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end in 1876 by the total defeat of the latter. the public money appropriated to the support A plan of the Imperial Government to bring of their schools. all the railroads in the empire under its con A memorial addressed by the Alliance in trol, while being supported by Prussia, met 1874 to the Turkish embassador at Washingwith a bitter opposition in South Germany. ton, in behalf of persecuted Christians, and in

In Italy the financial condition of the coun favor of religious liberty in the Turkish Emtry seemed to be improving, as, according to pire, had been brought to the attention of the the budget of 1876, there was to be a surplus Government at Constantinople. In behalf of of 2,000,000 lire. The plan of the ministry his Government, the embassador denied that to buy up the railroads led to a ministerial the Christian subjects of the Turkish Empire crisis, which ended in the resignation of the had any cause of complaint in the matter reMinghetti ministry in March, and the forma- ferred to. (The grievances of the Turkish tion of a new body under Depretis, the leader Christians are related in the ANNUAL CYCLOof the Left. The elections for the Chamber PÆDIA for 1875.) But, during the year, these of Deputies in November resulted in a decided complaints had been continued. The Sultan victory for the Government. In order to se- had lately promised important reforms, and, cure to the Liberal party a majority in the among them, better security for religious libSenate, the King created thirty-two new sen- erty. In accordance with the direction of the ators on November 17th.

executive committee, the secretary and treasIn Spain the Carlist War was brought to a urer of the Alliance had remitted, semi-anclose in February, and the country enjoyed for nually, to Mesdames Pronier, Carrasco, and the first time in many years internal peace. Cook (the widows of the three delegates to In the Cortes the new constitution was adopted the General Conference of the Alliance of 1873, in May. Although this document guaranteed who lost their lives by the sinking of the steamfull liberty of conscience, the restrictions of er Ville du Havre), the interest of the funds the Protestants continued to such a degree raised by the American friends of their dethat England and Germany were forced to ceased husbands. The funds were invested in interfere.

the following amounts: Cook fund, $7,000 ; In Denmark the old conflict between the Carrasco fund, $5,000; Pronier fund, $5,000. Government and the Lower House continued The “ Conference fund,” or the surplus left during 1876, the House repeatedly refusing to from the sums contributed for the General Convote for the budget. The socialists caused ference of 1873, amounted to $6,000, and was considerable excitement, being very active, al- safely deposited. In view of the continued though in a considerable minority.

financial pressure, it was proposed to conduct EVANGELICAL ALLIANCE. The eighth the Alliance for the ensuing year without exannual meeting. of the Evangelical Alliance pense for salary or office-rent. for the United States of America was held in The annual conference of the Evangelical New York City, January 31st. Mr. William Alliance (British branch) was held at SouthE. Dodge presided. A resolution was adopted port, beginning October 3d. The report of commending to the Branch Alliance in Phila- the secretary for the past year spoke of an indelphia “ the consideration of the expediency crease in the number of members and the forand practicability of special religious services mation of new branches. Mention was made during the time of the International Exposition of the interest which had been taken in the of 1876 in that city, illustrating the unity and Alliance by the Queen and the Empress of Gerpower of our evangelical Christianity, and the many. An address had been presented to the relations of the religion we teach to the prog- Prince of Wales on his departure for India. ress, perpetuity, and true glory of the Ameri- The Alliance had been very earnest in efforts can Republic, and the world's civilization and in behalf of the Christians in Turkey, and the salvation." The Philadelphia branch was also credit was claimed for its committee of hav“ respectfully requested to embrace suitable op- ing been the first body-more than a year preportunities for acquainting distinguished vis- viously—to call the attention of the Governitors to the International Exposition with our ment to their condition. The Emperor of GerChristian and philanthropic institutions.” A many had offered a cordial welcome to the committee was appointed to coöperate with members of the Alliance, if they should dethe Philadelphia branch in carrying out this sire to hold a conference in Berlin, and it measure.' Reports were read from the Wis was suggested that the invitation might be acconsin, St. Louis, and Newbern branches. An cepted in 1878. During the sessions of the account was given of the proceedings of the Alliance a number of papers were read, prinfirst Biennial Conference of the Alliance, which cipally upon subjects bearing upon the condiwas held at Pittsburg, Pa., October 26 to 29, tion of Christianity on the Continent of Eu1875. (See ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA for 1875.) rope. An important paper was also read by

In March, 1875, a committee of the Alliance the Rev. James Stephenson, of Dublin, on had addressed a memorial to the Board of Edu " The Power of the Evangelical Alliance, and cation of the City of New York against a propo- how here to use it for Local Purposes.” sition from the trustees of the Roman Catholic EVANGELICAL ASSOCIATION. The parochial schools of the city to have a part of following is a summary of the statistics of









New York..




61 121 16 69




Wisconsin. Ohio.. Minnesota.

16 81 59

6 51 9

60 69 88 56 42

4 14 26 27

34 118 149

85 111 22

3 14



Des Moines.


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the Evangelical Association as they were pub- Europe was in a flourishing condition, and the lished in September, 1876:

number of members in the missions there had increased. This work extended over Würtemberg, Baden, Alsace, Saxony, Switzerland, and a part of Prussia. Seven churches had been built during the year in the European

district, giving an increase in valuation of East Pennsylvania...


church property of more than $38,000, in gold. Central Pennsylvania

11.157 1564 A building-lot had been bought at Stuttgart, Pittsburg.

and help was asked in building a church there. 2,156

This society was organized in 1839, and the Canada.


first four regularly-appointed missionaries were Michigan Illinois.


sent out in that year. The first missionary lowa

was sent to Europe in 1850. Now, the society 9,310

had a very large mission-work in the United 8,455 8,399

States, employing more than 300 missionaries, Indiana (statis, of 1575).

and had in Europe one annual conference, a Germany..

6,501 Pacific (statistics of 1875)

Sunday-school work, a branch publishing1,677

house, and a seminary for young preachers. 2,505 41$

The increase in the European missions was 25

2,781 223 South Indiana

per cent. annually, the number of members Total.

having doubled during the last four years. 101,302 1.3501

The annual meeting of the Board of PubliThe total number of children baptized was cation of the Evangelical Association was held 7,397; of adults baptized, 1,429; probable at Cleveland, Ohio, October 31st.

The book value of churches, $3,619,468 ; number of par- agent reported that the amount of cash and sonages, 379); probable value of the same, its equivalents in his hands on the 1st of Sep$465,935 ; amount of conference contributions, tember was $35,004.12, or $11,236.51 more than $4,787.75; of contributions for missions, $66,- the amount on hand during the same period of 300.57 ; of contributions for the Sunday-school the previous year. The total resources of the and Tract Union, $2,189.17; number of Sun- Board were $336,971.45, against $8,846.55 of day-schools, 1,743; of officers and teachers in liabilities, showing the net resources to be the same, 19,551; of Sunday-school scholars, $328,124.90. The net gains on the business 105,566. The Missionary Society of the Evan- of the year had been $21,916.40. The report gelical Association supported, according to the of the sixteen periodicals showed that they last annual report of the corresponding secre- had an aggregate circulation of 183,775 copies, tary, 289 missions, both home and foreign : or 69,567 more than were circulated in the 277 of these missions were supplied by the re- previous year. spective annual conferences with 301 mission EXHIBITION, CENTENNIAL. The Inaries. The Sunday-school and Tract Union of ternational Exhibition of Arts, Manufactures, the Evangelical Association was organized in and Products of the Soil and Mine, to which 1859. It has published a number of Sunday- the citizens of the United States had been school books and tracts, and aids Sunday- looking forward with eager anticipations, was schools in procuring libraries.

opened in Fairmount Park, Philadelphia, on The annual meeting of the Missionary Society the 10th of May, 1876. In the last volume of of the Evangelical Association was held at In- THE ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA was given an acdianapolis, Ind., October 27th. The treasurer count of the preparations for this, the sixth of reported that the receipts for the year had the great World's Fairs, and the first one held been $65,807.13; the total expenditures had in this country, which was also an anniversary been $82,000. The amount of the heathen- exhibition of the country's progress in the mission fund now in the treasury, after allow. hundredth year of its national existence. ing for $1,299.95 spent during the year, was The project of holding a World's Fair and $27,729.53. The standing fund amounted to Centennial National Exhibition was first pub$52,907.73, having increased $3,739.88 during licly proposed by an association of citizens of

The corresponding secretary re- Philadelphia in 1870. It was officially adopted ported that the heathen mission had been by Congress in the act of March 3, 1871, creestablished in Japan, and the first detachment ating the Centennial Commission, consisting of missionaries, three in number, had been sent of a delegate and alternate delegate from each out. The home-missionary work exhibited an of the States and Territories, intrusted with encouraging degree of prosperity. The num the selection of a place and making of plans ber of missions had been increased, and all had and preparations for the Exhibition, and by the made some progress. The work on the Pacific act of June 1, 1872, appointing the Centennial coast was advancing steadily. The first camp- Board of Finance, empowered to raise a capimeeting ever held on that coast had been held tal stock, which was fixed at $10,000,000, onein Oregon during the summer, and the Pacific quarter of which was readily taken up in subConference had been organized. The work in scription shares of $50, mostly by the citizens

the year:

of Philadelphia. The President formally pro- missioners appointed by the foreign governclaimed the Exhibition on the 3d of July, 1873, ments were the following gentlemen : Argenand on the 5th of the same month the rep- tine Confederation, Carlos Carranza; Austria, resentatives of foreign governments were duly Rudolph Isbary ; Belgium, Baron Gustave de advertised. On June 5, 1874, an act was Woelmont; Brazil, the Conde d'Eu; Chili, passed declaring that the Exhibition would be Rafael Lorrain ; China, Edward B. Drew; held under the auspices of the Government, Denmark, Jacob Holmblad ; Ecuador, Edward and requesting the President to invite foreign Shippen; Egypt, Prince Mohammed Tawfic governments to be represented and take part Pasha; France, N. M. Ozenne; German Emin the International Exhibition." By a special pire, Dr. Jacobi; Great Britain and colonies, provision permission was granted to convey the Duke of Richmond; Canada, Senator Luc articles to the exhibition-grounds without pay- Letellier de St. Just; New South Wales, Sir ment of import duties, to be held there in James Martin Knight ; Victoria, Sir Edmund bond ; duty was to be collected only on articles Barry; South Australia, A. Musgrave; Honsold and delivered in this country, except upon duras, Governor Don Francisco Bardales ; articles imported for sale during the Exhibition; Italy, Baron Blanc, minister to Washington; the other class, comprising the exhibits proper, Japanese Empire, Okubo Toshimichi; Liberia, must remain on exhibition until the day ap- J. S. Payne; Mexico, Romero Rubio; Netherpointed for the close of the Exposition, which lands, Dr. E. H. von Baumhauer; Norway, was the 10th of November.

Herman Baars; Orange Free State, Charles The Centennial Commission was appointed W. Riley; Peru, J. C. Tracy; Russia, Privyby the President from nominations made by Councilor Butovsky; Sandwich Islands, S. G. the Governors of the several States and Ter- Wilder; Siam, J. H. Chandler; Spain, Coloritories. The officers chosen were the follow- nel Lopez Fabra; Sweden, P. A. Bergstrom; ing gentlemen: General Joseph R. Hawley, Switzerland, Colonel H. Rieter; Tunis, Sidi of Connecticut, for president; Orestes Cleve- Houssein; Turkey, G. d'Aristrarchi, minister land, John D. Creigh, Robert Lowry, Thomas to Washington; Venezuela, Leon de la Cova. H. Coldwell, John McNeil, and William Gur An area of 236 acres was inclosed for exhivev, vice-presidents; Alfred T. Goshorn, di- bition purposes. By the beginning of the year rector-general; John L. Campbell, secretary; 1876 the Exhibition Buildings were erected and and John L. Shoemaker, counselor and solici- ready for the reception of exhibits. The cost tor. An executive comınittee of thirteen was of the five main structures was about $4,500,appointed, with Myer Asch as its secretary, 000. At the opening of the Exposition 190 and several bureaus of adıninistration were buildings had been erected within the inclosconstituted under the following chiefs: for- ure, and before its close there were more eign, A. T. Goshorn, Myer Ash ; installation, than 200. The city of Philadelphia went to a Henry Pettit; transportation, Dolphus Tor- great expense in improving the avenues leadrey; machinery, John S. Albert; agriculture, ing to the grounds, and in building a handsome Burnet Landreth; horticulture, Charles H. iron truss-bridge over the Schuylkill, costing Miller; fine arts, John Sartain. The corpo over $1,000,000. The chief railroad-lines of rators of the Board of Finance consisted of the country entered into special agreements to two from each congressional district, and four convey visitors to the Centennial at special from each State and Territory at large. This reduced rates of fare. body was organized with John Welsh as presi The applications for space exceeded the exdent; William Sellers and John S. Barbour, pectations of the commissioners. It was found as vice-presidents; Frederick Fraley, secretary necessary to erect a large annex to the Art and treasurer; William Bigler, financial agent; Building, as the wall-space in Memorial Hall Henry Pettit, Joseph M. Wilson, and H. J. was found far from sufficient to accommodate Schwarzmann, engineers and architects; and the applicants. France began early to bestir a Board of Directors of twenty-two members. herself in preparing for the Exposition. Rus

The city of Philadelphia was decided upon sia was backward in responding to the inas the place of the Exhibition, a beautiful site vitation, questioning the official character of in the spacious Fairmount Park being selected. the Exhibition, but at a late hour decided to Besides the private subscriptions, appropria- send a large representative display of her arts tions of $500,000 in 1875 and $1,500,000 in and products, selected and managed under the following session were made by Congress governmental auspices, which formed when as an advance loan, while the city of Phila- opened, somewhat more tardily than the other delphia appropriated $1,500,000, the State of national exhibits, one of the most interesting Pennsylvania, $1,000,000, and other States and sections of the fair. Spain also was dilatory Territories various lesser amounts. The States in dispatching her exhibits, and also sent a made active preparations, appointing local fine representation of her productions, under inanagers to aid and organize the efforts of patronage of the government. The British their citizens. The foreign nations also, to exhibitors seemed to comprehend best the which the invitation had been presented, ac- spirit and requirements of the Exhibition, and cepted it promptly in most cases, and bespoke took a pride in sending samples of the best space for their exhibits.

The chief com art-work of their country, as well as of her

finest industrial products; yet her latter ex fine as at Vienna. The German and Austrian hibition, owing to the questionable commer- exhibitors, and the French in their art exhibit, cial advantage of competing with American evidently labored under a false appreciation of protected manufactures, was not so large and the taste of the American public, which was a


Machinery Bullding.

Main Exhibitlon Bullding.
Memorlal Hall or Art Gallery.
Horticultural Hall.

Agricultural Hall.

little indignant at being credited with so little foreign exhibitors frankly declared, after see artistic understanding as was inferred by many ing the American displays, that, if they had of the art and ornamental exhibits. Several known what they had to compete with, they

would have made a difference in the character mind that the exhibitors were actuated mainly of the articles exhibited. In the American de- by commercial motives, and that it was an partment the exhibition was unexpectedly full American market which they sought to gain in and rich, although many novel manufacturing exposing their manufactures at the Philadelprocesses remained unexhibited, owing to the phia Exhibition. Those industries in which jealousy of the proprietors lest their methods the Americans are weakest and those which might be copied. The European colonies and are not practised in this country would natudistant nations were, in the main, better rep- rally be the best represented in the foreign exresented than in any of the former expositions; hibitions, while those in which American manand it is one of the best results of international ufacturers, under the protection of import fairs that countries far removed from the usual duties, have driven foreign producers out of tracks of commerce bave greeted them as a the home market, could not be exhibited with means of opening up intercourse with the com any advantage by foreigners. mercial world. The British colonies and the The Main Building, designed for the exhiSouth American nations, with the pardonable bition of the manufactured products, and prodvanity and ambition which are common to new ucts of the mines and metallurgy, as well as countries, sent most extensive and interesting the condition of science and education, in all collections of their products. In judging of nations, covered an area of twenty acres, with the different displays it should be borne in a length of 1,880 feet, east and west, and a

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breadth of 464 feet, and having projecting Hawaiian Islands, 1,575; Italy, 8,943; Japan, wings in the centres of the sides, 416 feet in 17,831; Luxemburg, 247; Mexico, 6,567; Nethlength, and in the centres of the ends, 216 feeterlands, 15,948; Norway, 6,959; Orange Free in length. The exhibition-space was on one State, 1,058 ; Peru, 1,462, Portugal, 5,988; floor. The roof of the main part was 70 feet Russia, 11,141; Spain and colonies, 11,253; high. In the centre of the main portion Sweden, 17,799 ; Switzerland, 6,693; Tunis, was an elevated square, with 184 feet sides, 2,015; Turkey, 3,347. The space reserved for having towers 120 feet high and 48 feet square the United States' exhibits was 136,684 square at the corners. At the four corners of the feet. The total exhibition-space of the buildbuilding were towers 75 feet high; and the ing was 363,102 square feet. The space was projecting wings, through which led the main distributed in parallelograms between the main entrances, were fronted with façades 90 feet longitudinal aisle, 120 feet broad and 1,832 feet in height. The building was constructed long, and two side-aisles 100 feet broad, and with wrought-iron roof-trusses supported by the numerous cross-aisles. Connecting the two wrought-iron columns, 672 in number, and side-entrances was a transept of the same width sided mainly with glazed sash, with a substruct as the central nave. ure of brick 7 feet high, upon a foundation of Two remarkably large organs, one built by massive masonry. There was a tier of res- Roosevelt, of New York, with two other organs taurants and withdrawing-rooms at the sides which were played by electric connections of the building, and above them, in an upper with the large one, and the other set up by story, a gallery of chambers occupied by the Hook & Hastings, of Boston, occupied portions Centennial authorities, and by the educational of the galleries, and were playing almost conexhibits of several of the States. The space stantly. The Maine cotton-mills made a collecwas apportioned for the collective displays of tive exbibit. Nearly all the large New Engthe different nations as follows, in square feet: land cotton and cloth factories participated in Argentine Republic, 2,861; Austro-Hungary, an extensive exhibit of American textiles. The 24,727; Belgium, 15,598; Brazil, 6,899; Cana- collection of American carpets was very large. da, 24,118; Chili, 3,424; China, 6,628; Den- The new floor-cloth called linoleum was also mark, 2,562; Egypt, 5,026; France, 45,460; exhibited. The cutlers and hardware manufactGermany, 29,625; Great Britain and Ireland, urers also made a fine exbibit. A new kind of 54,155; India and British colonies, 24,193; veneering for interiors was sent from Boston.

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