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by the iron erectors to bring these columns to a plumb position by means of cables provided with turnbuckles.

In order to avoid dangerous consequences, I respectfully suggest that the iron contractor be notified to discontinue the erection of any iron work above the 7th tier, until the floor arches and the exterior brick walls are completed up to and including the 6th tier.

Respectfully submitted,

8. Defective work is about to be covered before being fixed as required by law. The inspector then reports: Relative to above premises I respectfully report as follows: Unpainted iron beams on the 3rd tier rear are being covered up with brick work, same being contrary to law, and contrary to violation 3283 of 1913. I respectfully suggest that the builder be notified to discontinue laying bricks upon unpainted iron and to remove all brick work as far as necessary to allow for painting.

Respectfully submitted,

9. After the completion of any job where steel work has been used, the iron inspector returns his copy of the application or permit to build, and attaches to it a report like this:

New Building. APPLICATION No. 327 of 1913. LOCATION: 63 W. 143rd St. FINAL REPORT OF IRON AND STEEL INSPECTOR, City of New York, April 16th, 1913. TO THE SUPERINTENDENT OF BUILDINGS:

I beg to report that the work described in the above entitled application was completed on the 14th day of April, 1913; that all the iron and steel girders, beams and columns are of the size shown in the said application and are properly set; and that the said work was carefully examined by me and found to conform in all other respects to the approved plans and specifications and to the Building Code of the City of New York, except as follows:

Viol. 7263 of 1913, relative to omitting rear exterior stairway is still pending.

Respectfully submitted,

IO. We shall close this series of reports by answering the report part of the Civil Service examination of August, 1911. It was required to write a report of not less than two nor more than three written pages, covering the progress of construction of the steel frame of an important building during a month and including several matters to which an inspector might properly make objection and others requiring positive condemnation. The report may be written as follows:

The Globe Building.
Report for the Month of March, 1913.

To the Chief Engineer of the International Building Construction Co., New York City, N. Y.

Dear Sir : Relative to the above premises I respectfully report as follows:

Weather conditions during the past month have been mostly unfavorable for our work. During the first half of the month we lost four days due to rainstorms, and towards the end of the month we were prevented from doing work by high winds and snow. In short, we lost one-third of the month due to bad weather.

To make up the time we lost in this way it was necessary to increase the Forces employed. The number of riveting gangs was increased from 5 to 7, the painting gang had four men instead of two, and the remainder of the erection force was increased from 24 men to 32 men. In addition a temporary man was assigned to the duties of time-keeper, our regular time-keeper being sick at his home.

Deliveries. During the month the steel beams for Ist, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, 9th and Ioth tiers, marked respectively tiers A,B,C,D,E,F, ,K, have been delivered; also columns AB, CD, and EF, JK, for tiers 1-2; 3-4; 5-6 and 9-Io have been received. Beams for tiers J and K will not be used till the middle of next month and had to be stored up on the premises. This caused unnecessary rehandling of the materials and the structural shop has been notified to ship in the future all tiers of beams strictly in order of erection and only upon the request of the iron erector.

Storage of Materials. At first no precaution was taken with regard to beams that could not be used for several weeks. The iron erector was therefore instructed to place all these beams on wooden skids, so as not to have the iron in contact with the ground ; also these beams were placed so as to shed rain water, and the whole pile was arranged in a manner to require the least possible handling when needed, and so as not to interfere with the traffic. Red lanterns have been put in at night at each end of the steel pile upon my request, in order to comply with the city ordinances.

Materials Rejected. Following is a complete list of materials rejected during the month, with the reasons therefor and the final action taken in each instance: March 2nd. Four kegs of 34-inch rivets, rejected for being 2 inches long instead of 2% inches long. The kegs have been returned to the contractor's shop. March 5th. Cast iron base No. 24, rejected for developing cracks in handling; same has been replaced by a new base On March IOth. March 8th. Two hundred tie rods rejected for being 5%inch diameter, versus 34-inch ; same have been replaced by 34-inch rods on March II th: March Ioth. I2O tie rods 34-inch diameter, rejected for being too long; same will be accepted on condition that the iron erector shall provide each defective tie rod at each end with sufficient packing made of round iron washers. March 14th. Columns JK 22 and JK 36, consisting of plates and channels riveted together, have been rejected on account of having rivets spaced 8 inches on centres instead of 6 inches. This case has been referred to the engineering department for consideration, and the columns are stored up on the job pending the decision. March 20th. Two barrels of red paint rejected; on this date the painters ran short of paint. The painting foreman bought in the open market the above two barrels of paint. This paint consisted chiefly of kerosene mixed with a red coloring matter. The painter was ordered to remove at once the two barrels from the premises, before any of this paint was used.

Progress of the Work. In spite of adverse weather conditions before mentioned, the erection work was fairly satisfactory. During the month there have been erected all columns AB, CD, EF, for tiers I to 6 inclusive and all beams up to and including the sixth tier. All riveting has been completed, up to and including the fourth tier, and all iron work up to and taking in the third tier has received a field coat of paint. The painting was delayed for several days in compliance with my strict orders not to perform any painting on damp days. The derrick is now on the sixth tier, ready to set up the next row of columns. The brick work is up on the second tier, and floor arches on the third tier have been completely filled in.

Workmanship was generally satisfactory. Two riveting gangs persisting in doing careless work have been discharged on the 3rd of March, and replaced by satisfactory men. Painting was done on dry, clear days only, and all iron work was carefully cleaned with a wire brush before the paint was applied.

Accidents during the month happened twice, but without serious consequences. On March Ioth John Clarke, a riveter, failed to catch a red hot rivet while riveting on the fifth floor. The rivet fell in the street and badly injured a horse. On March 20th Jim Carrey, a fitter, dropped a tie rod from the sixth floor through the skylight of an adjoining building on the west side. Both accidents have been reported to the main office in the same days when they took place respectively.

In conclusion, I may state that the condition of the work in general is satisfactory. Considering the fact that the field force is well organized at present, and with the expectation that the weather during April will be better than during March, I earnestly hope for a much better progress during the coming month.

Respectfully submitted,

JOHN NEWTON,
Inspector Iron and Steel Construction.

CHAPTER XXIII.
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS.

Following are the questions asked at previous examinations for Inspector of Iron and Steel Construction.

FIRST PAPER—QUESTIONS.
Technical.

1. How should specimens for testing be chosen and prepared to fairly show the quality of (a) wrought iron; (b) cast-iron 2

2. What conditions or quality of material or manufacture are indicated by the following tensile test results: (a) Elastic limit 38,000 lbs. per sq. inch and ultimate strength 45,000 lbs. per sq. in.” (b) Ultimate strength 80,000 lbs. elongation in 8 inches Io96? (c) Ultimate strength 80,000 lbs. elongation in 8 inches 25% 7 (d) Ultimate strength 56,OOO lbs. elongation in 8 inches 35% P

3. What is the object of each of the following tests of wrought-steel: (a) cold bend; (b) hot bend; (c) quench and bend; (d) drift?

4. (a) Describe all the necessary details of surface examination of material. (b) State defects likely to be found in both steel and and cast iron.

5. What is (a) “piping”; (b) “burning”; (c) how do you inspect to discover them?

6. How are sections of the following forms checked: (a) Angles; (b) T's; (c) Wide sheared plates?

7. What are the essential points to be inspected about the following processes: (a) punching; (b) assembling?

8. (a) The same with riveting; (b) how are loose rivets made to seem tight under a hammer test; (c) how would you know deceit was practiced P

9. State all the details to be inspected of a girder of a finished plate-girder bridge span.

Io. Same of a finished post for a pin-connected span.
II. How would you check the field connections of (a)

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