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the baccalaureate, while the French language so high a personage, and soon after left for thu has been made a part of the course of instruc- interior to treat with the rebellious tribe of tion in those schools in which young natives the Uled-Sidi-Sheik. This tribe has for twelve prepare themselves for the public service. years troubled the western and southwestern
Up to 1874, the land granted to colonists by frontiers of Algeria, and has frequently involved the state was 565,000 hectares (1 hectare =2.74 the Algerian Government in difficulties with acres); the land ceded to the General Algerian Morocco and the subjugated tribes. To preSociety and the Geneva Society, two coloniza- vent this, the Government has repeatedly negotion societies, was 130,000 hectares, and the tiated with the Emperor of Morocco to have land bought by Europeans from natives 260,- them transferred to the latter's dominions. 000 hectares, making in all 955,000 bectares in This tribe originally belonged to Algeria, and the hands of Europeans. During the years for many years its chief ruled as caliph over 1876 and 1877, the Government intended to that entire region, under French protectorate. offer 763 village lots and 111 isolated farms to The sherif, who is the head of the religious colonists. On December 31, 1875, there were associations of the Moulay and Faiebh, and who three lines of railway in operation, of which is the highest church dignitary in Western the length and the receipts in 1875 were as Africa, went to them with a letter from the follows:
Emperor of Morocco, urging them to settle
west of Fez, and assuring them of that welLINE. Length in Receipts in come due to the position which they hold in
the Mohammedan world. He did not treat From Algiers to Oran...
with them as subjects of the Sultan, but simply From Philippeville to Constantine....
2,210,664 made friendly proposals to them, placing himFrom Bona to the mines of Ain and Mokra ....
self in the position of the head of a religious
community which is even more celebrated than Total...
their own. His mission was crowned with
only a partial success. The Uled-Sidi-Sheik On February 10th the sherif El-Hadsh, a have two chiefs, both of whom have great incousin of the Emperor of Morocco, arrived in fluence. The one, Kaddoor-ul-Hamza, is the Algeria on an extraordinary mission. The legal heir of the Grand Marabout Si-Hamza; Journal des Débats gives the following account while the other, Si-Soliman, is only a near relaof it: He was received with all honors due to tion to him, though, through his intelligence
and his courage, he has gained a prominent demanding, as one of the conditions, that the position, Kaddoor, without entering upon the French troops be withdrawn from the fortified proposals of the sherif, expressed his willing- town of Géryville. On the other hand, Soliness to conclude peace with France, but only man, seeing that a war with France would upon the footing of an independent sovereign, only end disastrously for his tribe, agreed to * 1 kilometre = 0.62 mile.
comply with the sherif's requests.
During the festival of Ramadan, dervishes siduously to his musical studies, finding much and pilgrims from Mecca, and marabouts, went encouragement in the society of men like Robert about among the native population preaching Schumann, Kitte, and Veit. He was an active the holy war against the Christians.
contributor to Schumann's Neue Zeitschrift During the month of March the tribe of the für Musik, at first under the name of Flamin. Uled-Bonasog, in the province of Constantine, Among his first works was the overture to were incited to rebellion by a fanatical priest, “Genoveva," which was received with great a marabout by the name of Bu Ayach. Gen- enthusiasm in Prague. In 1846 he composed eral Carteret was immediately dispatched to his overture to Shakespeare's "Othello," and the scene of the disorder, and on his arrival after that played on the piano in several confound that the insurrection was confined to certs, and thus soon gained considerable repuone tribe, the others hastening to assure him tation. His first attempts as an author also of their fidelity. On April 11th he attacked appeared during this time, as he had taken the the natives, who numbered about 200 borse place for a short time of his friend Bernhard and 2,000 foot, and had taken position near Gutt as musical critic of the Bohemia. He also the oasis El-Amri. After a severe struggle, added some entr'acte music to his overture to the enemy was driven back, leaving 100 dead “Othello,” which was exceedingly well reon the field, among whom was Mohammed ceived. În 1856 his fame as a musical author Ben Yahia, the leader of the movement. The began to rise. His work, “Die Grenzen der French loss was very small. The insurgents Musik und Poesie," written in answer to Haussoon after made an attack upon the French, lik's "Vom Musikalisch - Schönen,” attracted but were repulsed. The French succeeded in great attention, and soon appeared in a second surrounding them by the end of April, and edition. This work was severely attacked by compelled them to surrender, thus ending the various parties, but on the other hand gained insurrection. The leaders were held as host- for him the warm friendship of Liszt. A lectages for the further good conduct of the tribes. ure, “ Die Musik als Culturmoment in der
In June their sentence was pronounced. Geschichte,” attracted general attention, and Their entire property was confiscated, while caused the publication of his “ Culturhistothey were themselves disarmed and driven rische Bilder aus dem Musikleben der Gegenfrom their oases, and in addition a heavy fine wart” (1860). In 1858 he published a mewas imposed upon them. Nine of the leaders morial on the fiftieth anniversary of the Conwere tried by court-martial, and twenty-three servatory of Prague, of the Board of Direcwere interned in Corsica.
tors of which he was a member. Attracted by ALSINA, ADOLFO, a statesman of the Ar- his works, which gained for him considerable gentine Republic, born in Buenos Ayres in celebrity, the publishing-house of Leuckhardt, 1829. His father was likewise an eminent in Leipsic, proposed to him to write a history statesman, and a jurist of considerable celeb- of music. This he made the work of his life. rity. The subject of the present notice first The first volume appeared 1862, and the secattracted public attention by a series of lect- ond in 1864. In order to prepare the third ures, and by articles contributed to the periodi- and fourth volumes, he went repeatedly to cal press of his native city. He afterward be- Italy, receiving considerable aid from the Imcame deputy to the Provincial Chambers, and perial Academy of Sciences in Vienna for this was, of the number of the members of the purpose. There, in the libraries of Bologna, convention of 1872, most distinguished for fa- Florence, and Rome, he sought diligently cility and eloquence of address. From 1866 after old musical treasures. The third volto 1868 he occupied the post of governor of ume, which treated of the music of the Neththe province of Buenos Ayres, and that of erlands, appeared in 1868. The fourth volVice-President of the Republic from 1868 to ume was to treat of Palestrina, the musical 1872 during the Sarmiento administration. He Renaissance, the origin of the monody, of the commanded a body of National Guards at the opera, and of the modern system of sounds, battles of Cepeda and Pavon. Dr. Alsina is a and was to close with Johann Sebastian Bach. man of much prestige, is energetic and ambi- In the fall of the year 1876 he intended to tious, and destined to play a conspicuous part undertake a trip to Italy to collect the last in the political affairs of his country. He is material for the
fourth volume, but was internow, for the second time, governor of his na- rupted in this by his death. În 1869 he was tive province.
appointed Professor of the History of Art and AMBROS, August WILHELM, a German com- Music in the University of Prague. In 1872 poser and author, born November 17, 1816; died he went to Vienna as musical critic of the June 28, 1876. He attended the gymnasium Wiener Abendpost, and as musical instructor in Prague and here commenced to study music of the crown-prince, at the same time receivunder great difficulties. In accordance with ing an appointment in the Ministry of Justice. the wish of his parents he devoted himself to Besides the larger works noticed before, he the study of political science, graduated in composed numerous smaller pieces for the 1839 as Doctor of Laws, and soon after re- piano, and songs. He also wrote “Bunte ceived a Government appointment in Prague. Blätter” (first series, 1871), and numerous During his leisure hours he devoted himself as- traveling-sketches of Italian cities. An auto
biography prepared by him goes only to the placed himself at the head of an inconsideryear 1848.
able force against the Government of GenAMERICA, The great event of the year in eral Prado, but was promptly defeated. North America was the Centennial Exhibition Most of the countries here enumerated were in the United States, of which extensive de- worthily represented at the Philadelphia Extails will be found elsewhere in this volume. hibition, where the extensive and varied disThe presidential election was hotly contested, play of their rich and curious products elicited and the result very close; so that at the end no small degree of admiration. of the year it was not evident, in consequence ANASTASIUS GRÜN. (See AUERSPEEG.) of disputed votes, which candidate would fill ANDRAL, GABRIEL, a French physician and the office. A sharp battle was fought between author, born November 6, 1797; died February a body of United States soldiers and an Indian 13, 1876. He was appointed, in 1827, Profesforce, in which the latter were successful. sor of Hygiene in the Faculty of Paris, and The commander of the soldiers, General Cus- promoted, in 1839, to the chair of Internal ter, with several officers, was killed. The de- Pathology. Previous to this he had obtained pression in commercial affairs continued. great fame by his work " Clinique Médicale,"
In the Canadian Dominion, some apprehen- which was published in four volumes. In 1839 sions of a Fenian raid were entertained, but he succeeded Broussais as Professor of Patholothey proved groundless.
gy and General Therapeutics. He was a very In the several Spanish-American countries, diligent writer, and has, in conjunction with war, either at home or abroad, has for the Gavanet and Delafond, published some most most part prevailed throughout the year 1876. eminent works. Many of the productions of Mexico has been the theatre of a protracted his own pen have been translated into foreign and violent struggle for power between Señor languages. Lerdo de Tejada, the constitutional President ÄNGLICAN CHURCHES. The two houses of the Republic, and General Porfirio Diaz, the of the Convocation of Canterbury met at Westformer having been driven from the seat of minster, February 15th. In the Upper House government, and ultimately captured by th the Bishop of Winchester presented resolulatter, who entered the capital triumphantly tions which had been adopted by the Angloearly in the month of December. Peace had, Continental Society in November, 1875, invithowever, not been entirely reëstablished at ing the attention of the Convocations to the the end of the year, owing to the existence of resolutions which had been adopted at a cona new complication which supervened shortly ference of Old Catholics and adherents of the before the downfall of the Lerdo Administra- Greek, Anglican, and other communions, lield tion-namely, the pronunciamiento of Iglesias, at Bonn, on the subject of the Procession of President of the Supreme Court, who estab: the Holy Ghost. Ile moved : lished a new governinent, headed by himself, at Leon, State of Guanajuato.
That the resolutions lately adopted at Bonn by
representatives of the Old Catholics, certain memA war between San Salvador and Guatemala bers of the Eastern Churches and English Church, ended in the overthrow of the Valle Adminis: and other Christian communities, concerning the tration, and the appointment of Señor Rafael Eternal Procession of the Holy Ghost, be referred to Zaldivar as Provisional President of the first- the Committee of the Lower House of Convocation named country.
on Intercommunion with Eastern Churches. A revolution in Honduras terminated in The Archbishop of Canterbury spoke on this July, 1876, in the deposition of Señor Ponciano resolution at length. He desired most heartily Leiva, and the establishment of a provisional to see a spirit of real Christian unity throughgovernment under Señor Marcelino Mejía, out the world. He thought it, however, of who was ultimately superseded by Señor Marcó more importance to look first at the divisions A. Soto.
which existed near, which separated the Church The boundary questions between Costa Rica from those who were allied in language, and and Nicaragua, and between Chili and the in sympathy in regard to the same love of the Argentine Republic, still remained open, and Bible, rather than to those which existed in furnished matter for warm altercation between respect to people who were at a great distance the parties concerned.
locally. He could not help feeling that the Brazil continued in a state of enviable pros- first great desire of every Englishman should perity.
be that those who spoke the English tongue Colombia is still the scene of hostilities com- and believed in the same gospel should be, as menced by the Liberals against the Govern- far as possible, united in their efforts to proment toward the middle of the year. The mote their Redeemer's kingdom. Therefore, most important encounters occurred in Cauca he should like to begin with those who were and Antioquia. Material prosperity has not about their own doors. He regretted that imhowever, been altogether destroyed by these portant political questions separated the Church events, as attested by the opening of a new from those with whom it was anxious to act railway line in the second of the belligerent in harmony at home, and that, year by year, states referred to.
the difficulties which stood in the way of a reIn the month of October, Nicolas Pierola union of the Nonconformist bodies with the