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into consideration the fact that from the "pay-dirt" excavated by one drifter enough
gold is washed to pay six hands $12 per day each, or a total of $72, abundant evidence
is given that the gulch of Bingham is very rich in gold.

The mineral lodes in Bingham Cañon and its tributaries are very numerous, continuous, and well defined. They are mostly found in the igneous formations. The various species of the granite and quartzite rocks characterize the mineral-bearing region of the West Mountain mining district so far as prospected. The belt of igneous rocks, or core of the upheaval, traversing Utah from northeast to southwest, is nearly twenty miles in width. The granites appear at the base of the Wahsatch Range, east side of Salt Lake Valley, and disappear near the head of all the northwest forks of Bingham Canyon.

What the experiences of the future may demonstrate no one can tell-“ the miner's light but seldom going beyond the end of his pick." So far, however, as explorations have gone in the various mining-camps now organized in Utah, and in which the chief part of the labors expended in prospecting our mineral treasures has been performed, the fact that the richer chlorides, and that mining anomaly "horn-silver," prevail in the lime formations, has been demonstrated. The mineral veins found in the lime formations are "pockety" and of uncertain development when compared to those found in the granite formations. That the richer ores will be found in the lime formations may, therefore, be looked for hereafter; but for large, well-defined mineral veins, continuous and of more certain development, we must look to our granite formations. Pockets of great extent and richness have been found in the lime formations of Little Cottonwood and other localities. There are quite a number of mineral veins now being prospected in Bingham Cañon at depths varying from fifty to over three hundred feet, which show true fissure veins of paying ores varying from four to seventeen feet in thickness.

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Stockton district.-These camps lie on the western slope of the Oquirrh range of mountains-Stockton forty miles, and East Cañon fifty-five miles southwest of Salt Lake City. Stockton is probably the oldest camp in Utah. General Connor, when in command of the Utah expedition of the California volunteers, bestowed the chief part of his labors in the development of the minerals of Utah in this locality. The great drawbacks experienced by this camp have mainly arisen from the fact that most of the ledges located had from six to twelve shareholders each, who, after years of fruitless efforts to develop their mines, scattered to all points of the compass in search of means to sustain themselves. to make mining a success in Utah, for the following reasons: At the time those explorations were made, it was impossible

The cost of transportation, before the completion of the Pacific roads, varied from $300 to $400 per ton to the Atlantic coast, and from $250 to $300 per ton to the Pacific coast. Without the facilities afforded by the great iron highway across the continent, the mineral treasures of Utah would to-day be utterly unavailable. The impossibility of securing concert of action from the widely scattered owners and prospectors of the mineral lodes in the Stockton district induced a minority of the shareholders to adopt the dangerous expedient of "jumping" the claims of absentees, thus rendering titles to mining interests in that locality uncertain. However, numerous discoveries of mineral veins, many of which prospect very finely, have been located since the "jumping" of claims, before alluded to, took place, the titles to which are as clear as any in Utah. New discoveries are being made almost daily in this district.

General Connor's faith in the ultimate success of the Stockton district remains unshaken. He is better acquainted with the mineral resources of the Territory and has done more toward their development than any other one man.

Ophir district.-East Cañon mining camp is less than six months old. In this camp the discoveries of the rich chlorides and horn-silver, assaying from $500 to $27,000 per ton, turned the heads of some of the oldest miners and filled the pockets of the fortnnate ones as well. paying quantities. In those base-metal mines lies the "back-bone" of the future of East Cañon abounds with the base metals carrying silver in this camp.

The Tintic Valley mining camps are situated about seventy miles southwest of Salt Lake City. The core of the upheaval, traversing Utah from northeast to southwest, runs through the Tintic mining district, flanked on each hand by the lime formations. Therefore we look to the Tintic district not only for large, continuous, and well-defined mineral veins of base metals in the granite formations, but the reasonable supposition is that, by prospecting the lime formations on either hand, the rich chlorides will be found as plentiful there as in the Wasatch Range or the western slope of the Oquirrh Range. Valuable discoveries are being made in the Tintic district almost daily. A friend of mine brought a load of ore from Tintic, evidently selected without skill, as the croppings from the surface were included. This load of ore, when crushed and sampled at the works of Messrs. Howland & Co., assayed $117 per ton in silver and 25 per cent. lead.

The only thing now wanting to make Tintic one of our most flourishing mining dis

trict is capital, to enable the miners to prospect their lodes and erect smelting furnaces for the working of their ores on the spot, and thus save the heavy freightage now paid on crude matter to Salt Lake City.

The Mount Nebo district eighty miles, the Sevier district two hundred miles, south of Salt Lake City, and the Meadow Valley district two hundred and forty miles southwest of Salt Lake City, are rich in minerals.

Mr. Kelsey's statements are indorsed by Messrs. Gould & Woodward, Walker Brothers, Kimball & Lawrenc, Godbe & Co., Marshall & Carter, and Kahn Brothers, merchants of Salt Lake City, and by Vernon H. Vaughn, the governor, and C. H. Hempstead, the United States attorney of the Territory.

Estimate of costs of mining ores in West Mountain district, Salt Lake County, Territory of Utah, reported by Eli B. Kelsey, December 20, 1870.

Population of district, 400 souls; wages of first-class miners, $3 per day; wages of second-class miners, $2 50 per day; wages of surface laborers, $2 per day; cost of lumber, $4 per 100 feet; cost of mining timber, $6 per cord; cost of common powder, $5 per keg; cost of quicksilver, 80 cents per pound; cost of freight from Salt Lake City, $15 per ton; cost of fuel, wood, $4 per cord; mining cost per ton of ore, $5 per ton, (average facilities poor from total want of machinery ;) depth of mines, from 100 to 400 feet; character of rock, etc., granite, quartzite, and hornblende; reduction, smelting a failure as yet-no mills.

REMARKS.-Our mining developments are yet in their infancy. The number of mineral veins is very great, with well-defined wall-rocks in all those yet worked. Veins from one foot to fifty feet in thickness. The mines in Bingham Cañon and its tributaries, which comprise the West Mountain mining district, are mostly base-metal mines, carrying from 10 ounces to 150 ounces of silver to the ton of 2,000 pounds. There are several mineral veins of gold and silver bearing quartz, none of which are developed to any considerable extent; one of them, the Silesia, gives an average assay of $50 per ton. There are no stampmills in the Territory except one or two small ones in Meadow Valley. A great number of quartz-mills are contracted for, to be delivered here in the spring, mostly for East Cañon, Rush Valley, fifty miles southwest of Salt Lake City.

Messrs. Walker Brothers report having shipped during the six months ending December 31, 1870, 4,200 tons of galena ores, of an average assay value of 35 per cent. of lead and $182 in silver per ton, the net value being $125 per ton. Almost all of this was from the Emma mine. The following are the prices reported in January, 1871, as paid in Salt Lake City by California buyers for Utah ores: Ore containing 50 ounces silver and 30 per cent. lead, per ton, $22; 50 ounces silver and 40 per cent. lead, per ton, $30 60; 50 ounces silver and 50 per cent. lead, per ton, $38; 50 ounces silver and 60 per cent. lead, per ton, $45; 50 ounces silver and 70 per cent. lead, per ton, $53; 50 ounces silver and 80 per cent. lead, per ton, $61.

In addition to the above rates, $10 per ton, additional, is paid for each 10 ounces of silver over 50 ounces per ton. Every tenth sack of ore is crushed and sampled for assay, and the ore is paid for as soon as assayed. This ore is all shipped to San Francisco and is there smelted, and the lead as well as the silver is made a marketable commodity.

Almost all the Utah ores have, however, been, up to the end of 1870, shipped east over the Union Pacific. The amount is given by the San Francisco Scientific Press as follows:

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Which must, however, include shipments of ores and matte from Colorado, and perhaps Nevada.

I am indebted to Mr. Charles Smith, of the Emma Silver Mining Company, for the following statement of shipments of ore and bullion over the Utah Central Railroad, from January 13, 1870, to December 31, 1870. These figures are taken from the way-bill records of the road, by courteous permission of D. O. Calder, esq.

2,968 tons of ore were shipped east to Chicago, Boston, Newark, and New York.

2,325 tons of ore were shipped west to San Francisco, Reno, and Truckee.

Total, 5, 293 tons of ore.

The bullion shipments of the same period were 2 tons to England, and 6 tons to San Francisco.

These totals may seem small to some, but it must be remembered that the Emma Silver Mining Company, which forwarded the largest portion of it, did not commence shipping until July, 1870. These shipments are therefore really the product of six months, rather than a year.

Estimating the value of the ore shipped at $182 per ton (the value of the 4,200 tons shipped by Walker & Co. from the Emma mine) and that of the bullion at $400 per ton, we have $966,726 as the probable value of the shipments by railroad. Allowing, further, $300,000 for the gold of Bingham Cañon, and a small sum for private shipments not waybilled, we have, as the probable product of Utah, for the year 1870, the sum of $1,300,000. In this estimate the Meadow Valley mines are not included, as they are now generally acknowledged to lie within the boundary of Nevada.

A correspondent writing from Salt Lake early in the autumn thus reviews the mining field:

Utah makes quite a show in the way of minerals. Iron ore is known to exist in several places in large amounts. In Iron County works were built in 1852, and a small quantity of ore was smelted, but want of proper fuel compelled a suspension of operations. The Union Iron Company had two furnaces in operation in January, 1869, and one in the course of construction. Coal has been found in quite extensive beds, but principally in the neighborhood of Coalville, Summit County. Copper, lead, silver, zinc, and sulphur occur, and different sorts of building stone abound. The mines at the Little and the Big Cottonwood Cañons, twenty-eight miles southeast of Salt Lake City, are the center of the present mining excitement. Communication is had with these places by a stage, which runs three times a week. The largest mine at Little Cottonwood is the Emina ledge, located in August, 1868. In July, thirty-one car-loads of ore were shipped from the ledge, and that month upward of $3,000 were paid for hauling. The cost of transportation (by team to Salt Lake City, and thence by rail) to New Jersey, and the expenses of treatment, amount to $90 per ton, but the ore sent averages, I am told, nearly $200 per ton. There are twenty men employed here extracting the rock, of which some fifteen tons are obtained daily. A tunnel is

being run in to tap the main shaft, which is down about 200 feet. I send you a speci men of the ore. There are other promising locations, as the North Star, owned by Bruno & Co., and the Western State, which takes out some twenty tons weekly. Not far off, over the ridge, is Big Cottonwood Cañon. Here the Empire Tunnel Company propose torun a tunnel in toward Little Cottonwood. Here are also the Wellington, Theresa, Davenport, and other leads. The general formation is limestone. Mr. C. L. Stevenson, who has lately visited the various mining districts, gives me the following approximate product of the different mining localities during the month of July. The average value of ore exported was about $105 per ton:

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Smelting works.-Messrs. Woodhull Brothers have built a furnace here, and have made the first run of this Territory. This run created, naturally, considerable excitement here. The result was a production of 5,000 pounds of bullion in thirty-six hours. This assays about $500 to the ton in silver. The metal was hauled to town, and stocked up in front of the Elephant store, where it attracted large numbers of people who were enrious to see the pioneer bars of Utah. The Woodhull Works are capable of working about ten tons daily. Mr. Milton Robbins is about to put up smelting works. He will have the able assistance of Mr. Charles C. Ruegar, who will take the active management and the construction of the furnaces in hand. Mr. Ruegar has studied in Germany, and has spent considerable time among the mines of California. He appears to be well fitted for his work. Mr. Leopold Balbach, a cousin of the Balbach Brothers, of Newark, New Jersey, has been visiting the mines of Utah, and was so impressed with their extent and richness that he telegraphed to parties East (he tells me) that he thinks best to erect smelting works in the valley, and these are to be put up. There are others here who engage in buying ores, and the mines are attracting persons from different quarters. There seems to be every reason to suppose that Utah contains valuable mineral deposits, and probably these will be developed quite extensively henceforth.

The facts seem to be that the most productive mines working up to the close of 1870 are masses or "stock-works" of argentiferous galena in limestone; that the business of mining and reducing or shipping the ores is one that requires considerable capital; and that the abundance of supplies, cheapness of labor, and facility of transportation render this a highly inviting field for operations on a large scale. That the sanguine expectations of the owners of thousands of locations will be fulfilled, it would be foolish to predict; but it cannot be denied that the actual progress already made, and the favorable economic conditions attending the new industry, give unusually good ground, even for speculative anticipations.



The present chapter is based chiefly upon the notes of Mr. A. Eilers, my deputy, who has also arranged and edited the material contained in it from other sources. Besides those citizens to whom Mr. Eilers acknowledges in these pages his indebtedness for valuable assistance, thanks are due in an especial manner to Hon. Richard C. McCormick, delegate of the Territory in Congress, who contributed in many ways, including advice, information, time, personal exertions, and money, to facilitate the examinations which Mr. Eilers was charged to make. Without the influential and energetic support of Mr. McCormick, and, I should add, of Hon. A. P. K. Safford, the public-spirited governor of the Territory, it would have been vain to attempt so laborious and perilous a task with the time and means at my disposal.

The act of February 24, 1863, creating the Territory of Arizona, describes it as comprising all the United States lands west of the one hundred and ninth degree of longitude to the California line, which, before that time, had belonged to the Territory of New Mexico. Since then the portion of Pah-Ute County lying west of the Colorado River has been ceded to Nevada, but at the present writing it has not been legally accepted by that State, and the inhabitants are in favor of reunion with Arizona. Presuming, however, this cession to be an accomplished fact, the present boundaries of the Territory are as follows: On the east, the one hundred and ninth meridian of longitude; on the west, the Colorado River, except above the big bend of that river, where the one hundred and fourteenth meridian of longitude forms the western line; on the north, the thirty-seventh parallel of north latitude; on the south, the boundary line between the United States and Mexico.

The total area of the Territory is given as 105,120 square miles. It joins on the west California and Nevada; on the north Nevada and Utah; on the east New Mexico; and on the south the State of Sonora, of the Mexican republic.

Arizona is divided into five counties, Yuma and Pima in the southern, and Pah-Ute, Mohave, and Yavapai in the northern and middle portions of the Territory. Yavapai is by far the largest county, and its northern and eastern parts are almost unknown at the present time. Prospecting parties have, from time to time, ventured to enter these regions, but were invariably driven back by the hostile Indians before penetrat ing far into the interior, and Government expeditions have only in a few instances penetrated small belts of that domain. The whole vast Territory of Arizona is drained by one single river and its tributaries, the Colorado of the West. This river is formed by the junction of the Green and Grand Rivers, which join in the southern part of Utah Territory, and rise, the one in the Rocky Mountains, a short distance north of the Great South Pass, the other in the Middle Park of Colorado Territory. The Colorado River, although it drains an enormous area, and sends a vast body of water to the Gulf of California, is only navigable for a distance of about five hundred miles, and here only for boats drawing very little water. It has a very rapid current, and carries along large masses of the soft materials that form the greater portion of its banks from its mouth to the

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