to one specific job held by the person. For an employed person, the information referred to the job he held during the census week. If he was employed at two or more jobs, the job at which he worked the greatest number of hours during the census week was reported. For an experienced unemployed person, the information referred to the last job he had held.
The classification systems used for the occupation and industry data in the 1950 Census of Population are described below. These systems were developed in consultation with many individuals,
private organizations, and government agencies, and, in particular, the Joint Committee on Occupational Classification (sponsored by the American Statistical Association and the United States Bureau of the Budget).
The occupation information presented here was derived from answers to the question, "What kind of work was he doing?" Classification system. The occupational classification system developed for the 1950 Census of Population is organized into 12 major groups, which form the basis for the occupation data in Chapter B of this volume. The system consists of 469 items, 270 of which are specific occupation categories; the remainder are FIGURE 29. PERCENT CHANGE, 1940 TO 1950, IN THE NUMBER OF EMPLOYED PERSONS IN THE UNITED STATES, BY MAJOR OCCUPATION GROUP
subgroupings (mainly on the basis of industry) of 13 of the occupation categories. For the detailed occupation tables in Chapter C, certain of the categories were combined, and the detailed occupation list used here consists of 446 items (tables 124, 125, and 158). The composition of each of the detailed categories is shown in the publication, U. S. Bureau of the Census, 1950 Census of Population, Classified Index of Occupations and Industries, Washington, D. C., 1950.
In the presentation of cross-classifications of occupation by urban-rural residence, age, race, class of worker, and income, intermediate occupational classifications of 158 items for males and 67 items for females have been used (tables 126 to 129 and 159). These intermediate classifications represent selections and combinations of the items in the detailed system. The relationships between the two levels of classification are given in Lists A and B for males and females, respectively.
Other industries (incl. not reported)
List A.-INTERMEDIATE OCCUPATIONAL CLASSIFICATION FOR MALES (158 ITEMS) WITH COMPONENT
[Detailed occupation not shown where intermediate occupation consists of only one detailed occupation. "N. e. c." means not elsewhere classified]
Managers, officials, and proprietors (n. e. c.)-salaried:
Wholesale and retail trade
Food and dairy products stores, and milk retailing
Furniture, home furnishings, and equipment stores
Fating and drinking places
Hardware, farm implement, and building material retailing
Other retail trade
Finance, insurance, and real estate
Banking and other finance
Insurance and real estate
50. Blacksmiths, forgemen, and hammermen Blacksmiths
Forgemen and hammermen
52. Cabinetmakers and patternmakers Cabinetmakers
Pattern and model makers, except paper
54. Compositors and typesetters
55. Cranemen, hoistmen, and construction machinery operators
Cranemen, derrickmen, and hoistmen
Excavating, grading, and road machinery operators
Other industries (incl. not reported)
60. Linemen and servicemen, telegraph, telephone, and power
61. Locomotive engineers
62. Locomotive firemen
63. Machinists and job setters Job setters, metal Machinists
64. Masons, tile setters, and stone cutters Brickmasons, stonemasons, and tile setters Stone cutters and stone carvers
65. Mechanics and repairmen, airplane
66. Mechanics and repairmen, automobile
67. Mechanics and repairmen, radio and television
68. Other mechanics and repairmen, and loom fixers
Mechanics and repairmen, office machine
70. Molders, metal
71. Painters (construction), paperhangers, and glaziers
Painters, construction and maintenance
72. Plasterers and cement finishers
73. Plumbers and pipe fitters
74. Printing craftsmen, except compositors and type
75. Shoemakers and repairers, except factory
76. Stationary engineers
List A.-INTERMEDIATE OCCUPATIONAL CLASSIFICATION FOR MALES (158 ITEMS) WITH COMPONENT
Tailors and tailoresses
Sawmills, planing mills, and miscellaneous wood products
79. Tinsmiths, coppersmiths, and sheet metal workers
Operatives and kindred workers-Con.
Business and repair services
All other industries (incl. not reported)
124. Private household workers
Housekeepers, private household-living in
125. Barbers, beauticians, and manicurists
127. Cooks, except private household
3. Mest cutters, except slaughter and packing house
Yarn, thread, and fabric mills
90. Mine operatives and laborers (n. e. c.) Coal mining
Crude petroleum and natural gas extraction Mining and quarrying, except fuel
91. Motormen, street, subway, and elevated railway
2. Painters, except construction and maintenance
3. Power station operators
Miscellaneous fabricated textile products
M. Sailors and deck hands
Paper and allied products
Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills
Paperboard containers and boxes
Spinners and weavers, textile
Miscellaneous paper and pulp products
97. Stationary firemen
Leather and leather products
. Truck drivers and deliverymen
Leather: tanned, curried, and finished
Footwear, except rubber
Deliverymen and routemen
Truck and tractor drivers
Leather products, except footwear
Cement, and concrete, gypsum, and plaster products
Structural clay products
Pottery and related products
Miscellaneous nonmetallic mineral and stone products
Blast furnaces, steel works, and rolling mills
Other primary iron and steel industries
Primary nonferrous industries