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cline it when success lay beyond his reach. In planning his movements, he was cool and sagacious, but in the execution of them, prompt and daring. The post of peril was his glory, and the sword, his pride.
4. He commenced his military career in 1775, a lieutenant of a rifle corps. In the following year he was promoted to the rank of major, with the command of a rifle regiment; and in this capacity, he gloriously acquitted himself in the field against the celebrated Sir William Howe. He was subsequently appointed a colonel of a regiment of infantry, and sent to the defence of the south under the brave Baron De Kalb.
5. Here he was found by general Green, immediately after the battle of Camden. The penetrating eye of this sagacious commander, soon distinguished the host that was embodied in the single arm of colonel Williams. His capacious mind, his profound judgment, his sagacity and penetration, were at once revealed to the commander-in-chief, and the colonel became his favorite counsellor, and strong hold in every trying emergency.
6. In the memorable retreat, before the overwhelming force of lord Cornwallis, from the Catawba, across the Dan, the rear guard, the shield and rampart of the American army, was committed to the heroic colonel; to him, also, was assigned the van, when the Dan was re-crossed, the retreating path retraced, and lord Cornwallis, with his host, driven like the hunted stag.
7. For the arduous and dangerous services incident to these duties, no man was better qualified than colonel Williams. Of a lofty and generous cast of mind, he stooped to no intrigue; of an expanded and well poised intellect, a perfect self-command, and a boldness that never cowered, he could fight when his foe was to be reached, or retreat when policy pointed the
He sacrificed at the shrine of necessity only, but there he offered with a devotion that beggars description.
ARITHMETIC. ARITHMETICA PROGRESSION. LESSON 3. Note 1. Numbers which increase or decrease by a common difference; are said to be in arithmetical progression. Thus:-2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, present an increasing arithmetical series; and 12, 11, 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, a decreasing arithmetical series. The numbers which form the series, are called terms of progression--the first and last of which are called the extremes.
In the solution of questions in this rule, the scholar will note five particulars; viz.
1st. The first term. 4th. The common difference. 2d. The last term.
5th. The sum of all the terms. 3d. The number of terms.
Note 2. The sum of the two extremes, equals the sum of any two ierms, equally distant from the extremes. Thus:-In the above series, 12+6=18, 11+7=18, 10+8=18, &c. Hence, having any three of the above five particulars given, the other two may be found by inspection.
Case 1. When the first term, the common difference, and the number of terms are given, to find the last term, and the sum of all the terms; -moon
Rule. 1. Multiply the number of terms, less by, 1, by, the common difference, and, to the product, add the first term, the sum will be the last term.
2. Add the first and the last terms together, and multiply the sum by the number of terms, and half the product will be the sum of all the terms. Thus:
(1) What is the last term, and the number of terms of an arithmetical progression whose first term is 1, the common difference 2, and the number of terms 19?
Number of terms 1--91=18. Common difference 2, and 18X2=36+1=37 the last term. Then the last term 37+1 the first term=38. 19=722.:-= 361. Ans. Sum of all terms.
(2) B sold 40 yds. of linen, at 2 cts. for the first yard, 4 cts. for the second, increasing 2 cts. everý yard, to what did they amount?
Ans. $16.40. (3) How many times does the hammer of a regular clock & strike in 12 hours?
Ans. 78. Note 3. If the terms of the arithmetical progression be odd, then the rouble of the middle term equals the sum of the extremes, or any two terms equally distant from the middle term,
REMARKS, &C.---LESSON 4.
Figures of speech. NOTE. A figure of speech implies a departure from the literai or simplo expression. Thus:-When it is said," " A good man enjoys comfort in the midst of adversity,"—the language is literal; but to say, “To the upright, there arises light in darkness," is a figurative expression:--light implies comfort, and darkness, adversity.
The advantages derived from the use of the figures of speech, may be classed under two general heads.
1. By the multiplication of words, it enriches language and renders it more copious;-hence the writer or speaker is erfa
bled to describe minute differences, and nice shades and colourings of thought, to a much greater extent and better advantage than by the use of simple words.
2. It contributes to give a clear and impressive exhibition of certain objects; stamps the impression of truth upon the mind, and renders language more lively and forcible.
Figurative language is prompted either by the passions or the fancy:-hence, it may be divided into two classes, to wit: figures of words and figures of thought.
Figures of words originate in the passions, and are called troups.--A troup is nothing more than the use of a word implying something different from its original meaning. Thus:*Thy law is a lamp to my feet and a light to my path."
Figures of thought, imply the use of words in their literal sense;—the figure is produced by the turn of thought, or the impulse of the imagination. Exclamations, interrogations, and apostrophes, are of this class.
The two foregoing classes may be subdivided into several kinds; the most important of which are the following:
1. Metaphor.-A figure founded upon the resemblance of one thing to another.
2. Allegory.--A metaphor continued to a considerable length.
3. Simile.--A comparison in form,-resemblance, minute and extended.
.4 Metonymy. A figure originating in the relation of cause and effect.
5. Personification.---Life attributed to inanimate objects.
6. Apostrophe.--Departure from the course of a subject to address some object.
7. Hyperbole.—The magnifying or diminishing certain objects.
Besides these there are a few others of more common and minor importance. Such as antithesis, vision, irony, climax, interrogation, and exclamation, &c. Examples of which abound in almost every species of composition.
SPELLING.--LESSON 5. ab-dic-2-tive ăb'dē-kä-tiv caul-i-flow-er kõl'le-fòûur ac-ces-så-re åk'sěs-să-rē cel-i-ba-cy sěl'ē-bă-sē ac-ces-so-ry
ăk'sěs-so-re cem-e-ter-y sēm'mē-těr-ē ac-cu-ra-cy
ăk'kū-ră-sē cens-u-ra-ble sens'yū-ră-bl ac-ri-mo-ny ăk'krē-mo-nē cer-e-mo-ny
act-u-al-ly ăkt'yū-ăl-lē char-i-ta-bly chăr'ē-tă-bl ad-ju-tan-cy adju-tăn-sẽ chir-o-man-cy kir'ro-măn-së ad-mi-ra-ble ăd'mē-rı-bl chym-i-cal-ly kìm mê-ka1-ly ad-mi-ral-ty ăd'mē-răl-të cir-cum-spect-ly sér kūm-spěkt-le ad-ver-sa-ry ăd'věr-să-rē cog-i-ta-tive kõj'é-ta-tiv a-er-o-nant ā'ūr-o-nant com-fort-a-ble kům'fúrt-à-bl ag-ri-cul-ture ăgʻrē-kúlt-yūre com-mis-sa-ry kom’mís-săr-ë ag-ri-mo-ny åg'rē-mun-e com-par-a-ble kom'părcă-bl al-ien-a-ble alyên-a-bl com-pe-ten-cy kom'pe-těn-sē al-le-gor-y ăľ’lē-gor-rē
con-quer-a-ble kõng'kūr-a-bl am-a-tor-y ăm'ă-tūr-ē con-scion-a-blekõn'shữn-a-bi a-mi-a-ble ā'mē-=-bl con-sis-to-rykõn'sis-túr-ē am-i-ca-ble am mê-la-b] con-tra-re-wise kõn'tră-rē-wize an-swer-a-ble ăn'súr--bl
con-tro-ver-sy kõn'tró-vér-sē an-ti-qua-ry ăn'tē-kwă-re con-tu-ma-cy kon'tū-mă-se a-pi-a-ry
ä-pēcă-rē cop-u-la-tive kop'ū-la-tiv ap-o-plex-y ăp'o-plēks-e cor-di-al-ly kõr'jē-al-tö ap-pli-ca-ble. ăpʻplē-kăóbl cor-ol-lar-y kõr'Ô-lăr-e ar-bi-tra-ry àr'bē-tră-rē cor-ri-gi-ble kõr're-ji-bl ar-chi-tect-ure àrske-těkt-yūre cov-e-tous-ly kúv'vē-tús-lē ar-du-ous-ness àr'jū-ŭs-nes cred-it-a-ble krěd'it-ā-bl ar-mil-la-ry àr'mil-lă-rē cu-li-na-ry
kūslē-nă-rē au-di-to-ry âw'de-túr-ē
cus-tom-a-ry kũgotun-a-rẽ a-vi-a-ry
ā've-a-re dam-age-a-ble dăm'ije-ă-bl cap-il-la-ry kăp'pil-lă-rë def-i-nite-ly děf'ê-nite-le cas-u-is-try kăz'yū-is-trē des-pi-ca-ble děs'pe-kă-bi cas-u-al-ty kāz'yū-al-tē des-ul-to-ry děs'ul-tūr-ē cat-e-go-ry
kăt'e-gor-ē dichtion-a-ry dikoshữn-a-rẽ cat-er-pil-lar kõttúr-pil·lúr dif-fi-cul-ty diffē.kūl-të
Colonel Henry Lee. 1. Another of the intrepid leaders of the south, was Col. Lec;—a Virginian both by birth and education, and a soldier worthy of the name he wore, the rank he filled, his associates in arms, and the cause for which he beared his sword.
He possessed a lofty, generous, invincible courage, unshaken firmness, and the enthusiasm of a noble warrior.
2. His impetuous daring, was but a small part of his military character. This was happily blended with the temperate and higher qualities of age. His was the fire of Achilles, ennobled by the polished dignity of Hector, and tempered by the fisdom and foresight of Nestor.
3. Colonel Lee knew the country, and was vigilant to guard its passes; he knew his enemy, and by his skill in collecting and combining his resources and multiplying his enterprises, and by his decision in executing his plans, he robbed his foe of the power of repose, and caused him to flee when no one pursued. He was attached to the cavalry;--his charger was his pride; his troops, his delight; bis sword, his well tried friend, and his country, his glory.
4. The variety and danger of his services, the chivalrous cast of his exploits, the interest which he imparted to his movements, the confidence he held of his generals, and of the brave legion which he commanded, conspired to encircle him with a halo, whose radiance became brightest when the gloom of his country's cause bore its deepest shades.
5. The military character of the colonel, was not his only excellence. His expanded intellect, his high literary attainments, and his classio taste, prepared him to wield the pen with the same certainty of success that he drew his sword. In testimony of this assertion, reference may be had to his "sketches of the southern war," one of the most interesting and finished pieces of military history, that graces the cabinet
of this or any other country.
ARITHMETICAL PROGRESSION.--LESSON 4. CASE 2d. When the two extremes are given, to find the common difference.
RULE. Divide the difference of the extremes by the number of terms, less by 1, and the quotient will be the common difference. Thus:
(1) If the ages of 12 persons are equally different, the youngest 18, and the oldest 40; what is the common difference of their ages?
40-18=22, and 12-1=11. Then 22:11=2. Ans. (2) When a debt is paid at 8 different payments, in arithmetical progression, the first $21, and the last $175:-what is the common difference, -what each payment, and what the lebt? Ans. Com. diff. $22, 2d paym't. $42, 3d $65, 4th $87, 5th $109, 6th $131, 7th $153, 8th 175, whole debt $784.
Practicat Exercises in Arithmetical Progression. (1) B sold 100 yds. of cloth; for the 1st yd. he had 12 cts., for the 2d, 24, for the 3d, 36:- what was the bill? Ans. $606.
(2) H bought 10 yds. of shalloon, at id for the first yard, 3d for the second, 5d for the third, &c. increasing two at every ard:
-to what did they amount? Ans. £1 - 10 . ld.