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at once.

of Congress, in agreeing upon a plan of reorganiza. this point, the committee agreed upon the Sen-
tion of the Army suitable to our present require ate bill, with some amendments, which imme-
ments, and the urgent necessity for early action, I
am induced to present the matter to you officially, diately passed both Houses almost unanimously,
and to ask the attention of Congress to it, believing and on July 28, 1866, became a law. Its main
that when they have the matter fairly before them, features may be thus recapitulated : The peaco
they will do what should be done speedily.

establishment of the country will consist of five
At the present time settlements are springing up regiments of artillery, ten of cavalry, and forty-
tween the Missouri River and the Pacific Ocean, where five of infantry. The artillery regiments are to
beretofore the Indians were left in undisputed po3- have the saine organization as was prescribed
session. Emigrants are pushing to those settlements by law for the fifth regiment of that arm in
and to the gold-fields of the Rocky Mountains by 1861. The cavalry regiments are to consist of
erery available highway. The people flocking to
those regions are citizens of the United States

the six previously in the service, of twelve comand entitled to the protection of the Government. panies each, with four new regiments, similarly They are developing the resources of the country organized, of which two are to be composed of to its great advantage, thus making it our interest as colored men; the original vacancies in the well as our duty to give them military protection. grades of first and second lieutenant to be This makes a much greater force west of the Missis- filled by selection froin among the officers and sippi necessary than was ever beretofore required.

A small military force is required in all the States soldiers of volunteer cavalry, and two-thirds of lately in rebellion, and it cannot be foreseen that this the original vacancies in the higher grades from force will not be required for some time to come. It officers of volunteer cavalry, and one-third is to be hoped that this force will pot be necessary from officers of the regular Army, all of whom to enforce the laws, either State or national. But have served two years in the field during the the difference of sentiment engendered by the great war which has raged for four years, will make the war, and been distinguished for capacity and presence of a military force necessary to give a feel good conduct. The President is authorized, at ing of security to the people; all classes disposed to his discretion, to arm and drill any portion of obey the laws of the country will feel this alike.

the cavalry force as infantry or dismounted
To maintain order, the Government has been
compelled to retain volunteers. All white volunteers cavalry. The forty-five regiments of infantry
have become dissatisfied, and claim that the contract are to consist of the first ten regiments, of ten
with them has been violated, by retaining them after companies each, now in the service; of twenty-
the war was over. By reason of dissatisfaction they seven regiments, of ten companies each, to be
are no longer of use, and might as well be discharged formed by adding two companies to each bat-

The colored volunteer has equal right to claim his talion of the remaining nine three-battalion
discharge, but as yet he has not done so. How long regiments; and of eight new regiments, of ten
will existing laws authorize the retention of this companies each, four of which are to be com-
force, even if they are content to remain ?
The United States Senate passed promptly a bill

posed of colored men, and four to be called the
for the reorganization of the Army which, in my opin-

Veteran Reserve Corps. Original vacancies in ion, is as free from objection as any great measure

the grade of first and second lieutenants are to could possibly be, and it would supply the minimum be filled by selection from among the officers and requisite force. It gives but a few thousand addi- soldiers of volunteers; and of those occurring tional men over the present organization, but gives a large number of additional batteries and companies: officers of volunteers, and half from officers of

in the higher grades, half are to be filled from the plains, and giving protection to the Southern the regular Army, all of whom must have served States, demands the occupation of a great number of two years during the war, and been distinposts. For many of them a small company is just as effi; Veteran Reserve Corps are to be officered by

guished for capacity and good conduct. The cient as one with more men in it would be. The bill before Congress, or the one that has passed the Sen- appointment from officers and soldiers of volunate, gives increased number of rank and file of each teers or the regular Army, who have been company. It is an exceedingly appropriate measure wounded in the service, but are nevertheless in this particular, for it provides for the increase competent for garrison or similiar duty. All when occasion requires more men. the smallest unit of an organization that can be persons receiving appointment in any branch of used without materially injuring discipline and effi- the service must have previously passed a satisciency.

factory examination before a board of officers,
The belief that Congress would act promptly on convened under the direction of the Secretary
this matter, if their attention were called to it, bas in- of War, and such appointments are to be with-
duced me to respectfully ask your attention to it. If
Fou agree with me in this matter, I would also ask, out regard to previous rank. Persons who
If you deer it proper, that this, with such indorse- have served in any capacity under the Con-
ment as you may be pleased to make, be laid before federate Government are precluded from hold-
Congress through the Speaker of the House.

ing any office or position in the Army of the
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
U. S. GRANT, Lieutenant-General.

United States. The infantry companies are to

have a maximum strength of one hundred men, Finally, at a late hour of the session, a com- and a minimum strength of fifty men, and the mittee of conference was appointed to recon- organization, with respect to officers, will be simcile the differences between the two bills. The ilar to that of the first ten regiments of infantry chief struggle was with regard to the number in the service. The numbe of bands in the of Veteran Reserve regiments to be incorpo- army is reduced to fifteen, to be assigned to rated in the arnıy. Mír. Schenck having yielded brigades in time of war, and in time of peace to

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assembled brigades, or to forts or posts at were enlisted for the regular Army, and that at which the largest number of troops shall be the latter date its strength was 38,545 men. ordinarily stationed. Enlistments into the cav- This is exclusive of one thousand Indian scouts, alry must be for the term of five years, and into authorized by the act of July 28, 1866, of whom the artillery and infantry for three years, and six hundred have been assigned to Lieut.-Genrecruits may be enlisted into the Veteran Re- eral Sherman, for his Division of the Missouri, serve Corps from men who have been wounded two hundred to Maj.-General Halleck for the in the military service of the country, provided Division of the Pacific, and two hundred to they are found to be fitted for garrison or other Maj.-General Sheridan for the Department of light duty, to which, when enlisted, they are the Gulf

. As soon as the ranks of the Army to be assigned. The general officers of the are well filled, it is intended to place restricArmy are to comprise one general, one lieu- tions upon the recruiting service, in order to tenant-general, five major-generals, and ten diminish the number of men received, so that brigadier-generals, who are entitled to the same it will correspond to the number required to pay, emoluments, and staff as heretofore pro- keep up the strength of the regiments as they vided by law.

become reduced by casualties or other causes. The military establishment of the country, as This will be done by raising the standard of qualireorganized by the act of July 28, 1866, will fications as to height, age, etc., which will at the thus consist of ten regiments, or one hundred same time improve the personnel of the army. and twenty companies, of cavalry, five regi- The following table gives the commanding ments, or sixty companies, of artillery, and for- officers of the new regiments of cavalry, inty-five regiments, or four hundred and fifty fantry, and Veteran Reserve Corps, so far as companies, of infantry. Should all the com- appointed at the close of 1866: panies be filled to their maximum strength of one hundred men, the army would comprise a No. 01



Reg't. total of nearly 76,000 men, rank and file, of all arms, who may be thus classed:

7th.. Cavalry... Andrew J. Smith, Artillery ...


John I. Gregg.


Edward Hatch.


Benjamin H. Grierson.

11th.. Infantry. Wm. S. Ketchum.


C. C. Augur.

Isaac V. D. Reeve. The present strength of companies has been 14th..

Charles C. Lovell. fixed at sixty-four privates for artillery, cavalry, 15th..

Oliver Shepherd.

16th.. and infantry, and one hundred and twenty-two

Caleb C. Sibley. 17th..

S. P. Heintzelman. privates for light batteries of artillery, making 18th..

H. V. Carrington. an aggregate strength of 54,302 men. From 19th.:

Samuel K, Dawson. the annual report of the Secretary of War, it 20th..

Frederick Steele, appears that at the close of 1866, the two new


George Stoneman. 22d...

David S. Stanley, white regiments of cavalry were recruited, or


Jefferson C. Davis. nearly recruited, and that, of the fifty-four com- 24th..

A. C. Gillem. panies required to convert into regiments the 25th..

Gordon Granger. single battalions of the nine three-battalion regi- 26th..

J. J. Reynolds. 27th..

John E. Smith. ments, authorized by the act of 1861, forty


Charles H. Smith. eight had been completed and sent to their


0. B. Wilcox. regiments. The four Veteran Reserve regiments 30th..

John D. Stevenson. were on active duty, and measures had been 31st ..

P. R. de Trobriand. taken to recruit the colored regiments from the 32d...

Thos. L. Crittenden. 33d...

Thos, H, Rogers. colored volunteers still in the service. During

34th.. the war the volunteer service was so much more

A. V. Kautz Lieut.-Col.). 35th..

Charles Griffin. popular than the regular Army, that it was found 36th :

John Gibbon. impossible to fill up the ranks of the latter to 87th..

George W. Getty. the extent authorized by law. Soon after the 8th.. (cold). Wm. B. Hazen.

39th.. general disbandment of volunteers commenced, 40th..

Joseph A. Mower.

Nelson A. Mills. in the summer of 1865, recruiting for the regu- 41st..

Geo. W. Schofield (Major). lars became more successful, and since the pas- 42d... (Vet. Res.). Daniel E. Sickles. sage of the act of July 28, 1866, las proceeded 43d...

John C. Robinson. 44th..

Thos. G. Pitcher. so satisfactorily that there seems no reason to

Wager Swayne. doubt that the maximum strength of 54,302 men, now fixed upon, will be reached before the By General Orders, No. 95, the two addisummer of 1867. The whole subject of re- tional regiments of cavalry composed of white cruiting for the regular Army, and disbanding men, are to be known as the 7th and 8th, and volunteers, is by law placed under the super- those composed of colored men as the 9th and vision of the Adjutant-General's office. By the 10th. The ten regiments of infantry in the serreport of this officer it appears that from Octo- vice at the commencement of the war retain ber 1, 1863, to October 1, 1866, 36,674 recruits their old designations. The first battalions of


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the nine three-battalion regiments, organized 5. The Department of the South, Majorin 1861, retain the designation of the regiments General Daniel E. Sickles to commard, to emto which they belonged, and under the new or- brace the States of North and Sonth Carolina. ganization will be known as the 11th, 12th, Headquarters at Charleston. Fifth regiment 13th, 14th, 15th, 16th, 17th, 18th, and 19th regi- of cavalry, 4 companies; Third regiment of arments of infantry. The second battalions of the tillery, 1 light battery ; Sixth regiment of inthree-battalion regiments become respectively fantry, 10 companies; Eightlı regiment of infanthe 20th, 21st, 220, 230, 24th, 25th, 26th, 27th, try, 10 companies. and 25th regiments of infantry; and the third 6. The Department of the Tennessee, Mabattalions the 29th, 30th, 31st, 320, 33d, 34th, jor-General George II. Thomas to command, 35th, 36th, and 37th regiments of infantry. to embrace the States of Kentucky, Tennessee, The four regiments to be composed of colored Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi. Headquarmen will be designated the 38th, 39th, 40th, ters at Louisville. Fifth regiment of cavalry, and 41st regiments of infantry. The remain- 4 companies; Second regiment of infantry, 10 ing four regiments will be designated the 42d, companies; Fifteenth regiment of infantry, 10 430, 44th, and 45th regiments of infantry, Vet- companies; Sixteenth regiment of infantry, 10 eran Reserve Corps, and will be regarded as a companies; Twenty-fourth regiment of infandistinct organization, in which promotions will try, 10 companies; Twenty-fifth regiment of be regulated accordingly.

infantry, 10 companies; Thirty-third regiment In the following table will be found a list of of infantry, 10 companies; Thirty-fourth regithe several military departments into which the ment of infantry, 10 companies; Forty-fifth conntry has been divided, with the troops as- regiment of infantry, Veteran Reserves, 10 comsigned to each:

panies. 1. The Department of the East, Major-Gen- 7. The Department of the Gulf, Majoreral George G. Meade to command, to em- General Philip H. Sheridan to command, to brace the New England States, New York, embrace the States of Florida, Louisiana, and New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Fort Delaware. Texas. IIeadquarters at New Orleans. Fourth Headquarters at Philadelphia. First regiment regiment of cavalry, 12 companies ; Sixth regiof artillery, 10 coinpanies; Third regiment of ment of cavalry, 12 companies; Ninth regiment artillery, 10 companies; Fourth regiment of ar- of cavalry, 12 companies; First regiment of artillery, 3 companies; Fourth regiment of infan- tillery, 2 light batteries; Fifth regiment of artry, 7 companies; Forty-second regiment of tillery, 6 companies; First regiment of infantry, infantry, 10 companies.

10 companies; Seventh regiment of infantry, 2. The Department of the Lakes, Briga- 10 companies; Seventeenth regiment of infandier and Breret Major General Joseph Hooker try, 10 companies; Twenty-sixth regiment of to command, to embrace the States of Ohio, infantry, 10 companies; Thirty-fifth regiment Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, and Wisconsin. of infantry, 10 companies; Thirty-ninth regiHearlquarters at Detroit. Fourth regiment of ment of infantry, 10 companies; Forty-first artillery, 1 light battery; Fourth regiment of regiment of infantry, 10 companies. infantry, 3 companies; Forty-third regiment of 8. The Department of the Arkansas, Briginfantry, Veteran Reserves, 10 companies. adier and Brevet Major General E. 0. C. Ord

3. The Department of Washington, Briga- to command, to embrace the State of Arkansas dier and Brevet Major General E. R. S. Canby and Indian Territory west. 'Headquarters at to comunand, to embrace the District of Colum. Little Rock. Fifth regiment of artillery, 1 bia, Alexandria and Fairfax Counties, Virginia, light battery; Nineteenth regiment of infantry, and the States of Maryland and Delaware, ex- 10 companies; Twenty-eighth regiment of incept Fort Delaware. Headquarters at Wash- fantry, 10 companies; Thirty-seventh regiment ington. Fifth regiment of cavalry, 3 compa- of infantry, 10 companies. nies; Fourth regiment of artillery, 7 companies; 9. The Department of the Missouri, MajorTwelfth regiment of infantry, 10 companies; General Winfield S. Hancock to command, to Thirtieth regiment of infantry, 10 companies; embrace the States of Missouri and Kansas, and Fortieth regiment of infantry, recruiting in the Territories of Colorado and New Mexico. Washington; Forty-fourth regiment of infantry, Ileadquarters at Fort Leavenworth. Second Veteran Reserves, 10 companies.

regiment of cavalry, 2 companies; Third regi4. The Department of the Potomac, Brig- ment of cavalry, 12 companies; Seventh regialier and Brevet Major General John M. Scho- ment of cavalry, 12 companies; Fourth regifild to command, to embrace the States of ment of artillery, 1 light battery; Third regiVirginia, escept Alexandria and Fairfax Coun- ment of infantry, 10 companies; Fifth regiment ties, and West Virginia. Headquarters at Rich- of infantry, 10 companies; Tenth regiment of mond. Fifth regiment of cavalry, 1 company; cavalry, 12 companies; Thirty-eighth regiment Fitch regiment of artillery, 1 liglit battery and of infantry, 10 companies. 4 companies; Eleventh regiment of infantry, 10. The Department of the Platte, Brig10 companies; Twentieth regiment of infantry, adier and Brevet Major General Philip St. lo companies; Twenty-first regiment of infan- George Cooke to command, to embrace the try, 10 companies; Twenty-ninth regiment of State of Iowa, the Territories of Nebraska and infantry, 10 companies.

Utah, so much of Dakota aselies west of the
VOL, V1.-3



104th meridian, and so much of Montana as after such appointment, the office should be lies contiguous to the new road from Fort Lar- come vacant, the act should cease to be in force. amie to Virginia City, Montana. Headquar- The President nominated for General, Lieutenters at Omaha. Second regiment of cavalry, 10 ant-General Grant, and to fill the vacant lieucompanies; Third regiment of artillery, 1 light tenant-generalship, Major-General W. T. Sherbattery; Thirteenth regiment of infantry, 10 Both nominations were promptly concompanies; Eighteenth regiment of infantry, firmed by the Senate toward the close of the 10 companies; Twenty-seventh regiment of in- first session. fantry, 10 companies; Thirty-sixth regiment of The principal movements of troops during the infantry, 10 companies.

year have been in Texas, on the Mexican and 11. The Department of Dakota, Brigadier Canadian frontiers, and in the Territories. Genand Brevet Major General A. II. Terry to com- eral Grant, in his annual report, states that "it mand, to embrace the State of Minnesota and has been deemed necessary to keep a military all the Territories of Dakota and Montana not force in all the lately rebellious States, to insure embraced in the Department of the Platte. the execution of law, and to protect life and Headquarters at Fort Snelling. Tenth regiment property against the acts of those who, as yet, of infantry, 10 companies; Twenty-second regi- will acknowledge no law but force. This class ment of infantry, 10 companies; Thirty-first has proved to be much smaller than could have regiment of infantry, 10 companies.

been expected after such a conflict. It has, 12. The Department of California, Brig: however, been sufficiently formidable to justity adier and Brevet Major General Irvin McDowell the course which has been pursued." Military to command, to embrace the States of Califor- movements have also been directed with a view nia and Nevada, and the Territory of Arizona. , to the protection of emigrants, on their way to Headquarters at San Francisco. First regiment the more distant Territories, against attacks by of cavalry, 8 companies; Eighth regiment of hostile Indians, which have somewhat dimincavalry, 12 companies; Second regiment of ar- ished with the expiration of the rebellion. But tillery, 2 light batteries and 6 companies; Ninth with a frontier constantly extending and enregiment of infantry, 10 companies; Fourteenth croaching upon the hunting-grounds of the regiment of infantry, 10 companies; Thirty- Indian, Lostilities must frequently occur. To second regiment of infantry, 10 companies. meet these, and to protect the emigrant on his

13. The Department of the Columbia, way to the mountain Territories, General Major-General Frederick Steele to command, Grant reports that troops have been distributed to embrace the State of Oregon and the Terri- over a wide area of the western frontier. Few tories of Washington and Idaho. Headquar- places are occupied by more than two, and ters at Portland. First regiment of cavalry, 4 many by but a single company. During the companies; Second regiment of artillery, 4 sammer of 1806, inspections were made by companies; Twenty-third regiment of infantry, Generals Sherman, Pope, Ingulls, Sackett, and 10 companies.

Babcock, with a view to determine the proper The Departments of the Arkansas, the Mis- places to occupy for the protection of travel and souri, the Plat and Dakota constitute the Mil- settlements, and the most economical method itary Division of the Missouri, of which Lieu- of furnishing supplies. In the course of 1867 tenant-General W. T. Sherman has command, permanent buildings will have to be erected on with headquarters at St. Louis, Missouri. The these sites. Departments of California and the Columbia, The total estimate of the Secretary of War constitute the Military Division of the Pacific, for military appropriations for the fiscal year of which Major-General H. W. Llalleck has ending June 30, 1968, is $25,205,669.60, which command, with headquarters at San Francisco. is less by $8,608,792.23 than the appropriation

The tifteen military bands provided for by required for the previous year. the act of July 28, 1866, have been assigned as The disbursements of the Paymaster-General follows: West Point, New York; Fort Colum- during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1866, bus, New York harbor; Fort Adams, Rhode were $259,374,317, of which $248,943,313 were Island; Richmond, Virginia; Charleston, South paid to disbanded volunteers, and $10,431,004 Carolina; Louisville, Kentucky; Nashville, to the Army and the Military Academy. In Tennessee; Jefferson Barracks, Missouri; Fort back and extra pay and in bounties the DepartLeavenworth, Kansas; Little Rock, Arkansas; ment disbursed $7,662,736, and on Treasury New Orleans, Louisiana; San Antonio, Texas; certificates for arrears to dead soldiers, etc., Harbor of San Francisco, California; Fort Van- $16,189,247. Among the charges entailed upon couver, Washington Territory; Fort Monroe, the Department were those growing out of an Va.

act passed by the Thirty-ninth Congress, giving The Thirty-ninth Congress passed an act re- three months' pay proper to all officers of volunviving the grade of “General of the Army of teers who were in the service on March 3, 1865, the United States,” to be filled, by appointment and whose resignations were presented and acby the President, * from among those officers cepted, or who were mustered out at their own in the military service of the United States request, or otherwise honorably discharged from most distinguished for courage, skill, and abil- the service after April 9, 1865.

The pay ity.” It was also provided that whenever, proper of a colonel of infantry is $95, of a lieutenant-colonel $80, major $70, captain $60, for two years, and who are entitled to a Govfirst lieutenant $50, second lieutenant $45 per ernment bounty of fifty dollars, under existmonth. The financial summary of the pay de- ing laws, are to get, under the like conditions, partment exhibits

an additional bounty of fifty dollars. Al A balance on band at the beginning

though doubts were entertained whether, in of the fiscal year..

$120,107,999 32 consequence of defective wording of these Receired from Treasury and other

sections, the legislation respecting the equalizasources during the year..

163,426,228 97

tion of bounties was not inoperative, a board Total.......

8283,533,228 29 of officers was appointed by the War DepartAccounted for as follows:

ment to prepare rules and regulations for the

payment of the authorized bounties. But up Disbursements to Ar

to October 20, 1866, no payments of the extra my and Military Academy... - $10,431,004 42

bounty had been made. The Paymaster-GenDisbursements to vol.

eral says that the muster and pay rolls, “alunteers. 248,343,313 36

ready muci worn and defaced, would be retnissued requisitions

duced to illegible shreds before a tithe of the in Treasure. 10,750,000 00 In bands of paymas

cases arising under this law could be disposed ters, June 30. 13,408,910 51

of, if taken up separately.” It is therefore

- $283,533,228 29 proposed to classify the claims filed, by regi. The total disbursements of each class during ments and battalions. This plan, though imthe fiscal year are as follows:

posing delay at the outset, will prove in the end To troops on muster out.

the quickest and best. The payment, however,

.$205,272,324 00 To troops in service...

30,250,010 00

will not begin till the six months' limitation To referred claims...

7,662,736 00 has passed. The disbursements will amount to To payment of Treasury certificates. 16,189,247 00 nearly $80,000,000, about a third of the sum

contemplated by the original bill, and will be Total.......

. $259,374,317 00 divided among upward of a million persons. The estimated appropriations of the pay de- To the same board the subject of bounties to partment amount to $17,728,500 for pay of the colored soldiers was also referred, with a view Army for the next fiscal year.

to provide additional checks against the deEarly in the first session of the last Con- mands of fraudulent assignees, to secure the gress a bill was introduced to pay a bounty to bounty to the rightful claimants, and to protect the volunteers of 1861 and 1862 equal to the the Treasury against frauds. highest bounty paid to the volunteers of 1863 The grand aggregate of individuals on the and 1864, equalizing the bounty according to pension-rolls of the United States was, on June the time of service; to pay three-months men 30, 1866, 126,722, of whom 123,577 were army a bounty of $100, deducting from said bounty invalids or their widows or other representaany sum heretofore paid; and to pay $33.33 to tives. Nearly ninety per cent. of this number, the one-year men, to complete the payment of comprising all classes of pensioners, have arisen the $100 promised them. As the sum required out of the late war. The remainder now on for this equalization of bounties would, at a the rolls, but rapidly dropping away, are from moderate computation, considerably exceed the War of 1812, the Mexican War, and the $200,000,000, which, in the then embarrassed various Indian wars. But one Revolutionary financial condition of the country, could be ill- pensioner now remains, Samuel Downing, of spared from the national Treasury, the project Edinburgh, Saratoga County, N. Y., who was was strenuously opposed, and failed to become a native of, and enlisted from New Hampshire, a law in the shape in which it was originally and is now over a hundred years old. There proposed. Its friends succeeded, however, in are, however, still on the pension-rolls 931 widen grafting it, in a very modified form, upon the ows of revolutionary soldiers, of whom only Civil Appropriation Bill, in which connection two were married previous to the termination it was passed by Congress on the last day of of the War of Independence. The aggregate the session. The sections of the bill relating of annual pension money due for the fiscal year to bounties enact that every soldier wlio en- ending June 30, 1866, was $11,674,474.13. listed after the 19th of April, 1861, for a period The Commissioner of Pensions says: “In not less than three years, and who, after having view of the large number of applications which krved his time of enlistment, has been honor- continues to be received, on account of casualably discharged, and who has received, or is ties in the late war, it is manifest that the agentitled to receive, from the United States, un- gregate annual amount of pensions will conder existing laws, a bounty of one hundred dol- tinue to swell for some years to come." He lars, and no more; and every such soldier honor- also says that the $11,674,474.31 requisite to ably discharged on account of wounds, and the pay the 126,722 now on the rolls will, for the widow, minor children, or parents of such fiscal year, ending June 30, 1867, be increased soldiers who died in service, or from disease or to a sum exceeding $33,000,000. This is owing wounds contracted in the service in the line of partly to the law of last session increasing the duty, shall be paid an additional bounty of one rate of pension. The estimated amount requibundred dollars. The soldiers who enlisted site to pay pensions the next fiscal year is more

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