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guished members of the Van Rensselaer family. Among other contributions to this number are: The Beginnings of the New England Society of New York, with finely executed portraits of its first president and first secretary, and the History of the Location of Our National Capital. Publication office, 30 Lafayette Place, New York City.

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Luther: A short biography. By James Anthony Froude, M.A., Honorary Fellow of Exeter College, Oxford. (Reprinted from the Contemporary Review.) pp. 90.

The International Revision Commentary on the New Testament: Based upon the Revised Version of 1881. By English and American scholars, and members of the Revision Committee. Edited by Philip Schaff, D.D., L.L.D., President of the American Committee on Revision. Volume vi. The Epistle to the Romans. By Professor M. B. Riddle. 12mo, pp. 256.

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Songs of Praise and Prayer: For the Sunday-school and Social Meeting. Compiled and edited by Charles H. Richards, D.D. pp. 222.

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An Examination of The Philosophy of the Unknowable as expounded by Her bert Spencer. By William M. Lacy. 8vo, pp. 235.




MAY, 1884.


DURING the bitter struggle between the French and English in India, rare courage, enterprise, and resolution were displayed by both parties. But the French were often, and at critical moments, openly opposed or but weakly supported by their own government.

The policy of the English government with regard to its servants in India much resembled, in principle, the policy adop ted by the Church of Rome with regard to enthusiasts. As the Romish Church added largely to its strength by judicious encouragement of those who, like Loyola, ardently wished to advance their religion, but, in some manner, outside of the lines laid down for their guidance by the rulers of the Church, 80 England added India to her dominions, by encouraging and supporting those enthusiastic men who, wishing to serve their country, wished to serve her by conquering a magnificent realm, instead of by following, as they were expected to do, in the lines of trade and commerce.

For many years after Vasco da Gama braved the perils of an unknown sea, and successfully completed the voyage which has rendered his name so famous, Portugal continued to be the

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only European nation carrying on a maritime commerce with the rich islands and countries laved by the Indian ocean. About the beginning of the seventeenth century, however, both English and Dutch merchants began to trade with India, and Richelieu, in the last year of his life, founded a French East India Company, in order to secure to his own country some share of the magnificent commerce.

Considering the possession of Madagascar important to the commerce in the Indian Ocean, a fort was constructed on that island, and many native chiefs acknowledged the supremacy of the French. But although the Company displayed considerable energy it was not sufficiently encouraged by the govern ment, and was unsuccessful.

To Colbert, the famous peace minister of Louis the Fourteenth, the India trade seemed of great consequence, and he earnestly endeavored to form another East India Company. The king favored his plans, and, in 1664, there appeared an edict establishing the Company which was now to enjoy the privilege of commerce and navigation in the East Indies. The Company was granted all such lands, places and islands as it might conquer or occupy, and it is worthy of mention, that with the zeal for the advancement of their religion in foreign lands which has so strikingly distinguished those of the communion of Rome, the French government ordered that in all territory coming under the control of the Company, the faith of the conquerors should be taught to the conquered.

The new Company, like that of Richelieu, endeavored to maintain a settlement in Madagascar, but the efforts put forth resulted only in disgrace and failure; and it was but a short time before African France, as the island was called, was deserted. Most of the colonists determined to settle in the Isle of Bourbon,

Still, the objects of Colbert were to some extent realized. At Surat and Masulipatam stations were established. Permission to trade without paying duties was obtained from the ruler of the Carnatic. At Porto Novo, near Madras, was built a fortress. In Java a station was established in hopes that the French might there successfully compete with the Dutch.

By the grant of certain land on the coast of Brittany, the

Company was provided with a location upon which the necessary warehouses and arsenal might be erected. The military and naval station established on the land thus granted received the name of L'Orient.

A few years after the establishment of the Company, war seemed imminent between France and the Ottoman Empire, and the philosopher Leibnitz presented to the French King an address, setting forth that Egypt should be the point chosen for attack. He adduced weighty arguments to prove the feas ibility of his plans. Success would give the French control of the commerce of India.

Had the plan been successfully carried out it is difficult to say what might not have been the result. Once in actual possession of Egypt, it is not too much to believe that the nation which was even then connecting the Mediterranean with the Atlantic by means of the great Canal of Languedoc would have constructed a Suez Canal, two hundred years before the time when, by the genius of a French engineer, that work was actually accomplished. Had Louis then been content with attempting great conquests in the East; had he refrained from madly drawing against himself the power of all Europe; he might have raised France to a state of unexampled prosperity. He was at this time the most powerful monarch in Europe. He might easily have defended his own territories against any aggressor, while at the same time sending large forces to carry out plans of Eastern aggrandizement. But he rejected the plan of Leibnitz, and, deciding to avoid any conflict with the Turks, hurled his armies against Holland.

Meanwhile, although two new settlements, Pondicherry and Chandernagore, both afterwards famous, were established, the affairs of the Company grew decidedly worse. The Java settlement was abandoned, as was also Masulipatam.

For a moment it seemed possible that in Japan the French. might compensate themselves for their failure in India. Japanese dislike of the Jesuits drove the Portuguese from the island empire, and it was thought by Colbert that French Protestants might be allowed to take the places of expelled Portuguese Catholics. But Louis would not consent to break his rule of excluding Protestants from all the colonies. Swift's

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