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with Oriental designs, and other fine speci- Aurora, one representing Otho in the tomb of mens.
Charlemagne, after Kaulbach, a table-top, with The Netherlands exhibition was well selected a copy of Raphael's Poetry, and a vase with a and representative, having been organized by finely-rendered design of Klöber's, among a the Government. The educational, agricult- great number of other finely-painted and richural, and industrial methods of the kingdom ly decorated pieces, in wbich the grounds and were well illustrated. There were a great flat colors were wonderfully even and brilliant. number of charts and drawings, illustrating A collection of gray and blue stone-ware winethe system of public works in Holland, and jugs and beer-mugs in the old German style the plans for draining the Zuyder Zee. There was interesting. were plans also of Dutch dwellings and public In the Austro-Hungarian exhibition the buildings, model working-men's homes, school most noticeable group was the brilliant colhouses, etc. The book and music publishers lection of Bohemian glass. The finest specimade a good exhibit. In the small exhibition mens were in pure white glass, with flowers, of manufactures, woolens for male ware, fine leaves, arabesques, etc., ground into their surblankets, excellent imitations of Turkish car face with the emery-wheel. There were also pets, handsome oil-cloths, clay-pipes, belting, fine examples of ruby and emerald ware, with and handsome tiles, after the old Delft manner, gilded ornaments, and cheaper samples of darkwere noticeable; and also some fine lacquered green glass in the ancient Vienna style. The work, particularly a screen, with illustrations Bohemian porcelain also is of very fine textfrom Goethe and Schiller.' The colonial dis- ure, and the exhibited samples were tastefully play was fine, including the cereals, spices, decorated; and in the Hungarian exhibit of and woods of the Dutch East Indies, and the china-ware there were some fine imitations of weapons, embroideries, filigree, and rich webs Chinese and early European styles from the made by the natives.
town of Herend. From Innspruck were sent The Belgians made a good exhibition of their some fine stained-glass windows. The display excellent manufactures. Of special note were of meerschaum carving from Vienna was very the laces of Mechlin and Brussels, the cloths large and fine. Other exhibits were Russia of Verviers, the tapestries of Malines, the linens, leather from Vienna, the garnet jewelry of paper materials, fine glass, and wood-carvings, Prague, Hungarian fire-opals, Viennese silks notably an elaborate wooden pulpit, various and shawls, delicate laces from the Erzgebirge, fancy articles, and a large display of fire-arms. bent-wood and hollow-iron furniture from
The German exhibition was strong in cheap Vienna, woolens and cottons, ready-made and substantial textiles and articles of general clothing, buttons, chemicals, perfumes, musical utility, besides containing the best book ex- instruments, mirrors, with paintings on their hibit and the best display of fine porcelain in faces, and a fine collection of photographs. the Fair. The Saxon and other cloth-makers In the Swiss section all the
principal exports filled large booths with their cloths for male of the republic were shown. Forty-five watchwear, more durable than fine, their calicoes makers exhibited every imaginable variety of and mixed goods, velveteens; and scattered watches and chronometers, some of them so among these were some rich velvets and beau- minute as to be inserted in a finger-ring or the tifully-figured textures. Several piano-makers top of a pencil-holder. There were good erexhibited excellent instruments. The peasant hibits of scientific instruments, electrical clocks, clock-makers of the Black Forest, and their and music-boxes. Prominent exhibits also rivals in Freiburg, the toy-makers of Nurem- were the handsome laces and embroideries of berg and Magdeburg, the looking-glass man- Appenzell and St. Gallen, the carved-wood ufacturers, the pencil-makers (Faber and his trinkets from the Bernese Oberland, and the principal competitor), the manufacturers of public exhibits of education and engineering, cheap jewelry, the cutlers, and the dealers in including some masterpieces of chartography, common bronzes, all set up displays more or Other Swiss specialties were the silk boltingless extensive. Of the fine bronzes of Berlin cloths, braids for ladies' hats, red-cotton cloth none were sent. Of chemical products there for the Eastern trade, condensed milk, chocowas a considerable variety, including dyes, late, dyes, and liquors. gelatine, medicinal barks, essential oils, bronze The Swedish exhibition was one of the powders, soap, cologne-water, etc. One case largest in the Fair, and was to most people an contained all the varieties of amber found in unexpected revelation of the state of arts and the Baltic. A collection of surgical instruments manufactures in that country. The iron exand appliances included models of hospital hibit, embracing samples of pig-metal, rails, wards and a hospital train, and photographic railroad axles, nails, spikes, bars, and pipes, illustrations of operations, and all kinds of in- and ingots of iron and steel, and maps of the stramonts. The cheap gold and the imitation mining-regions, and drawings of furnaces and jewelry were very fine of their kind, and for machinery, was the largest one in the Fair. the most part tastefully designed. Conspicuous The exhibit of furs was fine. There was also in the magnificent display of the Royal Porce- a very attractive display of porcelain, showing lain Manufactory of Berlin were the Borussia rare and beautiful colors and rich ornamentavase, a vase containing a copy of Guido's tion: the Parian ware, with delicately-moulded
pines and flowers, table-sets with black ground degrees of heat. There were some samples of and vines and arabesques in white, large vases gold and silver cloth, mixed with silks, or with paintings of flowers, a pair of vases with richly embroidered in colors, of dazzling splena ground of red and a dull metallic color, and dor. A collection of garments and table-covpictures from an ancient Saga, some reproduc- erings from Circassia, embroidered in silk, tions of Palissy ware, and a massive stove, and silver, and gold, was curious and pleasing. Thé a pair of candelabra, with a beautiful blue Russian display of furs, cured skins, and madeground of delicate shade, richly ornamented up garments, was the finest of the Exhibition. with white, gold, and dark blue, were promi. The exhibit of gutta-percha goods revealed a Dent in this rare and fine collection. The ex- flourishing condition of that new industry. hibit of common industrial products, woolen The collection of minerals and
fossils sent by cloths of the very finest, plain silks and cot- the Pedagogic Museum of St. Petersburg was ton goods, cutlery, kitchen-utensils of polished highly interesting. The exhibits of pianos, brass
, bardware, and carpentry, all showed an scientific apparatus, amber, velvet cloaks, with advanced stage of industrial art, and solid, con- linings of the white fur of the Thibet' goat, seientious workmanship. The peasant-figures or trimmings of sable-fur, chemicals, fans, ummodeled by Prof. Lödermann, and costumed brellas, and various other articles, spoke well in the genuine dress of the people, grouped for the industrial condition of Russia. to represent familiar scenes of popular life, The Italian section, though not very large, illustrated vividly the intimate habits of the contained a tolerably good representation of Swedish folk. The inilitary exhibit was large, the ornamental industries and manners of art and showed an advanced condition of the mili- treatment for which she is distinguished. The tary art.
ancient Italian art of wood-carving was repreIn the Norwegian court the most attractive sented by a great number of elaborate speciexhibit was the beautiful silver filigree-work mens from half a dozen different cities, in which from Christiania. Other interesting groups the ornaments ranged from bold realistic figwere the textiles, metals, and various special ures to delicate floral designs in low-relief and manufactures. There was a series of costumed conventional Renaissance patterns. Articles figures of the inhabitants, and a collection of exhibited were immense mantels and bedGothic antiquities, arms,
and utensils, of great steads, and tables, cabinets, and chests of all interest.
sizes. Inlaying with wood, the art for which The Dancs exhibited the furs, skins, woolen- Siena is distinguished, in floral and arabesque manufactures, etc., of their country, some patterns, was exhibited; and also wood inlaid Esquimaux curiosities, and two exceedingly with malachite, lapis-lazuli
, onyx, etc. The attractive groups, terra-cottas, in Etruscan display of Venetian glass was not brilliant, style, and artistic silver-work' from Copen- nor was that of miniature mosaic, called hagen, including a silver vase, which was one Roman mosaic; of Florentine mosaic there of the gems of the Exposition.
was a fair exhibit in jewelry and table-tops, The Russian section was organized and sup- and some fine pieces were placed in the art exported by the Government, and, as a national hibition. There were some admirable reprodisplay, was the most striking one in the ductions of majolica pottery, and numerous whole Exhibition. The fruits of the new na- copies of antique bronzes, armor, hammered tional school of arts, which cultivates the early metal-work, etc. Of Genoese filigree there Muscovite styles, were the most prominent was a fair representation. There was a good feature of this exhibition. The Strozonoff exhibit of the coral ornaments of Naples. The School of Technical Design in Moscow ex- jewelers of Turin and Rome made a brilliant hibited an interesting collection of casts and display of gold and precious stones, one of the drawings which are given its scholars to study. richest and most artistic in the whole ExhiTwo Moscow silversmiths exhibited some ofbition. The finest part of this exhibit was the finest specimens of repoussé work and the show of tiaras and necklaces of Signor enamel, both ancient Russian arts, in the Castellani, of Rome, brother of the archeolwhole Fair. Their display embraced silver ogist whose splendid collection of antiques beakers, with historical and national designs, was exhibited in the Art Building; the manartistic bronze casts of Russian peasants and ner of the Etruscan jewelry was admirably soldiers, a silver plaque, with a copy of the reproduced, and even improved. Of the silks Last Supper of Leonardo, and several pieces of Turin and the velvets of Genoa the display of table-furniture of gilded silver, with the Rus- was almost nothing. In the more utilitarian sian napkin in white silver draped over them industries Italy made a very small, but in with wonderfully deceptive effect. There was some branches not discreditable, exhibition. 8 large exhibit of malachite, jasper, lapis The Portuguese exhibition was a full one, lazuli, rhodonite, nephrite, etc., from the Ural and of considerable interest. There were some Mountains, made, combined with metals, into beautiful filigree-work, and examples of most ornamental pieces of furniture, and also worked delicate wood-carving; also specimens of fine up into smaller ornaments. A unique style of silver-work, and tasteful porcelain. And in jewelry was in the form of flowers, with petals the whole range of useful manufactures there of gold of different shades, colored by different was a creditable display. A kind of coarse
pottery of strange forms and ornaments, and tainly none represented more manual labor some little terra-cotta figures of country-folk, and skill and artistic invention. The promiwere curious features. There was a good ex- nent specialties in this exhibition were the hibit of printing materials from the Royal bronzes, the porcelain, the lacquered-ware, Typographic Establishment, and a large collec- and the pictorial screens; yet every other intion of minerals.
dustry exhibited is pecnliarly Japanese, eitber The Spanish exhibition was one of engross- in its mechanical method or in the artistic ing iuterest, as revealing styles of ornamen- treatment which this æsthetic people bestow tation and workmanship strikingly different upon every product of their skill." The rare from those of the countries whose work is and costly ancient bronzes and porcelain vases better known to us. The tapestries, brocades, were fewer than at the Vienna Exposition; laces, velvets, shawls, scarfs, cotton and woolen yet the collection of vases was a large one of dress-goods, the glassware, pottery, and por- entrancing richness and variety, and the incelain tiles, all showed forms, colors, and finity of decorative devices would furnish devices, in a fine but unfamiliar taste. The study for a longer time than the whole period metal-work, silver and gold and iron inlaid of the Exhibition. Some of the Japanese with gold, the copies of ancient armor and bronzes are cast entire in the moulds; and in utensils, ornamented in the Moorish manner, others the ornaments are worked out with were beautiful beyond compare. The exhibit chisels and polishing-instruments. A large represented all the industrial activity and pro- number of them were inlaid with metals, ductivity of the country,
which is done in two manners: by incising The Turkish exhibition was varied and fine, the design and filling up the hollow with the including, notably, gorgeous embroidery, fine metallic inlay, or by filing, and then beating the linen and woolen fabrics, curious pottery and gold or silver into the roughened surface. A pipes, attar of roses, Oriental floor-cloths, and peculiar style of work called mokn-me is prointeresting ancient armor.
duced by soldering plates of several different In the Egyptian court the chief groups were metals together, chiefly gold, silver, copper, the magnificent embroideries, the goldsmiths' and a dark-blue amalgam, and then hamwork and brazen salvers, engraved with beau- mering, rolling, and working over the mass, tiful arabesques, fine inlaid cabinet-work, and and finally beating it out into a sheet, thus the displays of silk and cotton, and some fine producing a beautiful variegated surface of examples of ancient Saracenio art. There damascened appearance. The grotesque plays were magnificent caparisons, with velvet hang- the chief part in Japanese decoration. On a ings, embroidered with gold-thread and mount- great number of the vases was seen the Japed with gold. The furniture was, much of it, anese dragon, and among the ornaments were of ebony, inlaid with ivory and mother-of- grotesque figures of birds, beasts, and human pearl. Many articles of daily use were orna- beings, and also many wondrously naturalistic mented with precious stones and metals. The representations of animal life. Some of the silken and embroidered stuffs were gorgeous artists reveled in ludicrous caricatures of popubeyond description. Table-ware of solid gold, lar and official manners. On many of them with beautiful engraved or open-work ara- gold or silver bronze was combined, somebesques, and a good display of porcelain, were times in raised figures worked out in highalso noticeable. The rugs and carpets were relief, and sometimes inlaid in delicate tracealso fine. The varieties of silk-cocoons and of ries, with the darker metal, which in the finest cottons were prominent exhibits, and the other examples was of a deep steel color. On the products of the soil were well represented. Japanese porcelain was lavished a wealth of
The Bey of Tunis displayed a collection of ornamentation not less prodigal. Noteworthy arms, beautifully engraved, inlaid, and jeweled, were the examples of Kaga ware, with scarlet jewelry and silversmiths' work, and rich gold- or green ground and gold ornamentation of thread embroideries, and decorated trappings. exceeding brilliancy; the white Yokohama
The Orange Free State in South Africa, with ware, delicately ornamented in gold and colenterprising spirit, sent a selection of its prod- ors; the Banko ware, with colors running ucts, comprising wool, fine wheat and corn, the through the material; the large pair of vases singular grain called Kaffre corn, coal, dried with raised dragons in gold and finely-painted fruit, hides of the springbok and jackal-skins, landscapes on a blue-and-white ground, and a whips of rhinoceros-hide, the curious cream- collection of grotesque figures satirizing Japaof-tartar plant, ivory, diamonds, and stuffed nese manners sent from Tokio. In lacquer. birds.
work a wide range of articles was exhibited. The Hawaiian kingdom was represented by The ancient pieces are the best in color and sugar, coffee, corals, and shells, handsomely workmanship, of which class a wonderful marked woods, strange textile fibres, stuffed cabinet, three hundred and fifty years old, birds, and the contribution of the Queen, was the finest specimen. The art of lacquer. fans, feather-work, and curious articles of na- ing is generally practised throughout the emtive use.
pire, but in the greatest perfection in Tokio Probably no national exhibit was so much and Kiyoto. The slightly-raised figures in visited and wondered at as the Japanese; cer- lacquer-ware are either carved in the founda
tion, or are built up by the application of suc- bright-colored plumage, the jewelry set with cessive layers of the varnish, which is the green and blue beetles, the excellent work in viseid sap of the tree Rhus vernicifera. The leather, including some saddles of embossed collection of screens was large and highly in- leather, the light furniture from native woods, teresting, containing paintings on silk, some- an ingenious combination bed, table, washtimes combined with embroidery, in the best stand, and chairs, for travelers' use, and the style of Japanese art, affording an opportunity crockery-ware. of studying their peculiar manner of art-treat From the Argentine Republic was sent a ment, and, in the subjects, giving glimpses of mineral collection of great variety. The textile the inner social life of that remarkable peo- fabrics embraced cotton, woolen, silk, and ple. The display of carved wood, inlaid, and some unusual materials. There was a fine disupholstered furniture was remarkable, embrac- play of skins and manufactured leather. The ing some articles in the European style, which, weapons and clothing of the natives were an for taste and fine workmanship, were not sur- attractive feature. passed. Of the special products of Japanese Chili also sent silks, leather, etc., with stuffed industry the ivory carvings, the buckskins animals and specimens of antiquities and native printed with colored patterns, the stamped handiwork. bronzed leather, the peculiar sorts of paper, Antiquities and the weapons and dress of and the elegant silk patterns, were worthy of the natives formed part of the Peruvian exattention. There was also a fine government hibit also, which included manufactures of exhibit of ores, minerals, grains, medicinal leather, soap, and sugar, valuable metals and plants, stuffed animals, etc.; and a group of minerals, and a considerable range of tropical plaster images showing the costumes worn by products. the different classes.
The Mexican Republic made a large exhibit The Chinese exhibition was handsomely in- of minerals and native woods, besides some cased in a showy structure carpentered by creditable manufactures_leather, silks, cloththeir own workmen. Though not so large as ing, etc.--a collection of medicinal plants and the Japanese exhibit, it was well selected, and of textile fibres, some richly-embroidered deer. more representative, including the more or- skin garments, and a considerable collection of dinary products and manufactures of the Ce- Aztec antiquities. The Mexican exhibit, though lestials. The porcelain was worthy of their interesting, was not nearly so full as was exhigh reputation in the art. In lacquer-work pected. they must yield the palm to the Japanese. The In the carriage annex were exhibited a large silks and embroideries were beautiful in colors variety of carriages, parts of carriages, chiland design. Handsomely-embroidered screens dren's carriages, etc., and a Pullman-car in the were framed with wood elaborately carved. American department; a luxurious railwayThe irory carvings were wonderfully delicate coach from Brazil; drags, coupés, barouches, and finished. The carved and inlaid furniture, broughams, etc., from England, of substantial particularly the former, was marvelous in its make and elegant finish; and some handsome elaborateness and detail of ornament. Among sleighs from Canada. The French exhibit of the fine collection of bronzes were some of carriages in the Machinery Building was also great age and rarity. The model of a joss. fine. house was a conspicuous object. Among the The educational exhibits of several different products exhibited were cotton and hempen countries were very complete and instructive, fabrics, calico prints, shoes, hats, and clothing, and illustrated fairly the present stage of edufancy-leather articles, paper, musical instru- cation, particularly of primary education, in ments, woods, wine, grain, wax, cotton, wool, those lands where the most attention is paid and hair. To judge from their different dis- to it, and also gave a comparative view of plays one would say that, although the Chinese different systems. The American system of may be behind the Japanese somewhat in popular education was adequately exhibited artistic invention and the appreciation of form, by several of the States. The Belgian schools they are fully their equals in the understand have been a bone of contention between the ing of colors and in technical skill.
liberal and clerical parties in that country, and The Brazilian people and their Emperor took this rivalry has given an impetus to education. great pains to set off the products and re- The model of a juvenile school-house exhibited sources of that vast tropical empire to the best was exceedingly complete and commodious in advantage, and the presence of the latter at its appointments, containing a lavatory, gymthe Exhibition gave additional éclat to the dis- nasium, and a school-room with graduated play. The most noticeable of the contents of desks and seats, well lighted, and warmed by their showy Moresque colonnade, besides the the fresh-air system, by which the air is eneducational exhibit and the large collections tirely renewed every half-hour: the desks of minerals, entomology, and natural products, when opened in one way present a writingwere the Paraguayan tea or maté, an herb table; another turn discloses a slate affixed to which yields a decoction similar to tea, but the stand; and when turned another way a less injurious, which was described in a special lace cushion is exposed; when opened wide pamphlet; the artificial flowers made from they form a lunch-table. The teachers pro
vide a luncheon for the poorer children. The atory in certain districts of Japan. Of the educational apparatus comprises the abacus, States, Pennsylvania and Massachusetts made the higher apparatus of the Froebel system, the fullest educational exhibits, while most of and pictures and specimens of every descrip- the other States exhibited the workings of tion which can convey instruction through their systems of public instruction. The Kinthe sight, stuffed animals, mechanical models, dergarten system was illustrated by two model specimens of raw materials and manufactured school-houses, in which instruction was improducts, exhibiting the methods of the silk, parted to classes of little children by two ex. cotton, woolen, metal industries, etc. Hol- perienced lady teachers. land exhibited the work of the scholars of her technical and industrial schools. The Swedish model school-house was exhibited with much pride, and was a pattern public school. All their school-houses are constructed and furnished after the same model. It was of pinewood, solidly made and finely finished; the seats have comfortable backs; the lighting and ventilation are excellent. In the upper story is the lodging of the teacher. school-room contains maps and pictures, representing the national industries and pro. ductions, globes, books of reference, zoological specimens, herbaria, and a musical instrument. In Sweden education is obligatory. In the afternoon the scholars are taught some trade or domestic occupation. Every parish con
WOMEN'S PAVILION. tains its regular school, except the less populous parishes, which are supplied with circuit The Women's Pavilion, 208 feet square, COPteachers. The books and implements of study ering about an acre of ground, was designed are provided by the Government at a minimum to receive the products of female industry and price. When a scholar shows a special fitness ingenuity of every class. The American erfor any particular occupation, he is enabled to hibitors occupied three-fourths of the floorpursue his further studies at the expense of space. The other nations represented were the state. The Swiss with their genius for Great Britain, Ireland, Canada, and the coljuvenile instruction have devised a vast variety onies, France, Netherlands, Denmark, Sweof appliances and processes of teaching, which den, Norway, Italy, Germany, Spain and her were amply exhibited at the Exposition. Nor- colonies, Brazil, Mexico, Tunis, Japan, and way, Jamaica, and Cape Colony, exhibited their Egypt. This was the first collective display systems of primary instruction. The colony of women's work ever attempted, and much of Ontario presented its compulsory system, in of its incompleteness was due to its novelty: which the Catholic and Protestant schools are nor was it a complete collection of all feminine both sustained at public expense, and answer- products exhibited, as many of the best proable to the Bureau of Education. The Ha- ductions of female art and invention were inwaiian schools, the Art-School of Cairo, and cluded in the other collections. In the centre technical and primary schools in other parts of the building, grouped about a flower-borof the world, sent specimens of their pupils' dered fountain, was an abundant display of work. The Japanese Commission exhibited ornamental needle-work. The Royal School with great complacency the status and method of Needle-work, patronized by the Queen of of education introduced into Japan of late England, set up here, as well as in the Main years after European models. They have uni- Hall, a representation of their skill, which versities, intermediate and common schools; contrasted strongly in the mediæval manner in Tokio is a special advanced school for wom- of the designs with the productions of Amerien, and also schools for the exclusive teaching can ladies in the same field. Two embroidered of foreign languages, in one of which French, flags worked by the ladies of New York hung English, German, Russian, and Chinesė, are down from the rafters. Designs for woven taught, and in another the English language fabrics, made by ladies trained in the Massaalone. In their exhibited model school were a chusetts School of Technology, showed study gymnasium, a school library, the apparatus of and invention. Wood-work carved or inlaid Froebel adapted to their special requisitions, by ladies in the West bore graceful but simple maps, anatomical, zoological, and botanical spe- patterns. The Women's Medical College of cimens, etc. Their text-books are copied after Philadelphia presented a materia medica, very those of the best European schools; they fol- complete and accurate. A combination desk, low English methods in science and German invented by Mrs. Stiles, has found great favor, methods in languages. They learn to use the and is a very ingenious and practical contriv. abacus universally in calculations, and acquire ance for the economy of room, presenting, great skill in its employ. Education is oblig- when closed, the appearance of a cabinet, 6