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our cotemporaries or to our successors.”—In a most interesting letter, dated Feb. 2, 1641, he thus addresses his brother: "Those objections undoubtedly which the Lutherans make against the Calvinists, as stated in the letter of Vossius, are not empty expressions ; they have in themn much truth and reality. I also con. sider his remark very just, that if the Swedish and Danish
The person whom Grotius here styles “ a very learned Englisbman," was no other than the celebrated oriental scholar, Dr. Edward Pocock, the able cu-adjutor of Bishop Walton in that great national undertaking, the LONDON POLYGLOTT BIBLE.' He had been five years Chaplain to the English Factory at Aleppo ; and he and the learned Greaves were, soon after his return to this country, appointed to travel in the East. They spent nearly four years at Constantinople, studying the Eastern languages, and purchasing, by Archbishop Laud's order, all the valuable manuscripts which they could dis
Both these eminent men, as well as several of the most pious and LEARNED INDIVIDUALS tbat any nation ever produced in one age, were vexed and disturbed by those semi-barbarians, the Parliamentary Visitors and the Triers and Ejectors, who, with the great majority of the Calvinian party, were decided enemies to learning. Bishop Womack has presented us with au excellent specimen of their Puritanic cant on this subject, in the speech of Mr. Fatality, page 70, in which he says, “ The man hath a competent measure of your ordinary unsanctified learning,” &c.
The reader will be gratified by a perusal of the following quotation from Twells's Life of Dr. Pocock, which contains a circumstance that is highly honourable both to our author and to Grotius. After stating, that, early in 1641, Dr. Pocock, in bis route to England, called at Paris, and visited Gabriel Sionita, the famous Maronite, and Hugh Grotius, his biographer proceeds to say: “To the latter he could not but be very acceptable, as on several accounts, so particularly on that of the relation he stood in lo a persou for whom Grotius had all imaginable esteem and reverence, the Archbishop of Canterbury. And doubtless, the troubles which had lately begun to fall on that great Prelate, and the black cloud which now buug over the Church of England in general, were the subject of no small part of their conversation.-But there were other things, about which he was willing to discourse with this great man. Mr. Pocock, wbile he continued in the East, had often lamented the infatuation under which so great a part of the world lay, being enslaved to the foolish opinions of that grand impostor Mahomet. He had observed, in many who professed bis religion, much justice and candour and love, and other excellent qualities, which seemed to prepare them for the king dom of God; and therefore he could not but persuade himself, that, were the doctrines of the Gospel but duly proposed to them, not a few might open their eyes to discern the truth of it. Something therefore he resolved to do towards so desirable an end, as he should meet with convenient leisure; and he could not think of any thing more likely to prove useful in this respect, than the translating into Arabic, the general language of the East, an admirable Discourse that had been published in Latin, some years before, concerning the Truth of Christianity. With this design he now acquainted Grotius, the author of that treatise; who received the proposal with much satisfaction, and gave bim a great deal of encouragement to pursue it.-And Mr. Pocock's aim in this matter being only the glory of God and the good of souls, he made no scruple at all to mention to that learned man some things towards the end of his book, which he could not approve, viz. certain opinions, which, though they are commonly in Europe charged on the followers of Mahomet, have yet no foundation in any of their authentic writings, and are such as they themselves are ready on all occasions to disclaim. With which freedom of Mr. Pocock, Grotius was so far from being displeased, that he heartily thanked him for it; and gave him authority, in the version he intended, to expunge and alter whatsoever he should think fit.”
Dr. Pocock's esteemed Arabic translation of this treatise of Grotius was publisbed at Oxford in 1660, immediately after the Restoration.
Churches could unite with that Church which does not acknow. ledge Luther for its founder, it would be possible for them to enter into a union with the Church of England, on account of certain rites which are common both to it and them, and because the English are not equally ready to adopt that dark kind of argumentation against other people. The misfortune of the Archbishop excites my warmest sympathies: He is an excellent man, very learned, and a passionate lover of the peace of the Church. But we, who have ranged ourselves under the banners of Christ, ought not to refuse the cross.
God tries his own people where, when, and as far as he pleuses : And it is our duty, not to be terrified at the sight of temporary evils. On those who thus act in every respect, God will bestow strength and power; and I pray God of his infinite goodness to communicate them to the good Archbishop. If it be allowed to urge the meanness of their extraction as an objection against pious bishops, what will become of the Apostles, and what will be the fate of Onesimus and others, who were servants before they were constituted bishops ? So far am I from believing this Archbishop to be a Papist: 'There is indeed throughout France scarcely a single Archbishop or Bishop to whom that epithet justly belongs. I consider my writings on the subject of Antichrist to be true, and not merely true but of the greatest utility! Since such is my full conviction, and since God has placed me in this asylum for the purpose of aiding in the promotion of his truth and peace, do you suppose that I ought to be afraid of the virulent pens of Marets, Du Moulin,* and of the rest of that party? If I be fa
Grotius might have called Du Moulin's pen hypocritical, as well as virulent. In opposition to the interpretation which Grotius, in his treatise De Antichristo, bad put upon several passages in the New Testament, Du Moulin published a book, in 1640, entitled Vares, seu de Præcognitione Futurorum, et bonis malisque Prophetis.- This is really a curious and entertaiping work: 1 perused it with some satisfaction many years ago; and have always been of opinion, that the interpretation which he and many other Protestant writers give to these apostolical expressions, the man of sin and Antichrist, is more correct than that of Grotius. Du Moulin's book contains an account of magicians, conjurors, astrologers, interpreters of dreams, the sortes or lotteries of the ancients, physiognomy, omens, presages, &c. It is to this curious admixture of subjects that Grotius pleasantly alludes, in the following quotation from a letter to his brother in 1611, which is ivteresting to philosophers, on account of the description which it gives of an aërolite : "I have learnt to-day, from the published testimonies of several persons who were eye-witnesses, that a stone weighing fifty-four pounds fell from the clouds to the ground, on the 29th of November, 1637, in the confines of Provence and Savoy, between the villages of Dauvise and Peanne. The sound emitted by its fall was greater than the noise caused by the firing of three hundred cannons at once, and during its descent the sky was perfectly serene. An immense furrow was formed in the ground, in which the stone was discovered. A sulphureous smell was perceptible to a considerable distance around; and the stones in contact with it, were converted into lime, [or, in calcem versos, were calcined): The shape of the stone was completely out of proportion. I am engaged in consulting the naturalists respectivg the origin of this unshapeu mass, and by what means it remained suspended in the sky, and was moved about ; and I must consult
voured with longer life, I will defend what I have written : And when I die I shall sind defenders, perhaps not those of the timid class, but those who will act somewhat more boldly.” The ensuch Divines as Du MOULIN, to know the portentous events of which it is the harbinger!!!
But the mystery of iniquity in such Calvinistic publications as this, was, the obvious design of associating in one class some of the innocent observances and scriptural Joctrines that were common both to Popery and to the Episcopal Church of England, and of bringing ihem into public contempt. But, as by the favour of the late Kiog, (James 1,) Du Mouliis, though residing in the confines of France, held preferment in the Metropolitan Church of Canterbury, he did not consider it very polite openly, to impugn the Church of England, or to write professedly against auy of the sentiments of Grotius. By either of these acts, he would have given just offence to Archbishop Laud , and by the latter deed especially, he would bave again affronted the King of France, to whom he bad rendered bimself suspected by his former seditious practices at Rochelle, &c. for which he was then a voluntary exile. To remove all apparent cause of obloquy, he expressed bimself ou many points with all the cunning subtlety of his master Calvin. Thus, in lib. 2, cap. vii, speaking of the rite of confirmation in tbe Church of Rome, he quotes, among others, a saying of Thomas Aquinas, (Summæ, pt. iii, quæst. 72, art. 9,) This sacrament is perfective of baptism," and immediately subjoins, " Thomas thus intimates, thai baptism is imperfect without the additiou of confirmation. If we may give credit to the Bishops, they communicate the Holy Spirit by this sacrament. The effect, therefore, which they produce ought to be this the children whom they confirm would, by ihe imposition of hands, begin to speak in divers languages and to perforin miracles, if the Bisheps have succeeded to the office and the power of the Apostles. But ihe children, after confirmation, immediately depart to their sports and pastimes; and are not by this rite rendered either wiser or more learned. Besides, according to the confession of the Papists themselves, not a few of the Bishops are dissolute in their lives, and licentious in their conduct; since therefore these Bishops are under the influence of an evil spirit, a man will with great difficulty induce himself to believe, that such persons can bestow the Holy Spirit : For no one can communicate that of which he is not himself possessed.”-It is scarcely necessary to explain to any of my readers the evident hearing of this passage. Confirmation is a rite retained by the Church of England; and, though we have very properly expunged it from the number of the sacraments, yet our very retentivn of it in a modified form was sufficient cause of exasperation to such a malevolent mind as that of Du Moulin, and he adopted this sly method of disclosing his antipathies agaiust it and the Apostolic succession of Bishops.-Several similar iustances might be quoted.
But, in his Dedication of the Book to the Dean and Chapter of the Metropolitan Church of Canterbury, this design is manifested with still greater cunning. Describing, his pious feelings on taking a review of the state of different cuuutries, he says, “ The lamentable condition of whole nations presents itself to my view, wbom Satan has oppressed with his yoke of iron, and involved in the gross darkness of errors; among whom piety is accounted a crime and truth a heresy, and who have to maintain a struggle, not only against vices, but even against laws,-and, in the conflict between the hostile parties, the church of God has scarcely power to breathe. Those places are very rare in which Christ can fiud room enough to lay his head. As often as I revolve these circumstances in my mind, i cannot sufficiently describe the admiration which I feel at the happy lot of your Britain, I may also add mine, which it has been the will of God to make a singular example of his care and benevolence. For a long time has pow elapsed since, in your country, the idol [Popery] fell dowu before the ark of God, and was broken in pieces, and since the Church of God commenced its balcyon days under the auspices of the best and most powerful monarchs.” After eulärging a little on this subject, he thus proceeds: “God has crowned this spiritual emancipation wi earthly blessings, baving bestowed the additional gifts of peace, riches, and splendour, while your adversaries have fruitlessly
deavours of Grotius to check these British prophets, who under a pretence of overturning the foundations of Popery wished to subvert Arminianism and Episcopacy, procured for him the illwill and petulance of the French and Dutch Calvinists, who em
vented their malevolence. I should be utterly unworthy of life, if I did not by assiduous prayers implore this favour from God, that you may enjoy these blessings in perpetuity : For your prosperity is consolatory to us who are oppressed with adversity. Though we are ourselves in the greatest difficulties, yet we are peculiarly anxious for the safety of your church. And we are not destitute of causes for indulging in this fearfulvess and anxiety : For the Papists have beheld the inhabitants of your island at variance with each other, and the sight has afforded them matter of rejoicing secretly in heart, because they now promise themselves an immense increase of converts to Popery, and the healing of that wound which has been inflicted on the beast. But the wisdom and zeal of your most excellent king will prevent this evil; for, as a bee born in boney, bis gracious majesty bas imbibed the doctrine of the Gospel almost with the milk of his royal mother, and testifies by daily proofs his piety and virtue. This evil will proceed no further, if those whorn God has placed at the head of such a flourishing church, will use their en. deavours to keep the truth of the Gospel untainted : For they are not ignorant of Satan's devices, who frequently comes unawares upon the incautious, and, sewing the skin of the fox upon that of the lion, tries to ensnare those by deceit whom he cannot destroy by violence : He breaks and enervates through listlessness the pastors of the church, either by feeding them with eager desires after earthly riches, or by sowing among them envy and emulation), from which usually spring up dissensions in religion itself. It is to me therefore a matter of congratulation to the church of Canterbury, that it is favoured with pastors endowed with great learning and much faith who have received a better education at the feet of Paul, thau Paul himself did at the feet of Gamaliel ; and concerning whom the same testimony may be borne as that which David bore to Ahimaaz, the son of Zadok, He is a good man, and cometh with good tiding's! (2 Sam. xviii, 27.) The apostle requires these two things from a faithful servant of God,—that he be an example of the believers, in word and in conversation. (1 Tim. iv, 12.). This thought is refreshing to me, and induces me to account it an honourable distinction bestowed upon me to be a member of your sacred order, and to gain admission into your society."
All this, the reader will perceive, is very good and pious. But when he reflects upon the condition of the Church and State in 1640, he will detect Du Moulin's sophistry. He had amply shewn, in the days of Archbishop Abbot, that by '" the doctrine of the Gospel" he understood “the predes. tinarian peculiarities of Calvinism.". It is from the pious king that'he expects the prevention of civil discord; and the ungracious allusion to Archbishop Laud is, that “the evil will proceed no further, if those whom God “ has placed at the head of such a flourishing church will use their en“ deavours to keep. THE TRUTH OF The Gospel untainted,”-that is, if they will suffer Calvinism to hold that pre-eminence to which it aspires, and which it enjoyed under the auspices of Dr. Abbot. An explanation of the other sinister allusions in this paragraph is upnecessary; for, within the brief space of twelve months, Du Moulin explained bimself with marvellous clearness. In a letter which Grotius addressed to the learued Vossius, in September, 1641, he makes the following mention of it: “ I suppose you will have seen a book published in England, and afterwards at Geneva, under the title of IRENÆUS PHILADELPHUS, concerning the commotions which have arisen in England. This publication openly aims at the throat of his Grace the Archbishop: May God impart consolation to him under this cross! The authors of it are the two Du MOULINS, the father and son ; the latter of whom has inserted in different parts of the narrative the English relations (of these affairs). The Renatus Verdaus, to whom it is dedicated, is (an anagram on] Andreas Rivetus. Bebold what ferocity is here displayed !"
ployed as their accredited organ Andrew Rivet, professor of Divinity at Leyden, who was brother-in-law to Peter du Moulin. Rivet commenced his polemic career early in 1642, soon after Grotius had published his famous Vin ad Pacem Ecclesiasticam, which contained Cassander's scheme for the union of Protestants and Papists, and which so far excited the splenetic indignation of Richard Baxter, sixteen years afterwards, as to cause him to publish his celebrated Philippic entitled, the Grotian Religion discovered. Grotius wrote three able and dignified replies to three of Rivet’s pamphlets, the latter of whom was aided by the whole Calvinian phalanx in Europe.
There are few literary enterprizes, the execution of which would yield me greater pleasure than the translation of the productions of Rivet and Grotius into English, printed in parallel columns: the systems of Arminius and Calvin, with their evident effects and tendency, would by that method be brought into fair competition, and the British public would not be tardy in deciding their relative political and religious merits. The titles of the three Grotian pamphlets are, Animadversions on the Animadversions of Rivet, Wishes for the Peace of the Church, A Discussion on Rivet's Apology for Schism. They were written after the Appendix to bis pamphlet
The Son, to whom Grotius refers, was Louis Du Mouliu, nho, notwithstanding his own aud his fatber's avowed antipathy to Arminianism, was made Professor of History in the University of Oxford, and patronized by the Court. Yet, iu imitation of many other Calvinistic ingrates, as soon as the Established Church was laid waste by barbarians, he shewed himself one of the most scaodalous of her adversaries. Even after the Restoration, he bad the etfrontery in one of his pan phlets to charge Bishop Stillingfeet and several other eminent episcopal divines with a design to introduce Popery. If any shade of doctrine failed to elevate itself as high as Supra-lapsarian Calvinism, be regarded it (so far) as making approaches towards Popery. In the same pamphlet he traduces his uncle Rivet, because, in one of the French Synods, he bad manifested a leaning towards Cameronism before he was called to the Professorship at Leydev : But the elder Du Moulin, it is seen, (page 229,) kept his good brother-in-law sound in the faith of Calvin. The scurvy treatment which the father received from Dr. Twisse, for having written agaiust reprobation in his Anatomy, has also been stated, page 223. Yet the son could perceive no wrong in all that Dr. Twisse had written. In reference to this subject an able author said, in 1680: “ O how dear are some opinions to him! In which whosoever dissents from him, he will tear them in pieces: But let those who agree with them say what they please of his best friends, pay of his own father, they shall not fail to have his good word. This raised his spleen, and put him into a new fit of raving at our divives, who jump not with bim in some opinions which are falsely called ARNINIANISM. If they were but as rigid as be in some beloved doctrines, for which be doted upon Dr. Twisse, we should not have heard a word of their inclination to Popery, but he would have found some excuse or other for all their faults; day, would have beeu so kind as to magnily and praise them whom he now abominates."
This last sentence is a good key to the feeling of those times : In all the grades of Genevan divinity, from that of Richard Baxter upward to that of Þr. Owen, the several professors defended the arguments of Dr. Twisse; and, when bard pressed by the Arminians, quoted bis Supra-lapsarianism as overwhelming authority.
*. See in page 213, the aid which the younger Paræus afforded in vindication of his father's sentiments.