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[Congress at their first session under the Constitution, held in the city of
New York, in 1789, proposed to the legislatures of the several States, twelve amendments, ten of which only were adopted. They are the first ten of the following amendments; and they were ratified by threefourths, the constitutional number, of the States, on the 15th of December, 1791. The 11th amendment was proposed at the first session of the third Congress, and was declared in a message from the President of the United States to both Houses of Congress, dated the 8th of January, 1798, to have been adopted by the constitutional number of States. The 12th amendment, which was proposed at the first session of the eighth Congress, was adopted by the constitutional number of States in the year 1804, according to a public notice by the Secretary of State, dated the 25th of September, 1804.]
AMENDMENTS To the Constitution of the United States, ratified according to the Provisions of
the Fifth Article of the foregoing Constitution. ARTICLE I. Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for å redress of grievances.
ARTICLE II. A well regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed.
ARTICLE III. No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house, without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.
ARTICLE IV. The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.
ARTICLE V. No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service in time of war or public danger; nor shall any person be subject, for the same offenee, to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled, in any criminal case, to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.
ARTICLE VI. In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the state and dis
trict wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defence.
ARTICLE VII. In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.
ARTICLE VIII. Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.
ARTICLE IX. The enumeration, in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.
ARTICLE X. The powers not delegated to the United States, by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people.
ARTICLE XI. The judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by citizens of another state, or by citizens or subjects of any foreign state.
ARTICLE XII. The electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote by ballot for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct bal. lots the person voted for as Vice-President, and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice-President, and of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted ;-the person having the greatest number of votes for President, shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers, not exceeding three, on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by states, the representation from each state having one vote; à quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from twothirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a President, whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, then the Vice-President shall act as Presi
dent, as in the case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President. The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice-President, shall be the Vice-President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed, and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the VicePresident; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of Presi. deat shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the United States.
[Note 1. Another amendment was proposed as article XIII. at the second session of the eleventh Congress, but not having been ratified by a sufficient number of the states, has not become valid, as a part of the Constitution of the United States. It is erroncously given as a part of the Constitution, in page 74, Vol. I. Laws of the United States, published by Bioren & Duane in 1815.]
[Note 2. The Constitution, as above printed, has been carefully compared with the copy in the Laws of the United States, published by authority, and also with one in the National Calendar for the year 1826, which was copied from the roll in the Department of State.]
[Note 3. The ratification of the Constitution by the state of New Hampshire, being the 9th in order, was laid before Congress, on the 2d of July, 1788, and with the ratifications of the other states, was referred to a committee, to report an act for carrying the new system into operation. An act for this purpose was reported on the 14th of the same month, and was passed on the 13th of the September following.)
V. SUCCESSIVE ADMINISTRATIONS.
FIRST ADMINISTRATION ;-1789 to 1797 ;-8 years. GEORGE WASHINGTON, Virginia, April 30, 1789. President. John Adams,
Massachusetts, do. 1789. Vice President.
Appointed. Thomas Jefferson, Virgivia, Sept. 26, 1789.
Secretaries of Edmund Randolph, do.
Connecticut, Feb. 3, 1795. Treasury. Henry Knox,
Massachusetts, Sept. 12, 1789. > Secretaries of Timothy Pickering, Pennsylvania, Jan. 2, 1795.
Maryland, Jan. 27, 1796.
Post Masters Timothy Pickering, Pennsylvania, Nov. 17, 1791.
eral. Charles Lee,
Virginia, Dec. 10, 1795.
Speakers of the House of Representatives. Frederick A. Muhlenberg, Pennsylvania, 1st Congress, Jonathan Trumbull,
Connecticut, 2d do. Frederick A. Muhlenberg, Pennsylvania, 3d do. Jonathan Dayton,
1789. 1791. 1793. 1795.
SECOND ADMINISTRATION ;-1797 to 1801 ;-4 years. JOHN ADAMS,
Massachusetts, March 4, 1797, President. Thomas Jefferson, Virginia,
1797, Vice President.
Virginia, May 13, 1800.) State. Oliver Wolcott, Conn. (continued in office.) Secretaries of the Samuel Dexter, Massachusetts, Dec. 31, 1800.) Treasury. James M.Henry, Md. (continued in office.)
Speakers of the House of Representatives. Jonathan Dayton,
New Jersey, 5th Congress. Theodore Sedgwick, Massachusetts, 6th Do.
THIRD ADMINISTRATION;-1801 to 1809;-8 years.
Vice Presidents. George Clinton, New York, do.
Appointed. James Madison, Virginia,
State. Samuel Dexter, Mass. (continued in office. ) Secretaries of Albert Gallatin, Pennsylvania, Jan. 26, 1802. ) the Treasury. Henry Dearborn, Massachusetts, March 5, 1801. Secretary of
War. Benjamin Stoddert, Md. (continued in office.) Secretaries of the Robert Smith,
Maryland, Jan. 26, 1802.3 Navy. Joseph Habersham, Geo. (continued in office.) Post Masters Gideon Granger, Connecticut,
* Mr. Cabot declined the appointment. The Navy Department was established in 1798.
f Robert Smith was appointed Attorney General, and Jacob Crorinshield of Massachun setts, Secretary of the Navy, on the 20 of March, 1805, but they both declined these up pointments ; and Mr. Smith continuod in the office of Secretary of the Navy, till the end of Mr. Jefferson's administration.
Massschusetts, March 5, 1801.
eral. Delaware, Jan. 20, 1807.
Speakers of the House of Representatives.
North Carolina, 7th Congress.
Massachusetts, 8th do.
North Carolina, 9th do.
Massachusetts, 10th do.
1801. 1803. 1805. 1807.
FOURTH ADMINISTRATION ;-1809 to 1817;-8 years.
Maryland, March 6, 1809.
Virginia, Nov. 25, 1811. > Secretaries of
New York, Jan. 13, 1813. ( Secretaries of
Virginia, Sept. 27, 1814. War.
Pennsylvania, Jan. 12, 1813.
Pennsylvania, Feb. 10, 1814.
Dec. 11, 1811. Attorneys Gen
Speakers of the House of Representatives.
Massachusetts, 11th Congress,
Kentucky, 12th do.
1809. 1811. 1812. 1814. 1815.
FIFTH ADMINISTRATION ;-1817 to 1825 ;-8 years.
* James Monroe was recommissioned, having for some timo acted as Secretary of War.