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in front of their place of worship, for which they were indicted. Rudvard had taken a very active part in the trial of this indictment and had shown marked ability. This led to his being employed by the Proprietors of East Jersey and to his becoming interested in the enterprise. He had been prominent in all the preliminary measures for the advancement of the province, had largely aided in securing immigration thither, was admirably equipped for the position of Deputy Governor, and after his appointment, embarked for the scene of his future labors with an earnest determination to do his whole duty. He had two daughters, who went with him, and became conspicuous in the colony; one of them, at least, in its religious affairs, and both materially aided their father in his arduous labors. Both of these ladies married gentlemen of position, one of them residing in New York and the other in New Jersey; his daughter Margaret impressed herself so much, by her good deeds, upon the congregation of Episcopalians worshipping at Perth Amboy, that, to this day, she is remembered and recognized as one of its substantial benefactors. A tablet recording her virtues and sacred to her memory was inserted within the walls of the old church edifice.

Mr. Rudyard only held the office for about a year and was succeeded by Gawen Lawrie.

Mr. Lawrie was also one of the twenty-four Proprietors, owners of East Jersey, and was a merchant of London. He was by no means possessed of the ability of Rudyard, but after he became deputy, he took a very prominent place in the province. He was one of the assignees of Edward Billinge, who had conveyed his interest in West Jersey to assignees,—William Penn, Nicholas Lucas and Gawen Lawrie, —for the benefit of his creditors, of whom, Lawrie was one. Very soon after his appointment, he came with his wife and family to New Jersev and took up his residence at Elizabethtown, notwithstanding the Proprietors had requested him to remove to Perth Amboy. Me took a deep interest in this last named place, and though he refused to remove thither, may be considered one of its founders. Elizabethtown by this time had become a place of some size, while Perth Amboy was just beginning its existence. It is not, therefore, astonishing that Lawrie preferred to remain at Elizabethtown, where he could secure for himself and family more of the comforts of civilized life than he could possibly hope for in that new settlement. Very little is known about this man, although his prominence in the colony and his administration of affairs tended greatly to its growth. He was appointed in July, 1683, but did not reach his province until the early part of the succeeding year. He is recorded as having brought eight persons with him; whether they were members of his family or not, is not now ascertainable. He had some children among whom was a son James, mentioned in the records of the colony. He was superseded in 1686 by Lord Neill Campbell. Lawrie and Rudyard were both probably removed for the same cause, but this is not absolutely certain. They had each selected desirable plots of ground for themselves, contrary to a rule made by the Proprietors, which provided that if there were an "extraordinary choice plot of land so esteemed by the Surveyor General, or any two of the Commissioners, either for'the excellency of the soil or advantage of situation, it shall be reserved for the general interest of all the Proprietors and cast in equal division."

It was charged that these two Deputy Governors had each selected a desirable plot for themselves at a place called Changoroza.

In 1685, the Governor and Proprietors of East Jersey issued instructions to the Deputy Governor and Commissioners relative to the "setting out of lands, and other affairs, relating thereto." In the seventh clause of these instructions particular reference is made to this action of Lawrie and Rudyard in terms of great disapprobation.

Lawrie became a member of the Governor's Council after his dismissal, and retained a permanent position in the colony.

Lord Neill Campbell was also one of the Proprietors, having purchased from Lord Tarbet the one undivided ninety-sixth part of East Jersey. He was a near relative of the Earl of Argyle who was beheaded for high treason, in 1685. Smith, in his history of New Jersey, in a foot note, says that he was an uncle, and also, that he was appointed Governor. Mr. Willian A. Whitehead in his admirable monogram on East Jersey, asserts that he was a brother of the Earl and that he was made Deputy Governor in the place of Lawrie. Mr. Whitehead is undoubtedly correct.

Robert Barclay held the office of Governor until 1685, so says Smith, but he must be in error, for later than 1685, in 1687, he confirmed the appointment of Andrew Hamilton, as Deputy. Barclay died in 1690 and in all probability was Governor up to the time of his death, and then the Proprietors appointed John Tatham to succeed him. This was on October 3, 1690, and in 1691, Colonel Joseph Dudley was selected to succeed Tatham, but the people " scrupled to obey" either; why, cannot be ascertained. The colonists loudly complained that during this period the Proprietors had left them " without any government whatever." It would seem that this charge was unfounded, as the fault was theirs, in not receiving the two appointees, Tatham and Dudley.

The ruinous attempt made by Argyle, in 1685, to raise the standard of rebellion, had involved Lord Neill and many of the clan Campbell of which Argyle was the hereditary head, in the disastrous result of that rebellion and Campbell was obliged to seek a place of refuge, and so he escaped to New Jersey. He succeeded in securing the immigration to New Jersey, at one time, of fifty-six persons, most, if not all of whom, were probably connected by tie of clanship with himself and the Earl. Lord Campbell's connection with the province was very short and his control over its affairs was limited to the approval of a few minor acts passed by the legislature. He very soon returned to Scotland, as there had been a change in the policy of the English king towards those who had been engaged in Argyle's enterprise. Two of Lord Neill's sons had preceded him to New Jersey, one bringing his family with him. One of these, Archibald, had been sentenced to be beheaded for complicity in his uncle's treason, but had escaped. There is no record of the return to Scotland of either of these gentlemen, and thev probably became the ancestors of the numerous family of Campbells still found in New York and New Jersey. A curious incident is connected with John Campbell, one of Lord Neill's sons: A man named Moneybaird made a conveyance to him of his lands at Perth Amboy, dated December 16, '684, now on record, "on consideration of the said Campbell's sending a footman in velvet to wait on Moneybaird during the time of parliament in New Jersey, and holding his stirrup."

Lord Neill was appointed for two years on the 4th day of June, 1686; he went to his province in October of the same year and returned to Great Britain sometime in the early spring of 1687. In December, 1686, he appointed Andrew Hamilton his substitute, and on August 18, 16S?, Barclay confirmed this appointment. The influence of Lord Campbell was scarcely felt in the province, except in one direction— that of immigration. Besides the fifty-six persons who came with him he induced many others to follow. Most, if not all of these, were Scotch, and they formed the very best element in the province.

Hamilton had been a merchant in Edinburgh and came with his family to New Jersey at about the time of the arrival of Campbell. He was one of the best governors of East Jersey and acted with so much propriety and prudence as to commend himself to the citizens. He was careful in the preservation of the rights of the Proprietors, but tempered this care with so much wisdom as not to embroil himself, or his principals, with the colonists. He was a man of great intelligence, of sound judgment and excellent common sense. His first meeting with an assembly was at Perth Amboy on May 14, 1688, but the meeting was of minor importance, except perhaps, in this particular: A tax was imposed of a penny a pound on the value of all estates and ten pence per head on all males over sixteen, to be used by England, in her war with France. This tax, when raised, was to be subject to the order of the governor of New York, who had been authorized to call on the other colonies in America for assistance. It is probable that the tax was never enforced. The inhabitants of New Jersey were not inclined to contribute anything whatever for the relief of a colony which had so often and materially interfered with them.


This was in May, 1688. In August following, Sir Edmond Andross, whose persecutions of New Jersey were only limited by his power, invaded the province and attempted to seize, or did seize, the reins of government. There was some excuse for this conduct of Andross, for James, now king of England, with his usual duplicity, had seemed to approve of his course, in his prior treatment of New Jersey, knighted him and afterwards appointed him governor over all New England. There was, however, at this time, a strange and marked change of conduct in Andross towards New Jersey. Hamilton and his subordinates were continued in office, but whether with their original powers or not, cannot be ascertained. Andross acted with singular wisdom, which, under the circumstances, and taking into consideration his arrogant and tyrannical character, was very remarkable. In this year occurred the revolution in England, which placed William and Mary on the throne, and in the succeeding year, Andross was arrested by the people of New England and all his power in the colonies was at an end.

A strange question was raised as to the legality of Hamilton's commission, on the simple ground that he was a Scotchman and the Proprietors felt constrained, much against their will, to remove him. This question arose upon an act of Parliament which provided that no other than a natural born subject of England could serve in any office of trust or profit. The word England, in the act, was construed, before his removal, to apply to citizens born within England proper and to ex

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elude any one born in Scotland. A more liberal construction was given to the act afterward and Hamilton was restored. Upon his being removed, on the 12th of October, 1697, Jeremiah Basse was appointed Deputy Governor. At this time, the right of the Proprietors to exercise any sovereignty, involving, of course, the appointment of a governor, was more and more disputed, and that dispute was not confined to the people, but had been carried into the courts. A doubt was expressed as to the legality of Basse's appointment, because it had not been confirmed by the king. There was also objection made to Basse, personally, and it is altogether probable that the legal objection was induced by his personal unpopularity. Basse had never before held any position in the province; he was not well nor favorably known and some, even, of the Proprietors would not acknowledge him as the legally appointed Deputy; many of the inhabitants refused obedience to him. He was neither wise nor prudent in his treatment of the people nor of the legislature and made himself obnoxious. The disorder in the province became so great, in consequence of this opposition, that he finally left the colony and returned to England. This was in May or June, 1 699.

Andrew Bowne, a member of his Council, was left by Basse as his successor. Bowne was commissioned on the 29th of May, 1699, and entered upon the execution of his duties on the succeeding day He was almost as unpopular as Basse, himself, but, as he was entitled, by virtue of his position as President of the Council, to the office of deputy governor, his right was not questioned. Although he, himself, was not respected, in consequence of his prior conduct and of his intimate relations with Basse, he was permitted to govern much more quietly than his predecessor. Tumult ceased; there was an end of open resistance; but this made little change in the real feelings of the. colonists, or in the affairs of the province.

By this time a new construction had been given to the act, under the operation of which the Proprietors had removed Hamilton, who, on the arrival of Basse in England, had been reappointed governor. This was in 1699. The real opinion expressed by the court on the construction of this act was not officially announced until May, 1700, but, it was well known at the time of the reappointment of Hamilton what that opinion was. Hamilton had been acceptable to the citizens, as governor, and his administration had been wise and just; but there was a deep rooted jealousy of the government of the Proprietors, so

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