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systems of any kind, or even at present for the Federal Government to attempt very much, if any, dictation or supervision relative to education in the States.

Education is a very important factor in the production of better citizenship, lessening of crime, making people more self-reliant and efficient. These things are just as important to the National Government as to the State governments. Therefore, the National Government has a direct interest and it is both appropriate and practicable for it to participate in the expense. I favor direct Federal aid by grants to the States without any Federal supervision or control other than a requirement that the grants must be devoted toward aid of education in the public school system of the State which receives it. The recompense to the Federal Government will come in the form of better citizenship and the attendant benefits above outlined and others which will no doubt occur to you in consideration of this important subject. Yours sincerely,

M. Q. SHARPE, Governor. Senator ELLEN DER. Next, please.

Mr. SLONECKER. Lyle N. Slonecker, superintendent of schools at Leadville, Colo., vice president of the Colorado Education Association.

I wish to file this petition, which has been accepted and endorsed by 9,000 Colorado teachers in behalf of education.

I might say individually that I speak as president of the Bank of Leadville, Colo., as president of the chamber of commerce, and as a member of the State affairs committee of the Colorado State Chamber of Commerce, and from a personal standpoint I most enthusiastically endorse this bill.

Senator ELLENDER. Thank you.
(The statement submitted by Lyle N. Slonecker is as follows:)


January 25, 1945.

Chairman, Senate Committee on Education and Labor,

Washington, D. C.
DEAR SIR: In support of Senate bill 181, I wish to submit to you a copy of a
resolution which has been passed unanimously by our delegate assembly of our
Colorado Education Association, an organization representing 9,000 teachers:

“Whereas there is great inequality in the abilities of States to support education, and

"Whereas there is marked concentration of the taxable wealth which is pro duced by all the States with the resources of States with a relatively small educational burden, and

"Whereas the education of children is a national as well as State problem, and

"Whereas the National Government, during the war emergency, has come to realize the need for better schools to better train youths to met their responsibilities to the Nation, and

“Whereas a program of Federal support of schools would extend the principle of equalization of educational opportunity: Therefore, be it

"Resolved, That the Colorado Education Association pledge itself to efforts at securing Federal aid for education in accordance with the principles laid down in the legislation now pending in Congress; and be it further

"Resolved, That the Colorado Education Association accept the attainment of such Federal aid for education as a continuing part of its legislative objectives.”

The schools of Colorado are facing the gravest crisis in all their existence. The salaries are so woefully low that we are losing hundreds of our best teachers to industry and to other States. One school superintendent reported last week that he was losing 10 of his 14 teachers this spring. This is just a sample of what is happening over the entire State. The salaries for 1943–44, as reported to the State superintendent, are as follows:

*Of a total of 7,177 teachers outside of Denver 1,071 received less than 1,000 per year; 1,474 received between $1,000 and $1,200 per year; 2,357 received between $1,200 and $1,500 per year.”

One out of every three teachers in Colorado is a temporary teacher, serving either under a substandard emergency certificate or just for the duration. Although some of these people are good teachers, many of them, as one county superintendent has put it, “let the children run wild.” The children are the ones who suffer.

We have a State support bill which has been introduced in the State legislature which would increase the amount of State aid from 9 percent to about 14 percent, but it helps only those schools that are in the greatest financial straits. According to State legislators, the State surplus of $8,000,000 is a "paper" surplus and, with the repeal of the State service tax, will not be available.

It takes no stretch of the imagination to see that we face some very dark years for the children of Colorado unless Federal aid is provided to supplement our State and local resources. From the standpoint of good government and economic welfare, the Nation cannot afford to sacrifice the education of its youth. Respectfully yours,


Executive Secretary. Senator ELLENDER. Next, please.

Mr. CRAFT. R. W. Craft, assistant State superintendent of education in Mississippi. I am filing three statements. One from the Mississippi Federation of Women's Clubs endorsing this proposed bill

for Federal aid, one from the American Association of University Women, addressed to Dr. H. M. Ivy, and also a statement on school expenditures in Mississippi, prepared and submitted by State Superintendent J. S. Vandiver, of the State of Mississippi.

Senator ELLENDER. Thank you.
(The statements submitted by R. W. Craft are as follows:)


(Prepared by J. S. Vandiver, Mississippi State superintendent of education)

School expenditures in Mississippi for the public elementary and high-school pupils averaged $33.51 per pupil enrolled for the session 1943–44. During the same session all superintendents and principals and teachers received an average salary of $819.84. Teachers are receiving for the current session of 1944-45 about 10 percent more than they received the preceding year. Even with this increase, 5,490 of the 15,500 teachers in the State are receiving less than $500, and 9,434, or 60 percent, are receiving less than $800 per year. In spite of the fact that Mississippi is spending such a small amount per child in the public schools and is paying such low salaries to its teachers, the State is putting forth much greater than average effort to finance its public schools. In proportion to the State's ability to pay, it ranks among the highest 10 percent of the States in the Union in effort. If Mississippi should spend for its public schools an amount equal to the average of the United States, it would need to provide approximately three times its present expenditures. Obviously this would be impossible in Mississippi without Federal aid. It is apparent that even with perfect equalization within the State, Mississippi would be unable to provide a satisfactory minimum school program without additional financial aid from the Federal Government. To provide what has been considered by competent students of the problem as the approximate cost of a defensible minimum program of education for Mississippi the State would have to make an effort 12 times as great as that of the richest State and 4 times as great as the average of the United States. The fact that Mississippi pays below standard salaries and does not provide adequate buildings and equipment for the public schools is not due to lack of interest or effort on the part of the people. The State has about 2 percent of the children of the Nation between the ages of 5 and 17, with about one-third of 1 percent of the personal net income of the United States.

1 National Education Association Research Bulletin, vol. XX, No. 4, September 1942, pp. 142-143.

In brief, Mississippi is making a strong effort, much above the average, to provide financial support for the public schools, but is still below standards in salaries, buildings, and equipment. The only solution to the problem of adequate financial support for schools in Mississippi, as in many other of the poorer States, is Federal aid. This is true also in districts even in many of the wealthier States.

Citizens of Mississippi, just as citizens of other States, are citizens of the Nation, and therefore what affects these citizens affects the Nation as a whole. The problems of health, of economics, of living standards, of family relationships, are affected by the educational program of the States. Education is the biggest business of the Nation, just as it is the biggest business in Mississippi or in any other particular State.

School people of Mississippi earnestly request that Federal legislation be enacted providing Federal aid for the public schools without Federal control. Children are not expendable.



Meridian, Miss., January 26, 1945. Dr. H. M. Ivy,

Legislative Chairman of NEA, Meridian, Miss. MY DEAR DR. Ivy: The Mississippi division of the American Association of University Women has passed resolutions favoring House bill 2849 and Senate bill 637. We now urge the passage of the bills providing Federal aid without Federal control. Sincerely yours,

MAUDE SMITH, President, Mississippi Division.


Jackson, Miss., January 25, 1945. To Whom It May Concern:

The Mississippi Federation of Women's Clubs at their State convention in Jackson, Miss., on November 2, 1944, endorsed the principle of Federal aid without Federal control as expressed in S. 637 and H. R. 2849. We urge the passage of this bill at the earliest possible moment. Respectfully,


Chairman, Committee on Education. Senator ELLENDER. Next, please.

Mr. PARRATT. J. Easton Parratt, member of the board of trustees for the Utah Education Association.

On behalf of the board of trustees of the Utah Education Association, I would like to submit a resolution approved by that board on January 13, 1945. (The resolution presented by J. Easton Parratt is as follows:)


Whereas there has been introduced into our National Congress legislation proposing additional Federal aid to public education throughout the several States and Territories, and

Whereas, because of low salaries, there has been an exodus of teachers from the classrooms until at the present time 25 percent of the teachers of Utah are not properly certificated, and

Whereas the State legislature now in session is hard pressed to determine where to levy additional taxes in order to maintain State aid given to the districts at present inasmuch as there is not money available in the general fund, and

Whereas we firmly believe that our national security depends, as never before, on an adequately educated citizenry and scientifically trained individuals, and

Whereas it seems just that some of the financial responsibility of providing better education for American children should be that of the United States Government: Now, therefore, be it

Resolved by the Utah Education Association Board of Trustees, in behalf of the Utah Education Association membership, That our Congressmen and other responsible people be urged to support measures S. 181 and H. R. 1296.

Mr. PARRATT. Then, if I may have permission, I would like to read one paragraph to supplement the testimony given by Dr. Hubbard this morning.

Senator ELLENDER. Proceed.

Mr. PARRATT. This study was made by a committee of the faculty members of the University of Utah Education Division and taken from their study [reading]:

It is estimated by this committee that there will be only 90 graduates this year. This study also showed that of the small number graduating in 1942 only 58 percent were teaching 4 months later in 1942 in October. Seventeen percent were in other employment, 14 percent were married, and the other 11 percent were in the Army or doing graduate work. If we go back to the graduating class of 1941 we find only 36 percent of those preparing to teach still teaching 18 months after graduation.

Senator ELLENDER. Thank you.

Mr. Ogg, will you give us your full name and whom you represent, please.



Mr. OGG. My name is W. R. Ogg. I am director of the Washington office of the American Farm Bureau Federation. I am appearing here in place of President O'Neal who is unable to be here as he is out of the city. But I am authorized to present this statement for our organization. I think it would save time if I might just read it.

Senator ELLENDER. Proceed, sir. You don't mind being interrupted ?

Mr. Ogg. No. For many years, the American Farm Bureau Federation has advocated the establishment of a system of Federal grants-inaid to the States for the purpose of equalizing educational opportunity in the United States.

Equality of opportunity has long been one of the cardinal principles of our American way of life. Nothing can contribute more to such equality of opportunity than an equal opportunity to secure education and training for a vocation of one's own free and independent choice.

Due to the enormous concentration of population and of taxable resources in urban and industrial areas, it is impossible, under present conditions, for the respective States and communities to provide anything like equality of educational opportunity. Your committee has already received voluminous evidence and testimony based upon a great many extensive studies showing the glaring inequalities of educational opportunity which exist due to financial inability of States and communities una ided to provide adequate facilities. These studies show that frequently the States and communities that have relatively the poorest educational facilities are making the greatest sacrifices in terms of taxation in relation to incomes, in order to maintain even these inadequate facilities.



In general, the rural areas are the ones that suffer the most because of the lack of educational facilities and which, at the same time, are carrying a heavy load of taxes in proportion to their taxable incomes, in order to support their schools.

This is a matter of concern to urban areas as well as rural areas, because about 4 out of every 10 youth on the farms go to the cities. Thus the rural areas have borne a heavy burden in rearing, supporting, and educating these millions who later migrate to the cities. It is estimated that this alone cost rural America something like one and a half billion dollars annually in the prewar period.

Federal grants-in-aid are therefore justifiable in the public interest, if confined to the equalization of educational opportunity.

There is ample precedent for such Federal assistance in many other acts of Congress, notably the Morrell Act signed by President Lincoln in 1862 establishing the United States Department of Agriculture and the land-grant college system in States with Federal grants-in-aid to the States; later the Hatch Act providing for the establishment of State experiment stations with Federal grants-in-aid; still later, in 1914, the Smith-Lever Act providing for the establishment of the Agricultural Extension Service in the States with Federal grants-in-aid; and various supplementary Federal appropriations in more recent years; and finally, the Smith-Hughes Act establishing a system of vocational education through grants-in-aid to the States for expenditure through the public school system. All of these acts and systems of education have been handled without Federal control of education and have brought wonderful results.

We believe that Federal assistance to the States for the improvement of public elementary and secondary schools can and should be provided in such a manner as to avoid any Federal control or domination of education.

We therefore favor the enactment by Congress of such legislation in accordance with the following principles :

1. Such legislation should contain adequate sa feguards to prevent Federal control or domination of education and to preserve State and local control over public education.

Section 1 of the proposed bill contains very specific language which we believe provides such a mandate.

2. Federal assistance should be limited to financial grants-in-aid, based upon justifiable need to equalize educational opportunity.

This proposed bill contains two funds: (a) An annual appropriation of $200,000,000 per year until 1 year after the end of the war emergency, to be apportioned to the States on the basis of the average school attendance in the respective States and to be used for certain specified purposes, including increases in subnormal teachers' salaries, increase in teachers' salaries to meet increased living costs, and for other costs of operating schools; and (b) a permanent annual appropriation of $100,000,000 to be apportioned to the States to equalize educational opportunity and to be used to help pay the cost of public elementary and secondary education. These funds would be apportioned on the basis of a formula which is defined in section 3.

We question the advisability and necessity to set up this special fund of $200,000,000 for special purposes. We believe it would be preferable, in the public interest, to provide only one fund and to

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