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ascertain the nature of the action exerted by phous substances act in an analogous manvarious gases on the life and increase of bacte- ner. ria, and what influence the bacteria have on the Free FLUORINE.—Fluorine occupies a pecupercentage composition of the gases. The or- liar position among the elements the existence ganisms, obtained from a meat-extract, flour- of which is satisfactorily established, in that it ished well in atmospheric air, pure hydrogen, has never been isolated. This arises from the pure oxygn, and a inixture of carbonic oxide, fact that its chemical affinities are so powerful carbonic anhydride, oxygen, and nitrogen, ab- that when it is released from any of its comsorbing oxygen and developing more or less of pounds it instantly attacks and combines with carbonic anhydride, with an apparent evolution any material out of wbich it is practicable to of hydrogen and nitrogen in the latter experi- make a vessel for the experiment. Loew has ment. Cyanogen seemed to be fatal as such very recently announced that he has discovto the organisms, but they appeared to revive, ered what he supposes to be free fluorine in a especially in the sunlight, after it underwent variety of fluor-spar found at Wolsendorf in Badecomposition into ammonic oxalate. The varia, which is of a dark-violet color, and emits bacteria lived well in sulphurous anhydride, a peculiar odor. The origin of the odor has not nitrogen, nitrous oxide, nitric oxide, carbonic hitherto been satisfactorily explained. Loew anhydride, a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen believes it to be due to fluorine existing free obtained by the electrolysis of water, coal-gas, within the mineral, and has made some experiand a solution of urea and phosphate of potash. ments which appear to bear out his conclusion. With spongy iron and air, the bacteria vanished, ABSORPTION OF NITROGEN BY IRON.-Profesand the air when analyzed consisted of N 99.74 sor Ira Remsen has had his attention called to a per cent, CO, 0·26, and no oxygen. Acety- power manifested by iron, under certain condilen, salicylic acid, strychnine, morphine, nar. tions, of exhibiting the reactions of nitrogen. cotine, and brucine, had no effect on the bac- He was making experiments to verify the appliteria. Phenol, spongy iron, alcohol, and po- cability of the method of Lassaignac for the detassium permanganate, were very destructive tection of nitrogen in bodies containing carbon to them. Mr. W. M. Hamlet has found that to compounds in which sulphur is present, when, bacteria can exist in carbonic oxide, hydrogen, working with a fusion of a compound which one-per-cent creosote, phenol, methylamin, me- had been proved to contain no nitrogen with thylic alcohol, and chloroform, and Mr. Grace- sodium and iron by hydrogen, he perceived the Calvert has found that they can live in strong blue precipitate revealing the presence of nitrocarbolic acid. The evidence of other observers gen to be distinctly formed. “The experiment is to the effect that the virulence of fever-pro- was repeated several times, with the same ducing liquids is destroyed by chlorine and results, while the tests which were applied sulphurous acid; and this suggests the query showed that all the substances operated with whether the organic matter to which they owe were free from nitrogen. Another specimen. their power may not be essentially different of iron by hydrogen, which had been kept for from the bacteria described by Mr. Hatton. several years, and which did not take fire by

ACTION OF INORGANIO SUBSTANCES ON THE contact with the air, failed to give the nitroCIRCULATION OF LIVING ANIMALS.—Dr. James gen-test. This led Mr. Remsen to believe that Blake has been led, by the results of a long series nitrogen was absorbed from the air by iron, of researches on the phenomena elicited by the under some power connected with its active direct introduction of inorganic matter into the condition. Further experiments gave results, circulation of living animals, to the conclusion both of a positive and negative character, that the intensity of the physiological action of agreeable to this view, so as to induce a confisuch matter increases in direct ratio with the dent statement of the conclusion that when iron atomic weight. The action of salts of forty- by hydrogen and certain non-nitrogenous orone elements was tested upon horses, dogs, ganic substances are heated together with mecats, rabbits, geese, and hens, with identical tallic sodium in an atmosphere of nitrogen, a results. The different groups of metallic ele- cyanide is readily formed. The action is simiments-monads, dyads, triads, and the rest lar to that which takes place in blast-furnaces formed series in each of which the increase when formation of cyanide of potassium takes of activity corresponding with the rise of the place. Experiments made with Bessemer steel atomic weight was manifested with striking and other forms yielded results corresponding regularity. Among some peculiar features of with those referred to above. the experiments were that chlorine, bromine, ARSENIO IN WALL-PAPERS.-Mr. Harry Grimand iodine agree closely in their physiological shaw, F. C. S., of Manchester, England, has action-showing, however, a decrease instead called attention to the presence of arsenic in of an increase in intensity; that phosphorus, paper-hangings of other colors than green, arsenic, and antimony do not induce any im- which were obtained from the recent stock mediately perceptible physiological reaction; of a manufacturer in Lancashire, with the asand that the salts of potassium and ammonium, surance that they contained no arsenic. Six the latter of which produce results resembling specimens of as many different colors, includthose of certain nitrogenous alkaloids, exhibit ing three greens of different shades, light the only exceptions to the rule that isomor- brown, dark brown, and pink, all contained



arsenic in considerable proportions—the pink, This shows a near correspondence, as to essenwhich had the least, having enough on a tial elements, with the composition of the square foot to poison an adult person. By the Indian shellacs. A gum is also found, but side of these papers were placed, for compari- in smaller quantities and having a less amount son, six other samples obtained from another of coloring matter, on the twigs of the Acacia manufacturer, the colors of which could hardly Greggii, which resembles the lac from the be distinguished from those of the arsenical Larrea in its general appearance and irregular papers, but which were wholly free from cellular structure, as well as in its essential arsenic. From these and other papers which chemical properties, and behaves in the same were compared with the same object, it was manner toward chemical reagents. found that almost any color that may be de THE FREEZING-Point OF ALCOHOLIO Mixsired can be obtained without the addition of TURES.—Researches which have been made by that substance. If any difference exists in the M.Raoult, of the Faculty of Sciences at Grenoappearance of the arsenical and non-arsenicalble, on the point of congelation of alcoholic colors, it is that the former are rather brighter. liquors, show that the point at which mixtures This, however, is not altogether a merit, for of alcohol and water begin to freeze falls as the wall-colors may very easily be too bright. It proportion of alcohol becomes stronger. M. is still undetermined whether the cheaper or Raoult has made a table of the points of conmore expensive papers usually contain more gelation for different mixtures, by a compariarsenic, and also in which class it is more com- son with which the strength of any given monly found.

mixtures may be deterinined by subjecting AMMONIA IN HUMAN SALIVA.-Mr. B. H. them to the freezing-test. Fermented liquors Heyward, of the laboratory of the University congeal at a temperature a little lower than of Virginia, has made some researches into the mixtures of alcohol and water of the same presence of ammonia in human saliva. Evi- strength, the difference increasing as the prodence of the presence of the alkali was ob- portion of alcohol becomes stronger. In all tained by observing the action of heated oxide cases the ice consists of pure water, wholly of magnesium upon filtering-paper moistened free from alcohol. Hence the part of the with the Nessler reagent. The paper showed liquid left unfrozen is richer than the original a distinct orange tint when saliva was present, liquid, and it follows that the point of congebut was not affected when the saliva was omit- lation descends as the congelation progresses. ted. In all of nineteen different cases exain A New THEORY OF STEEL.—Mr. W. Mattieu ined, of as many young men in good health, Williams has proposed a new theory to account the ammonia reaction was obtained. In ten for the temperability of steel. It is well known of the cases the amount was approximately de- that, if steel is heated red-hot and suddenly termined to be in proportions varying from cooled, it becomes extremely hard and brittle; thirty to one hundred milligrammes of am if heated again and slowly cooled, it becomes monia per litre of saliva. The proportions in almost as soft and tough as wrought-iron. If the mixed saliva of a single person varied, on it is moderately heated, it becomes partially seven successive days, between forty and sixty softened or “tempered,” in proportion to the milligrammes per litre. Special experiments temperature to which' it is raised. None of directed to the different salivary glands indi- these properties is possessed by either of the cated that most, if not all, of the ammonia materials, carbon or iron, of which the steel is came from the parotid and submaxillary glands, composed. Mr. Williams's theory is based on the latter furnishing notably the larger share, the fact that there exists a definite compound, and that the source of ammonia—at any rate, consisting of four equivalents of iron to one of the sole or chief source--is not to be found as carbon, which may be obtained in crystals, and free gas in the expired products of respiration which is more fusible than ordinary steel, and condensed in aqueous solutions in the mouth. far more fusible than iron, and is excessively

GUM-LAO FROM ARIZONA.-A resinous sub- hard and brittle, but not temperable like steel. stance bas been found widely distributed When it is melted at a temperature at which throughout Arizona and Southern California, iron is quite infusible, it is capable of dissolving where it forms a coating of considerable thick- iron, and forming a liquid mixture. When ness on the twigs of the Larrea Mexicana, or such a mixture is cooled below the solidifying "greasewood," which exhibits the cellular point of one of the substances, while its tem. cavities containing ova of insects, and at cer- perature is still above that of the other, then tain seasons a red Huid, and other characteristic one must be still fluid while the other is striving properties as to color, solubility, the color given to solidify. “If the cooling beyond this goes to different solutions, action under the influence on slowly, the molecular conflict will have of heat, and odor, of the gum-lac of India. An time to settle itself; but, if the cooling is efanalysis of the substance, by J. M. Stillman, offected suddenly, there must be a 'molecular the University of California, gives its composi- strain,' due to the inequality of contraction of tion as consisting of 61•7 parts of resins, 104 of the different parts of the solid and the liquid coloring matter soluble in water, 26-3 of caustic portions of the mixture, the internal fluid potash extract, 6:0 of insoluble residue, with a movements necessary for the adjustment of loss (including some coloring matter) of 4:6. this irregular contraction of the different parts


of the substance being arrested by the sudden aggregate of 20,107 tons, 5,459 horse-power, solidification of the whole. We should thus an armament of 83 pieces of cannon, 224 naval havo a solid with its different parts pulling officers, and 1,686 seamen; besides six marine against each other, or set in rigid grasp, or a officers, commanding 389' marines. In the state in which the opposite character and above number of vessels were included six fluidity or mobility of particles would be ex- mail-steamers chartered by the Government cessively developed. This would be excessive until the end of the war, and equipped by their solidity, or hardness and brittleness. The molecular strain must be still more severe in the Touching the question of finances, the most case of a substance which goes on contracting reliable information at hand is that derived as it approaches the temperature of solidifica- from President Pinto's message to the Chilian tion, and then suddenly expands as it assumes Congress under date of June 1, 1881. The revsolidity. This is the case with iron." Repeat- enue, ordinary and extraordinary, for the year ing the heating process would relax the mutual 1880, was in that document set down at $43,grasp of particles in proportion to the develop- 992,584, and the expenditure at $43,123,829; ment of that viscosity which is one of the the latter sum being only approximate, “inascharacteristics of heated iron; and steel is much as, out of the extraordinary number of tempered at a point approaching the “welding- accounts arising from the war, it is but natural heat” of iron.

that many should still remain unsettled, the CHILI (REPÚBLICA DE CHILE). To the gen- amount of which is not precisely known; as, eral statements of area, territorial division, for instance, the outlays made by the legation population, etc., given in preceding volumes, * in France for military and naval supplies." The it may here be added that the population on ordinary revenue for the year referred to stood January 1, 1879, has been reported at 2,155,029. at $27,992,584, while the total revenue, ordi

The President of the Republic is Señor Don nary and extraordinary, for 1879, was but $27,Domingo Santa-María, inaugurated September 693,087. It is true that in the revenue for 18, 1881, for the usual term of five years. 1880 was included the sum of $2,500,000 de

The Cabinet was composed, June, 1881, of rived from an "accidental source"-the rethe following ministers : Interior, Señor Re- demption of annuities; and the proceeds of cabarren; Foreign Affairs and Colonization, the sales of nitrates, amounting to $4,000,000 Señor Valderana; Finance, Señor Don J. Al- up to October 2, 1880, after which time “this fonso ; Justice, Public Worship, and Public In- latter source of income was replaced by the struction, Señor García de la Huerta; and War export duty, which, besides being almost equal and the Navy, Señor Don J. F. Vergara. in amount, possesses the advantage of facility

General Baquedano, the distinguished com- of collection without the inconveniences atmander-in-chief of the Chilian forces in the tending mercantile operations." The Tarapacá Chilo-Peruvian War, had been nominated as a nitrates, just referred to yielded considerable candidate for the presidency, but withdrew his sums to the Government, for account of which candidature. Señor Santa María had the port- they were worked until October 2, 1880, as folio of Foreign Affairs in 1880.

stated above, the sales having been effected The regulation strength of the army in time first by auction and afterward by British conof peace was fixed by Congress, in 1875, at signees. The working of the guano deposits 3,573 men, deficiencies to be made up by con- having been retarded by scarcity of laborers, scription. The regular army, at the time of transactions in that commodity had been limthe latest returns before the commencement of ited, the quantity exported up to June 1, 1880, the war with Peru and Bolivia, comprised 712 not having exceeded 40,000 tons. The guano horse, 2,000 foot, and 804 artillery, with 749 shipments were in accordance with the terms officers of all arms; 7 generals, 14 colonels, 54 of the decree issued by the commander-inlieutenant-colonels, 67 majors, 182 captains, and chief of the army on February 22, 1880. In 425 lieutenants; constituting a total of 3,516. conformity with the act of September 2, 1880, The National Guard consisted of 1,215 horse, all the stocks of the monopoly office had been 21,147 foot, and 1,925 artillery; total, 24,287. disposed of, and the offices established in its But, on war being declared, the regular army stead were working satisfactorily. As, howwas raised to a strength of 20,000, distributed ever, these offices were of a temporary charin three divisions, and the National Guard to acter, the President announced his intention 30,000; thus forming a total land-force of of submitting a bill to Congress for their or50,000. A single number of the “ Official Ga- ganization on a permanent basis. The issue zette was said to contain, in October, 1880, office had emitted, up to the middle of May, eleven decrees relating to the formation of as 1881, $10,626,000, in exchange for a corremany new corps, with an aggregate of 20,000 sponding amount in treasury notes. The total men.

value of notes issued, including the amount on In an official report published in the second hand, was estimated at $12,000,000, which, half of the navy was stated to comprise with $13,000,000 in bank-notes, constituted an 11 ships of war, 12 transports, 3 pontoons, and aggregate of $25,000,000 in circulation : an 2 launches (torpedoes)—in all, 28 craft; with an amount of paper that might under ordinary * See " Annual Cyclopædia" for 1879.

circumstances appear to be excessive, but

which was, “ in reality, hardly sufficient to represented the exports. But in a later official meet the requirements of the service now per- report the exports were set down at $42,657,formed by the Chilian paper money, not only 839, and the imports at $23,226,781: total, at home, but in a considerable portion of the $65,884,620. It should here be remarked that South Pacitic coast.” The Government was in the latter total is included that of the exrepresented as holding, at the date of the mes- ports and imports at the new port of entrysage, a sufficient quantity of fiscal notes to re- Antofogasta - $5,464,991, and $432,173, replace the entire issue of treasury notes, which, spectively. Thus the value of the exports for though reduced by rather more than one-third, 1879 exceeded that of the imports by $19,431,amounted to $26,000,000, of which $12,000,000, 058, a result very largely contributed to by deposited in the national Treasury, were bear- the splendid wheat-crop of the year in question. ing interest at 5 per cent, pursuant to the The quantity of wheat exported, mainly to terms of the law of August 19, 1880.

Great Britain, in that year, was 142,182,985 After stating that the custom-house yield kilogrammes. for 1880 bad exceeded that for 1879 by nearly The special trade of the republic in 1880 $4,000,000, President Pinto remarks, as note- was of the total value of $81,404.539—exports, worthy, that such increase was owing to “new $51,083,810; imports, $30,320,729: balance of markets, and to increased production and con trade in favor of Chili, $19,763,081. Included sequent development of consumption.

in the exports were agricultural products of the * In the new territories successively occupied total value of $11,661,067, against $12,781,394 by our troops, custom-houses have been estab- for 1879; and minerals of the total value of lished with a view to make the war self-sup- $37,250,973, against $26,248,726 for 1879. The porting, as far as the unhinged condition of wheat-crop was exceptionally unfavorable in affairs in those regions will permit. With the 1880. reduction of the national expenditure to the The custom-bouse yield for the ten months requirements of a normal situation, taking into of 1880 ending October 31st reached $7,594,consideration the gradual increase of the rev- 891, against $6,845,731 for the whole of the enue, and the resources drawn from the con- year immediately preceding. quered country, together with those to be de The value of the annual exports of copperrived from the ultimate permanent occupation the great Chilian staple—to Great Britain, is of the Araucanian territory (which occupation estimated at from $12,500,000 to $15,000,000. renders urgent and indispensable the passage The imports from Great Britain in 1880 of the bill now before you relating to the were as follows: ownership of the land in that territory), we Cotton fabrics...

$4,428,375 have the encouraging conviction that the ex

286,810 Linen fabrics..

145,285 penses of the war will be defrayed without

Railway iron of all kinds.

178,645 further sacrifices. So far the Government has Cast and wrought iron

184,790 not found it necessary to make use of the bill


$5,123,205 recently passed for a new issue of $12,000,000, and I believe recourse thereto will not be re According to the report of the Bureau of Statistics quired in the present month. Nevertheless, United States to Chill for the fiscal year 1879 amount

of the Treasury Department, the exports from the care and economy in new outlays are essential

ed to $1,254,000, a decrease of $723,000 from the preto the establishment of our finances on a sure ceding year, while the imports from Chili into the foundation that shall enable us to redeem, at United States during the same period amounted to an early day, our paper money, and return to $643,000, a decrease of only $20,000 from the precedspecie currency."

ing year. The trade of England with Chili during

the year 1878 was as follows: Imports from Chili, The expenses of the war, up to the middle $10,692,000, a decrease of nearly $12,000,000 from the of 1881, have been reported, on the authority imports of 1874, which occurred principally in copper, of the Chilian Minister to Washington, at $60,- wheat, and flour. Exports to Chili, $8,000,000, a de000,000. Further particulars concerning the

crease of nearly $8,000,000 from the exports of 1874. war debt and the means for paying it off were

As the decrease herein noted in the trade of England

with Chili is confined to no single year, but runs congiven in our volume for 1880 (article Chili, secutively through all the intervening years, it shows p. 97, et seq.). Reference may be made to the a steady decline in the trade between both countries. same volume for a detailed statement of the The exports to Chili from England are composed several loans, etc., constituting the national principally of the following articles : cotton manufactdebt of Chili, which debt was officially report- of 1874 of nearly $2,000,000, and of 20,000,000 yards ;

ures, $2,466,000, a decrease from the cotton exports ed as follows, on January 1, 1880:

wearing apparel, arms, ammunition, bags and sacks, Home debt..

$27,712,848 beer, ale, coal, earthen and china ware, glass-ware, Foreign debt.

34,870,000 leather and manufactures of, linens, jutes, machinery, Paper money

12,000,000* metals and manufactures of, paints, woolens, etc.

The trade of France with Chili during the year 1878 $74,582,848

was as follows: Imports from Chili, $3,000,000, about The foreign trade of the republic for 1879 the same as the imports of 1874; exports to Chili, was, according to first returns,t of the total $3,500,000, a decrease of $4,000,000 from the exports value of $59,360,226, of which $36,620,226 during the year 1878, in the order of their value, were

of 1874. The principal exports from France to Chili, * 325,000,000 in June, 1881. (See ante, p. 101.)

as follows : Refined sugar, leather and manufactures + See " Annual Cyclopædia" for 1880, p. 99.

of, woolen goods, cotton goods, mercery and buttons,

Woolen fabrics.


wearing apparel, wines, paper, pottery and glassware, The astonishing development of the agricultural fish, olive-oil, tools and implements, liquors, telt hats, interests in the old mining regions of California, tomedicines, jewelry, watches and clocks, etc. During gether with the fact that there, on rich and virgin the year 1877, according to the report above quoted, soil, scientifically cultivated, are produced the same there entered at and cleared from Valparaiso 827 articles raised by us here on worn-out soils, impersteamers, of 798,656 tons, 1,319 sailing-vessels, offcctly cultivated without the aid of fertilizers, consti648,712 tons, a total of 2,146 vessels, of 1,447,368 tóns. tutes the first and most conclusive of such causes. The United States was represented'in this fieet by 68 Not only have our cereals been driven out of the adsailing-vessels. Of the steamships, 36, of a tonnage vantageous markets of California, but by the products of 126,000 tons, entered the port direct from Liver- of this same California they have been supplanted in pool, via the Straits of Magellan. Herein lies the se other markets, which, but a short time since, were cret of England's large trade with South America. our own. United States flour to-day finds its way to

Central America, Panama, Ecuador, and occasionally The following extract from the official organ has reached even our own country to supply the deficit of the Chilian Government will be found to created by bad crops, unwise commercial calculations, contain significant considerations on the com or our imperfect methods of planting and gathering mercial relations of Chili with the United States: Chili fiour should be no longer used, inasmuch as that

our crops. It is not singular that in San Francisco From the data collected, systematically arranged, essentially agricultural land produces wheat with such and published in the yearly reports of the Bureau of wonderful profusion; but it is very singular that the Commercial Statistics, it appears that Chili imported wheat of California, which is, as it were, but of yesterfrom the United States in 1856 assorted merchandise day, should have absolutely driven Chilian wheat, of to the amount of $2,439,153, and in return exported her long standing and high repute, out of all the markets own agricultural and mining products to the markets of the Pacific coast. Wur inability to enter into comof the United States to the amount of $3,090,899. Our petition with it indicates the existence of questions to business thus, in that year, with the great republic ag be resolved with regard to low rates of interest, the gregated the respectable sum of $5,530,052, an amount use of agricultural implements in planting, of fertilcertainly greater than its commerce with any of theizers, and means of transportation. These questions other republics of this continent. Nevertheless, in the must be considered in the light of the requirements of course of twenty-four years only, this condition of our agricultural interests. It, however, there are reathings has totally changed, to the great detriment of sons why California, so far from buying wheat from both nations. While the commerce between Colom- us, brings her own extraordinary production of this bia and the United States reaches the sum of a little article into competition with our own, such reasons over $7,000,000 per annum, and with Venezuela ex totally fail when we come to consider other articles ceeds $11,000,000; while her commercial relations which, twenty-five years ago, we exported to the with the far-off Argentine Republic and the petty re- markets of the United States, and to a very considerpublics of Central America are every day assuming able extent. Why is it, then, that the United States greater importance, our commercial statistics hardly are no longer purchasers of our copper? Why is it make any record of trade, and this record only shows that they have ceased to work up our wool? In 1866 a trifling amount of the commerce between Chili and we exported to the United States $1,000,000 worth of the United States, which in other times was so active these two articles ; in 1862, $1,943,429 ; and in 1863, and profitable. The decline is shown by the following still $823,600. This trade, far from tending toward official figures: In 1860 importations from the United an increase, seems to be on the verge of disappearing. States had fallen from $2,500,000 to $1,085,000 in Is it, then, because the United States produce all the round numbers. Three years later, our exports of copper they require in their manufactures and shipcopper and ores still amounted to $1,250,000, while building? "Most certainly not, if we are to believe the imports of American products amounted to about their own statistics and the reports of some of the the same sum. In 1868 the decrease was still more branches of their manufactures. The yield of copper noticeable: our exports scarcely reached half a million, in the United States is not sufficient for their conor $400,000 less than in 1844, in which year the United sumption, and it is necessary to import from England States were purchasers from us to the amount of part of that which England receives from Chili. As $956,052. From 1874 to 1878 trade continued in the may be naturally supposed, this reaches the hands of same depressed condition, and it is but reasonable to the consumer in the United States with an addition of suppose that the fluctuations in exchange, and diffi- the charges for the increased freights, expenses, and culties in obtaining exchange, will have, during the profits of the first purchaser. The same, or somecourse of 1879 and the present year, still further re- thing very nearly so, though perhaps on a smaller duced the figures representing the commercial inter- scale, occurs with regard to our wool." All this is due course of the two peoples. In the tables of commercial to the protective, or rather prohibitory, tariff which statistics, which we may properly call a journal of our the Government of the United States have put in progress, the total of the trade between Chili and the force, more particularly since 1863. when they were United States, during a term of twenty-two years, called upon to meet the expenses of their tremendous from 1844, is set down at the respectable sum of war of secession. $88,730,000; what will be the insignificance of the Commerce is nothing more than an interchange of total for an equal period of time reckoned from 1866 products; and in order that we may become consummay be easily calculated from the data we have al ers of the manufactures of America, it is indispensaready given, and it is no rash assertion to say that, if ble that our products should have easy access to the the causes which have led to this decay be not con markets of that country. Drawing against England, sidered and some remedy applied, the day will soon as has been the case up to the present time, it is not come when trade between Chili and the United States probable that we shall be purchasers to any great exwill be but a sad reminiscence of our commercial sta- tent of the goods offered to us. Upon such a basis of tistics. It is but proper to add, in support of our ob- trade, and however advantageous the prices might be, servations on this decay, that the same is observable it would be impossible for them to compete with simiwith other countries, the Argentine Republic, Ecuador, lar productions from other countries. England, which and Colombia, with which, at a period not very re- buys our copper and wool, can always sell us her cutmote, and under circumstances much less favorable lery and hardware on advantageous terms, for finanfor developing and increasing trade, our own country cial reasons that from their obviousness it is not neceshad an active and mutually advantageous commerce. sary here to state. It is not, then, through the means

The causes that, within the last twenty-four years of education pursued by the State, or the intelligence have led to this extraordinary decay in the commerce of the American manufacturer, that the problem of of Chili with the United States are apparent.

establishing extensive commercial relations between

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