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reign of the one, and his manifold greater measure, we find that Evelyn tribulations under the other — his has a much larger share of the troubles shoulder of mutton without a napkin, of common life. He loses several his dirty and undressed plight, his children, among them one of those borrowed shirt and precarious rest, learned and pious youthful ladies, of the little personal inconveniences, whom he numbers several among his which mark the period quite as clearly friends ; none is fairer, sweeter, more as the public calamity, are all very pious, or accomplished, than his own plainly set down ; yet his own mea- Mary, and his grief has satisfaction in sures are those of an active and care- recording her perfections. Of this ful public servant, there is quite as daughter, who died at nineteen, and of little doubt of that. And Samuel the wonderful little Richard long ago escapes uninjured in home and per- dead, at six years old, the father speaks son, in goods and family connections, with a full heart. It is “ grit,” like a from both the great national disasters river, overflooded and running wide, of his time.
this grief of his, in respect to these Bat the naïve and plain-spoken children; and it is singular to note autobiographer has a period put to his how differently the death of his son disclosures. Samuel must relapse into John, in the prime of manhood, when the veiled propriety of ordinary story. Evelyn himself is old, affects his Samuel must be content in future with calmer faculties, and how he can only such a record as all the world couple with the brief obituary a notice may see-for these twinkling curious of my Lord of Devonshire's misforeyes of his may not avail him longer tunes on the turf. But even sorrow for his secret ciphering, and it is with does not turn aside his life from its a great pang that he yields to the full current. John Evelyn is as busy necessity, which is “almost as much a man, after his grave fashion, as as to see myself go into my grave," Samuel Pepys, and a very much more he says, disconsolately, and so con- disinterested one, since neither fee nor cludes a chronicle which has no equal compliment seems to come in his way, -the clearest picture ever displayed and his charge of the sick and wounded to the world of a mind and conscience in these harassing naval wars, his in perfect undress, with not a thought embarrassment how to provide for concealed.
hosts of prisoners, having neither And had darkness rested still upon houses to receive nor money to supthe mysterious characters of Pepys' port them, give him little satisfaction Diary, not Evelyn himself had shown in his public labours. Providing a better example of respectability to chirurgeons and medicaments, and aftercoming beholders. The Pepys himself overseeing these poor maimed who writes letters to those contem- victims of warfare, everywhere finding porary people with whom it is neces- accommodation inadequate, and means sary to stand well, is a very different insufficient, Evelyn travels from town Pepys from him of the journal; and to town of his district with most conwe are balf inclined to take for irony scientious zeal; nor, though the emthe serious compliments and much ployment is very far from being an respect with which he is saluted by agreeable one, does he fail to devote the notable compeers, who know him himself to it with good-will and his so much less than we do. It is a best endeavours. Along margin of time carious fact this, among the many is left over, however, for his own percurious facts which this self-exposure sonal pursuits; and all the wonders of reveals to us; no doubt Mr Pepys the time are welcome to Evelyn, who knew Mr Evelyn a great deal better dabbles in all the arts and sciences, than we know that well-mannered and and has a smattering of every branch worthy gentleman-but not a hun- of learning under the sun. It is now dredth part so well informed was Mr that, by his skilful negotiations, Harry Evelyn, not so learned was Mrs Howard of Norfolk bestows the ArunPepys herself in the character of del Marbles upon Oxford, and a Samuel, as are we.
library upon the Royal Society, for In a corresponding space of time, which first good office Evelyn has over which he walks with strides of a the solemn thanks of the University, and is with much pomp and circum- of a statue, and seeming to flow for some stance created Doctor of Laws; and miles, by being artificially continued in now it is that he reads his paper upon
the painting, where it sinks down at the forest trees—the Sylva by which he is
wall. It is a very agreeable deceit. At
the end of this garden is a little theatre principally known as an author-before
made to change with divers pretty scenes, the Royal Society, of which he may
and the stage so ordered with figures of very justly be called the founder and
men and women painted on light boards parent, and to which he introduces and cut out, and by a person who standa un. various magnates, foreign and native; derneath made to act as if they were speakamong them the Duchess of New- ing, by guiding them, and reciting words castle and Queen Christina of Sweden, in different tones, as the parts require." with both of whom our stately cicerone is considerably amused in his Have we not seen in the modern courteous way. And now it seems Royal Academy, within the range of that among the palace-builders of this these very few years, sundry acres of extravagant era, no one is contented verdant canvass, which might add without the approval of Evelyn, and marvellously to a suburban garden we hear of him carried by this noble “by the addition of a well-painted lord and that illustrious earl to in- perspective"? At this present mospect improvements and new erections, ment there rises upon our memory a the growth of new and sudden for- gigantic oak, overwhelming in its multunes, or the increase and reparation titudinous foliage. What “ an agreeof old. Terraces and lofty elevations, able deceit” might this prove, if it parks and labyrinths and curious gar- were but hung to advantage upon dens, exotic plants and rare flowers, some bit of intrusive wall, in the narwith every practicable device of land- row grounds of a London mansion ! scape-gardening, pass in brilliant re- and how delightful the delusion, lookview before his eyes, and Evelyn ing through scrubby lilacs and acacias, maintains his place of critic loftily, to find the forest king in all his pride, and praises with discrimination, al- where nothing but a smoky line of ways retaining some small matter of brick and mortar was wont to be! disapproval. In one of the earliest But however the fashion of the art pages of his Diary he tells us of the was, there can be no dispute of Eveplace where, as an infant, he was sent lyn's high authority in all matters of to nurse, "a most sweet place towards landscape-gardening, nor of the perthe hills, flanked with woods and re- petual reference made to him. Of the freshed with streams, the affection to great nobles of England many had which kind of solitude I sucked in returned from exile to find their patriwith my very milk;" and the taste monial homes desolated by the civil remains with him all his life, since war, or impaired by Roundhead occuwe find him permitted by his brother pation; there had been sieges, asto make an artificial lake and hermi- saults, defences, among these houses tage at Wotton in his youth, and of the great, and the age had a taste subsequently perceive him curious in for magnificence, for costly rarities, landscape-gardening during his tra- and “curious” decorations, so that vels and early life abroad. In gar- all who could, and many who in real dening, as in all other arts, this age is ability could not, set about the costly emphatically "curious," and as full of work of building and improving. Mr quips and conceits in its plantations Evelyn's journeys from one lordly as in its literature. Here is one seat to another are almost as frequent strange instance seen abroad; it is and as laborious as are his official pil. at the palace of the Count de Lian- grimages; and Mr Evelyn is equally court in Paris :
great on internal decoration, and on “ Towards his study and bed-chamber
the embellishments and accessories is a little garden, which, though very
without. The fair chambers, “parnarrow, by the addition of a well painted getted with yew and divers woods," perspective, is to appearance greatly en- the rare tapestries of dining-ball and larged ; to this there is another part, withdrawing-room, the Indian cabinets supported by arches, in which runs á of my lady's elegant retirement, and stream of water, rising in the aviary out the accumulation of rare and fantastic curiosities in my lord's closet, are all of this advice of his. Added to all matters of interested comment to our these, he has matrimonial negotiations, virtuoso. A cabinet of coins or a executorships, dispensings of alms painted ceiling, an “incomparable" from sundry quarters, and all manner picture or a magnificent toilet- of family duties and offices of friendeverything comes under his inspection; ship upon his hands. Every day, and but of all other matters the thing in all day long, John Evelyn lives; which it seems most difficult to satisfy there is no time for vegetation in this the taste of Evelyn is, the funda- full and energetic existence. mental matter of the site. Wotton is And now there comes an abrupt always in his eye-Wotton, where, conclusion to the reign of Charles. after his illness, he goes to be recovered Death comes fiercely in a paroxysm by his " sweet native air," and which and agony upon the hapless king, and is clearly next to his heart at all times. in a few hurried days all is over, and He finds a great many imperfections James is regnant in his brother's place. in the position of his friends' houses ; His brother's eminence in vice throws one is too far from the water-one James into the shade, and makes, on from the wood-another lies in a hole the whole, rather a decent creditable low-another has no windows towards private man of this narrow-sighted the prospect-the disadvantages are despot. There is great hope of his bemanifold; and it is rare to find the ginning, for, after all, a certain honesty critic entirely satisfied, let him go of intention is in the new king, and he where he will.
has served the public with honour in Specially consulted and authorita. his day. We have no longer Pepys tive in this, there are few arts or in- to refer to for the unvarnished truth genuities known which come amiss to of public opinion, but Evelyn records Evelyn; a learned and wonderful his own expectations of a respectable infant prodigy—a philosophical cook- and prosperous reign. A brief trial, ing apparatus (would that Monsieur however, brings sore doubt upon this Papin had bequeathed his wonderful subject; Popish officers begin to swarm machine to the present generation, to in public employments — even that the gladdening of many a housewifely dreaded animal the Jesuit makes its heart, which mourns over bones and appearance in open daylight at Whitesinews unresolvable into the savoury hall; the Parliament is assaulted by jelly of the philosopher's supper!)-à bribes and flatteries and threatenings wonderful conjuror-alternate in Éve. on every side. Toleration, a new lyn's notice with Grindling Gibbons, word in the Papistical mouth, begins his special protégé, whose “incom: to be demanded with a voice gradually parable" carving he is the first to increasing in haughtiness, and at last bring into repute-with that other and suddenly the Prince of Orange "incomparable" genius, Dr Christo- appears on the troubled scene. Hurpher Wren—with famous travellers ryings to and fro, hopeless bewilderand great inventors, with foreign sa. ment, desertion, panic, as in a house vants and notables, each and all of assaulted by unseen midnight enemies, whom contribute something to the darken the air for another brief constant accumulation of knowledge space of time; and then the scene is which Mr Evelyn notes so carefully changed after a confused and disorAnd he who plans benevolent infir- dered fashion, and we perceive Wilmaries and makes “ plots" for a new liam, very silent, very reserved, very city, who plants a great society of Dutch, and not very gracious, perhaps philosophy, and does distinguished even a little scornful of those timeservice to an illustrious college, has serving deserters of his predecessor, time withal to be interested even in setting himself down deliberately and the fashions of the time, and to pre. solemnly in the royal place. sent to the king a pamphlet called But Mr Evelyn says not a word of “Tyrannus, or the Mode,"recommend. William ; only one mention of “ the ing a Persian costume, which is after morose temper of the Prince of Orange, wards temporarily adopted, though who showed little countenance to the Evelyn modestly declares that "he noblemen and others, who expected a thinks" it cannot be in consequence more gracious and cheerful reception
VOL. LXXVI.-NO. CCCCLXV.
when they made their court," falls ing an evergreen grove here to an old from his guarded lips. Farther, the house ready to drop, the economy and new king is despatched with the brief- hospitality of which my good old brother est notice-his acts, his travels, his will not depart from, but more veterum ordinances, and his death, receive
vive kept a Christmas, in which we had not
fewer than three hundred bumpkins every only such a record as the merest offi
holy-day. cial might give them; perhaps because “We have here a very convenient the old English courtier is too proud
apartment of five rooms together, besides to acknowledge offence on his own a pretty closet, which we have furnished part with one who has at least re- with the spoils of Sayes Court, and is the deemed the Church and commonweal raree-show of the whole neighbourhood, -perhaps because he has in reality and in truth we live easy as to all domeslittle opportunity of knowing this self- tic cares. Wednesday and Saturday absorbed and secret royalty, who is nights we call lecture-nights, when my not given to communication. The wife and myself take our turns to read personal friendship of Charles and
the packets of all the news sent constantly
from London, which serves us for discourse James, though Evelyn's upright soul
till fresh news comes ; and so you have could not much approve of either,
· the history of a very old man and his not must still have left a grudge against young companion, whose society I have this foreign supplanter of their race, enjoyed more to my satisfaction these and the current of the historian's life three years here, than in almost fifty begins of itself to run dry and thin, & before, and am now every day trussing up narrowed stream. His children die, to be gone, I hope to a better place." and are married ; Sayes Court, where he has so long been hospitable, is let Pepys, by this time retired to Clapto one tenant and another, and gets bam, and living with his former clerk, devastated by rude Czar Peter and William Hewer, is childless, wifeless, his train ; and the old man, getting and solitary in his old age, but it is nearly eighty, goes to Wotton, to comfortable to know that the ancient which he succeeds as male representa- house of Evelyn survives in his grandtive of his family when he reaches his son. And the Admiralty clerk has full fourscore years. Gayer and more retired from all his offices-from public graphic in his letters than in his solemn life entirely, indeed--while Evelyn is and authoritative Diary, it is thus the still alert and busy, laying the foundapatriarch writes of his own household tions of Greenwich Hospital, and laestate and comforts shortly before his bouring in his vocation still, though brother's death :
the more virtuous chronicler is the
elder man. We can only judge of “ My grandson is so delighted in books Samuel by his letters now, and these that he professes a library is to him the letters are epistles of edifying progreatest recreation, so I give him free priety, grave, temperate, and modest, scope here, where I have near upon 22,000 [query 2000?] (with my brother's), and
with less hyperbole, and even less whither I would bring the rest had I any
lightness of tone, than Evelyn's own. room, which I have not, to my great re
The contemporaries seem to change gret, having here so little conversation
character in their correspondence ; it with the learned-unless it be when Mr is the patrician who now condescends Wotton (the learned gentleman before- to playful self-disclosure, whereas the mentioned, the friend of Dr Bentley) comes Samuel of the Diary, with all his now and then to visit me, he being tutor wicked vanities, his levity, and selfto Mr Finch's son at Albury, but which indulgence, is lost in the decorous Mr he is now leaving to go to his living— Pepys, so conscientious as to give up his that without books, and the best wife and appointments on the abdication of his brother in the world, I were to be pitied; royal patron, so learned in all the arts but with these subsidiaries, and the revising some of my old impertinences, to
and sciences as to qualify him for the the which I am adding a discourse I made
President's place among the philosoon Medals (lying by me long before Oba
phers of the Royal Society, altogether diah Walker's Treatise appeared). I pass a notable and famous man. His old some of my Attic nights, if I may be so peering curiosity, dignified into philovain as to naine them with the author of sophical research, sets about inquiries those criticisms. For the rest, I am plant- touching the second-sight, on which subject there are various letters from have been a heroic king, had he but Lord Reay, and one from no less & had the fate to be a true one; Oliver, name than Clarendon, son of the born in the purple, a man to whom chancellor, and uncle to the queen, empire and rule were a natural heriand curious mathematical questions, tage ; Charles II., poor vicious soul, wherein he has a correspondent no whose name it is best to speak softly, less illustrious than Sir Isaac Newton and forget; James, unwise and limited, With Evelyn, Pepys boasts a frequent a natural-born servant, not a king; and most complimentary correspon- William, who is an institution, and dence; nor does he want the respect- no person; and, lastly, good roundful salatations of learned university about Queen Anne-all except the doctors, and other magnates of the last come to the culmination and contimes; and in his learned leisure at clusion of their reign and fate during Clapham, a patron of the arts, a bene- the two contemporary lives whose factor of Alma Mater, a notable virtuoso course we have followed. A great in his own person, we look with much rebellion-an unnatural usurpationbewilderment for our ancient friend a happy restoration—a glorious revoSamuel, with his twinkling merry eyes lution — follow each other in these and wicked wishes, his simple honest eventful years, and liberties and vanity, and all his unveiled devices, for crowns lost, gained, and bartered, good and for evil. Perhaps he is crowd upon the pages of history with only another specimen of the moderat- almost unexampled speed. History, ing effects of old age-perhaps only following Sir Walter's famous prea shining exemplar of the facility with scription, can but make "a great which a man can disguise himself from stour" of it all, with here the sworded the observation of his fellows. What arm of Cromwell, and there the ausever the cause is, Pepys dies at last, tere and self-contained figure of fall of honours — honours which he William, subduing the vexed and might have kept for ever, to the edifi- fiery elements; and we are fain to cation of posterity, but for these guilty turn aside to the lower range of atvolumes in the Pepysian library, which mosphere, the homely domestic firbetray the respectable Samuel. If mament, which may indeed catch a Samuel could but have foreseen that frequent stain and cloud from those John Smith, illustrious name! hidden flying thundery vapours, but is still the afar in the profound depths of time and unchangeable human sky, with its sunpatare, who was destined to bring the rise and its nightfall, constant as our hidden record of all his evil ways to own. How the common life goes on light!
through all the paroxysms of national With his own decorous and digni- existence, how the mightiest crisis of fied hand Evelyn brings his record an empire fails to overset the natural to a close. A sad record it comes to balance of a working-day, how tables be in these last years. Autumn and are spread and houses erected in spite coming winter are darkening over the of wars and rumours of wars, how wood; the leaves and the fruit fall hearts are deeper touched with the heavily graveward ; one and another old primitive emotions of nature than passes before him into the other coun- with all the politics of kingdoms-is try, and solemnly come these birth- a lesson of singular interest; and nodays, silent remembrancers of his own thing can show it more plainly than approaching end. So the old man do the books and the personages besets his house in order, commits him fore us. Public personages, good self to God, and begins to be " ex- posterity, but human men— living ceeding ill, his indisposition increas- their own immediate days one by one, ing;" and, thus devout and well ap- without much thought of your opinion pointed, the master of Wotton goes of them, and being no more influenced forth upon his last journey, takes fare- than they could help by the convulwell of his fair gardens, his incom- sions of their time. To us who can parable rarities of art, his books, and sit by, and look on, well-bred spechis labours, and all his delights tators of a distant battle-growing goes forth, and is no more.
mightily impatient, in the mean time, Charles, who looks as if he might that no battle is made for our