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TO ENUMERATORS.-The inquiries numbered 20 to 30, luclusive, must be made concerning each family and each farm visited.

(1877-1,780,000.) »

Measuring America


as may be obtainable, classifying them as to Indians taxed and Indians not taxed.

By the phrase "Indians not taxed” is meant Indians living on reservations under the care of Government agents or roaming individually or in bands over unsettled tracts of country. Indians not in tribal relations, whether full-bloods or halfbreeds, who are found mingled with the white population, residing in white families, engaged as servants or laborers, or living in huts or wigwams on the outskirts of towns or settlements, are to be regarded as a part of the ordinary population of the country, and are to be embraced by the enumeration.

Instructions to Enumerators The statistics of population and other special data concerning persons residing in institutions will be taken by institution enumerators; that is, some official or other trustworthy person connected with the institution, who will be appointed specially for the purpose. This plan of enumeration will not be extended to all institutions, but the appointment of special institution enumerators will be determined partly by the size of the institution and partly by its nature. For those institutions where this plan of enumeration is to be carried out the enumerators for the districts in which such institutions are located will have no responsibility. Each enumerator will receive in advance of the enumeration due notification from the supervisor for his district as to the institutions which are not to be taken by him. It should be the duty of the enumerator, however, if there is any institution in his district, whatever may be its size or character, to satisfy himself by personal inquiry of the officer in charge whether a special institution enumerator has been appointed, and if not, to proceed to enumerate the population as in the case of all other houses visited by him. On the other hand, if a special institution enumerator has been appointed for it, then it has been withdrawn from his district, and he will leave it to be enumerated by the special institution enumerator.

The enumeration of Indians living on reservations will be made by special agents appointed directly from this office, and supervisors and enumerators will have no responsibility in this connection. Many Indians, however, have voluntarily abandoned their tribal relations or have quit their reservations and now sustain themselves. When enumerators find Indians off of or living away from reservations, and in no (ways) dependent upon the agency or Government, such Indians, in addition to their enumeration on the population and supplemental schedules, in the same manner as for the population generally, should be noted on a special schedule (7-917] by name, tribe, sex, age, occupation, and whether taxed or not taxed. The object of this is to obtain an accurate census of all Indians living within the jurisdiction of the United States and to prevent double enumeration of certain Indians.

Where Indians are temporarily absent from their reservations the census enumerators need not note them, as the special enumeration for Indian reservation will get their names.


SOLDIERS AND SAILORS All soldiers of the United States Army, civilian employees, and other residents at posts or on military reservations, will be enumerated in the same manner as has been provided for institutions, by the appointment of a special resident enumerator; and in all such cases where the district enumerator has been so notified such posts or military reservations should not be included as a part of his district. For posts not garrisoned, and any other posts not so withdrawn, the district enumerator will make the necessary inquiries, and if no special enumerator has been appointed he will include the residents of such posts as a part of his district equally with other elements of the population. In a similar way all sailors and marines stationed on vessels, and at the United States navy yards, as well as resident officers, with their families, will be specially enumerated, and need not be taken by the district enumerator if, upon inquiry or by notification, he knows that such special provision has been made.

The schedule adopted for the enumeration of the population is what is known as the family schedule; that is, a separate schedule for each family, without regard to the number of persons in the family. Three forms of this schedule are provided for the use of enumerators, according as the families to be enumerated are made up of a large or small number of persons. The single-sheet schedules (7-566a] are provided for use in enumerating families containing from 1 to 10 persons, the double-sheet schedules [7-556b) for use in enumerating families containing more than 10 but not over 20 persons, and the additional sheets (7-556C) for use in enumerating families containing more than 20 persons. In the case of large families, boarding houses, lodging houses, hotels, institutions, schools, etc., containing more than 20

SPECIAL ENUMERATION OF INDIANS The law provides that the Superintendent of Census may employ special agents or other means to make an enumeration of all Indians living within the jurisdiction of the


Measuring America such number of the additional sheets as may be necessary. Wherever the additional sheets are used, be careful to write on each sheet, in the spaces provided therefor, the number of the supervisor's district, enumeration district, dwelling house, and family, and also the name of the institution, school, etc., as the case may be. Also, at the heads of the columns in which the information concerning the several persons enumerated is entered, fill in the "tens” figures on the dotted lines preceding the printed unit figures, and continue to number the columns consecutively, as 21, 22, etc., until all persons in the family have been enumerated.

Upon one or the other of these forms of the population schedule, according to the size of the family to be enumerated, is to be entered the name of every man, woman, and child who on the 1st day of June, 1890, shall have his or her usual place of abode within the enumerator's district. No child born between the 1st day of June, 1890, and the day of the enumerator's visit (say June 5, June 15, etc., as the case may be) is to be entered upon the schedule. On the other hand, every person who was a resident of the district upon the 1st day of June, 1890, but between that date and the day of the enumerator's visit shall have died, should be entered on the schedule precisely as if still living. The object of the schedule is to obtain a list of the inhabitants on the 1st of June, 1890, and all changes after that date, whether in the nature of gain or loss, are to be disregarded in the enumeration. In answering the several inquiries on the population and other schedules the space provided for each answer should be filled by a definite statement or a symbol used to denote either that the inquiry is not applicable to the person for whom the answers are being made or that the information can not be obtained. In all cases where the inquiry is not applicable use the following symbol: (X). If for any reason it is not possible to obtain answers to inquiries which are applicable to the person enumerated, use the following symbol to denote this fact: (=). The enumerator must bear in mind, however, that where he has every reason to suppose that he can supply the answer himself it is better than the symbol; and in any case the symbol should not be used until he has made every effort to ascertain the proper answer from the persons in the family or in the neighborhood, as required by law. Illustrative examples of the manner of filling the population and the use of these symbols are contained in printed sheets which are supplied to enumerators.

to be carried to those sheets, as already stated. CIVIL DIVISIONS Be careful to enter accurately the name of the city, town, township, precinct, etc., and distinguish carefully between the population of villages within townships and the remainder of such townships. The correct enumeration of the population of these minor civil divisions is especially important, and is of interest in the presentation in the printed reports of details concerning these small bodies of population. So far as possible, also, the population of small unincorporated villages and hamlets should be separately reported. Also enter at the head of each schedule, in the spaces provided therefor, the name of the county and State or Territory in which the minor subdivision is located. In cities the street, street number, and ward should be entered in the proper spaces, and in those cities where special sanitary districts have been established for the purposes of the census enumeration the letters used to designate them should be added in some convenient space at the head of each schedule and encircled thus: (A), (B), (C), etc., according to the special letters used to distinguish these sanitary districts. Institutions Whenever an institution is to be enumerated, as, a hospital, asylum, almshouse, jail, or penitentiary, the full name and title of the institution should be entered, and all persons having their usual place of abode in such institution, whether officers, attendants, inmates, or persons in confinement, should then be entered consecutively on the schedules as one family. If, as sometimes may be the case, a sheriff, warden, or other prison official may live in one end of the prison building, but separated by a partition wall from the prison proper, his family (including himself as its head) should be returned on a separate schedule, and should not be returned on the schedule upon which the prisoners are entered. Where the officers or attendants, or any of them, do not reside in the institution buildings, but live with their families in detached dwellings, no matter whether the houses are owned by the institutions or located in the same grounds, they should be reported on separate schedules, but should be included as a part of the work of the special institution enumerator, where one is appointed, and should not be left to be taken by the district enumerator. It may happen also that some of the officers or attendants may reside wholly outside of the institution precincts, either in rented houses or houses owned by the institution, or by themselves, and in such cases they should be enumerated by the district enumerator and not by the special institution enumerator. The tour of duty of the special institution enumerator should not extend beyond the boundaries of the institution grounds, but should include all those persons and inmates whose usual places of abode are clearly within the territory controlled by the institutions.


The first thing to be entered at the head of each schedule is the number of the supervisor's district and of the enumeration district in which the work is performed. These numbers must be repeated for each family enumerated,

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necessarily, the house number, as called for by Inquiry

A. Number of dwelling house in the order of visitation.

In the space against the inquiry marked A is to be
entered the number of the dwelling house in the order
of visitation. The object of this inquiry is to ascertain
the total number of dwelling houses. A dwelling house
for the purposes of the census means any building or
place of abode, of whatever character, material, or
structure, in which any person is living at the time of
taking the census. It may be a room above a ware-
house or factory, a loft above a stable, a wigwam on
the outskirts of a settlement, or a dwelling house in
the ordinary sense of that term. A tenement house,
whether it contains two, three, or forty families,
should be considered for the purposes of the census
as one house. A building under one roof suited for
two or more families, but with a dividing partition wall
and separate front door for each part of the building,
should be counted as two or more houses. A block of
houses under one roof, but with separate front doors,
should be considered as so many houses, without
regard to the number of families in each separate
house in the block. Wholly uninhabited dwellings are
not to be counted.

B. Number of families in this dwelling house.

The inquiry marked B calls for the number of families,
whether one or more, in each dwelling house. Where
there is more than one family in a dwelling house, this
inquiry should be answered only on the schedule for
the first family enumerated and omitted on the sched-
ules for the second and subsequent families enumer-
ated in the same house, to avoid duplication of results;
the space on the schedules for the second and subse-
quent families should be filled, however, by an X, as
not being applicable. An example of this character is
given on the printed sheets illustrative of the manner
of filling schedules.

The word family, for the purposes of the census, includes persons living alone, as well as families in the ordinary sense of that term, and also all larger aggregations of people having only the tie of a common roof and table. A hotel, with all its inmates, constitutes but one family within the meaning of this term. A hospital, a prison, an asylum is equally a family for the purposes of the census. On the other hand, the solitary inmate of a cabin, a loft, or a room finished off above a store, and indeed, all individuals living out of families, constitute a family in the meaning of the census act. By "individuals living out of families" is meant all persons occupying lofts in public buildings, above stores, warehouses, factories, and stables, having no other usual place of abode; persons living solitary in cabins, huts, or tents; persons sleeping on river boats, canal boats, barges, etc., having no other usual place of abode, and persons in police stations having no homes. Of the classes just mentioned the most important numerically, is the first viz: Those persons, chiefly in cities, who occupy rooms in public buildings, or above stores, warehouses, factories, and stables. In order to reach such persons, the enumerator will need not only to keep his eyes open to all indications of such casual residence in his enumeration district, but to make inquiry both of the parties occupying the business portion of such buildings and also of the police. In the case, however, of tenement houses and of the so-called "flats" of the great cities as many families are to be recorded as there are separate tables. A person's home is where he sleeps. There are many people who lodge in one place and board in another. All such persons should be returned as members of that family with which they lodge. Number of persons in this family. The answer to this inquiry should correspond to the number of columns filled on each schedule, and care should be taken to have all the members of the family included in this statement and a column filled for each person in the family, including servants, boarders, lodgers, etc. Be sure that the person answering the inquiries thoroughly understands the question, and does not omit any person who should be counted as a member of the family.

C. Number of persons in this dwelling house.

The inquiry marked C calls for the number of persons in each dwelling house, and where there is more than one family in the house the answer should represent the total number of persons included in the several families occupying the same house. Where there is but a single family to a house, the answer to this inquiry should be the same as for Inquiry E. Where there is more than one family in a dwelling house, this inquiry, as in the case of Inquiry B, should be answered only on the schedule for the first family enumerated.

D. Number of family in the order of visitation.

In answer to the inquiry marked D enter the number, in the order of visitation, of each family residing in the district. The fact that more than one family is often

Names, Relationship to Head of Family, and Whether Survivors of the War of the Rebellion 1. Christian name in full, initial of middle name, and sur.



Measuring America Opposite to the inquiry numbered I on the schedule are to be entered the names of all persons whose usual place of abode on the 1st day of June, 1890, was in the family enumerated. The census law furnishes no definitions of the phrase "usual place of abode;" and it is difficult, under the American system of protracted enumeration, to afford administrative directions which will wholly obviate the danger that some persons will be reported in two places and others not reported at all. Much must be left to the judgment of the enumerator, who can, if he will take the pains, in the great majority of instances satisfy himself as to the propriety of including or not including doubtful cases in his enumeration of any given family. In the cases of boarders at hotels or students at schools or colleges the enumerator can by one or two well directed inquiries ascertain whether the person concerning whom the question may arise has at the time any other place of abode within another district at which he is likely to be reported. Seafaring men are to be reported at their land homes, no matter how long they may have been absent, if they are supposed to be still alive. Hence, sailors temporarily at a sailors' boarding or lodging house, if they acknowledge any other home within the United States, are not to be included in the family of the lodging or boarding house. Persons engaged in internal transportation, canal men, expressmen, railroad men, etc., if they habitually return to their homes in the intervals of their occupations, will be reported as of their families, and not where they may be temporarily staying on the 1st of June, 1890. In entering the members of a family the name of the father, mother, or other ostensible head of the family (in the case of hotels, jails, etc., the landlord, jailor, etc.) is to be entered in the first column. It is desirable that the wife should be enumerated in the second column, and the children of the family proper should follow in the order of their ages, as will naturally be the case. The names of all other persons in the family, whether relatives, boarders, lodgers, or servants, should be entered successively in subsequent columns. The Christian name in full and initial of middle name of each person should be first entered and the surname immediately thereunder, as shown in the illustrative example. 1. Whether a soldier, sailor, or marine during the civil

war (United States or Confederate), or widow of such person.

letter "W" in addition to the above designations, as W.
Sol (U.S.), W. Sol (Conf.), and so on.
The enumeration of the survivors of the late war,
including their names, organizations, length of ser-
vice, and the widows of such as have died, is to be
taken on a special schedule prepared for the purpose,
as provided for by the act of March 1, 1889, and
relates only to those persons, or widows of persons,
who served in the Army, Navy, or Marine Corps of the
United States in the late war. The inquiry concerning
the survivors of both the United States and Confeder-
ate forces is made on the population schedule so as to
ascertain the number now living and the number who

have died and have left widows. 2. Relationship to head of family.

Designate the head of a family, whether a husband or
father, widow or unmarried person of either sex, by
the word "Head;" other members of a family by wife,
mother, father, son, daughter, grandson, daughter-in-
law, aunt, uncle, nephew, niece, servant, or other
properly distinctive term, according to the particular
relationship which the person bears to the head of the
family. Distinguish between boarders, who sleep and
board in one place, and lodgers, who room in one
place and board in another. If an inmate of an institu-
tion or school, write inmate, pupil, patient, prisoner,
or some equivalent term which will clearly distinguish
inmates from the officers and employees and their
families. But all officers and employees of an institu-
tion who reside in the institution building are to be
accounted, for census purposes, as one family, the
head of which is the superintendent, matron, or other
officer in charge. If more than one family resides in
the institution building, group the members together
and distinguish them in some intelligible way. In addi-
tion to defining their natural relationship to the head
of the institution or of their own immediate family,
their official position in the institution, if any, should
be also noted, thus: Superintendent, clerk, teacher,

watchman, nurse, etc. COLOR, SEX, AND AGE 4. Whether white, black, mulatto, quadroon, octoroon,

Chinese, Japanese, or Indian.
Write white, black, mulatto, quadroon, octoroon, Chi-
nese, Japanese, or Indian, according to the color or
race of the person enumerated. Be particularly careful
to distinguish between blacks, mulattoes, quadroons,
and octoroons. The word "black" should be used to
describe those persons who have three-fourths or
more black blood; “mulatto," those persons who have
from three-eighths to five-eighths black blood; "qua-
droon," those persons who have one-fourth black
blood; and "octoroon," those persons who have one-
eighth or any trace of black blood.

Write "Sol" for soldier, "Sail" for sailor, and "Ma" for marine. If the person served in the United States forces add "U.S." in parentheses, and if in the Confederate forces add "Conf." in parentheses, thus: Sol (U.S.); Sail (U.S.); Sol (Conf.), etc. In the case of a widow of a deceased soldier, sailor, or marine, use the

Measuring America

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