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XIV. Sale of patronage and presentation of, and to the rectory and parish Advowson. church of
in the county of - and in the diocese Parcels. of
and of the fee-simple and inheritance thereof (1), free from incumbrances (c), at or for the price or sum of
£ To deliver 2. The vendor will deliver unto the purchaser, within abstract.
days from the date hereof, an abstract of the title (d)
Creditor's remedy against advowsons.
FOR YEARS DE-
of an advowson: London v. Collegiate Church of Southwell, Hob. 303.
An advowson is not extendible; but, under the stat. 1 & 2 Vict. c. 110, s. 13, may be sold by a judgment creditor.
(6) If for life, say, “ for the natural life of the said (purchaser], (or [nominee], of &c.).”
If for lives, say,
If for years, say,
If for years determinable on lives, say,
(c) A mortgage of the living to the governors of Queen Anne's Bounty was held to be a charge on the living only, and not on the advowson, and a purchaser who discovered the existence of such a mortgage before completion was compelled specifically to perform his contract without compensation, there being no fraud on the part of the vendor: Edwards-Wood v. Majoribanks, 7 H. L. C. 806.
(1l) The title to an advowson should be carried back at least 60 years, or for such longer period, not exceeding 100 years, as shall comprise three successive incumbencies, (in which number presentations by the crown on the promotion of an incumbent are not to be reckoned) and should be accompanied by a list of the successive presentations during that period, ante, p. 58. Where the advowson appears to be appendant to a manor, a mere sixty years' title is usually, but perhaps without much reason, considered sufficient. As the Vendor and Purchaser Act, 1874, does not contain any definition of land, it is not clear that an advowson is within that Act; it will therefore be prudent to stipulate expressly as in the text that recitals, &c. shall be evidence. For the meaning of land generally in Acts of Parliament, see stat. 13 & 14 Vict. c. 21, s. 4. An advowson is within the definitions contained in the Conveyancing and Law of Property Act, 1881, and the Settled Land Act, 1882.
of the said vendor to the said advowson, such abstract to com- XIV. Sale of mence with, &c., and also extracts certified by the registrar of Advowson. the Bishop of of all the successive presentations to the said rectory since the
17—, [the commencement of title]. All recitals, statements, and descriptions contained in any document dated twenty years or upwards before the date of this agreement, shall be conclusive evidence of the facts and matters therein recited, stated, or described or thereby implied respectively.
3. [Delivery of requisitions, ante, p. 403.]
5. The purchaser shall on the
> pay Completion of the purchase-money at the office of Messrs. vendors' solicitors, at and the purchase shall then and there be completed. On payment of the purchase-money as aforesaid, the vendor and all other necessary parties (e), shall convey and assure the said advowson, with the appurtenances, unto the purchaser (f), or as he shall direct. The conveyance or assurance shall be prepared by and at the expense the purchaser, and shall be left not less than days before the said day of for the approval of the said solicitors of the vendor.
6. The vendor shall, on the execution of the said convey- Delivery of ance, at his own charges, deliver unto the purchaser true of title deeds, and attested copies of all deeds, evidences, and writings, and acknow
ledgment of concerning the said advowson ; And in the said conveyance right to enter into the usual acknowledgment of the right of the originals (9). purchaser to the production of the originals, and undertaking for their safe custody, and to permit the said
(e) A husband is tenant by the curtesy of an advowson, though Dower and the church was not void during the marriage: Co. Litt. 29, à ; curtesy of an Perk. s. 468 ; and a woman is dowable of an advowson in gross
advowson. or appendant: Cro. Jac. 621.
(f) “for his life (or unto the said [purchaser], his heirs FOR LIFE OR and assigns, for the life of the said [nominee],) (or for the lives and life of the said (nominees], and the survivors or sur- FOR YEARS. vivor of them), (or unto the said [purchaser], for the said term of years, determinable as aforesaid).”
(9) This clause will be used where the deeds relate to other Deeds relate property of greater value than the advowson, or where for any to property other reason they are retained by the vendor.
XIV. Sale of purchaser to have any fresh copies thereof respectively from Advowson.
time to time, at his own expense. In case of incumbent's
7. In case of the decease, cession, deprivation, or relinquishdeath before ment of the present incumbent of the said advowson, beconveyance, purchaser to fore the said
-, the vendor shall duly nominate next present such person to the said advowson, as the purchaser
shall nominate (1); but if the presentation to the said
Right of pre
(h) Upon the promotion of any spiritual person to a bishopric, sentation on whether in England or in the Isle of Man, all the benefices or protnotion of dignities, except donatives, which he was possessed of before clergymen to bishoprics.
such promotion, are void upon his consecration, and upon his confirmation in case of translation; and the crown is entitled for that turn to present to them in right of the royal prerogative, although the advowson belongs to a common person : Wood's Inst. 37, 10th ed. ; 3 Com. Dig. 198, Esglise (H. 6); Burn's Eccl. Law, 9th ed. 141, 212. But the right must be exercised in the lifetime of the person promoted : Archbishop of Armagh v. Attorney-General, 2 Br. P. C. 514.
But the bishop might formerly prevent the avoidance by dispensation of retainer of such benefices as he had, if obtained
before his consecration, or confirmation of his election ; which was Commendam
commonly called a commendam retinere, and was usually granted retinere. by the Archbishop of Canterbury, according to the statute 25
Hien. 8, c. 21, upon the king's mandate expressing his consent to it, as the true patron of the benefice for that turn; and it seems that by a commendam for life, and for the time of continuing in the bishopric, the turn of the crown was answered, and in such a case the proper patron presented upon the death or translation; but that the right of the crown was not defeated by a commendam granted for a term of months or years certain and limited : Gibson's Codex, 763, 913, 914, 915, 2nd ed. And see the great case of commendam, Colt of Glover v. The Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield, Hob. 140. But after the passing of stat. 6 & 7 Will. 4, c. 77, s. 19, no benefice can be held in com
mendam ; see also 1 & 2 Vict. c. 106, and 13 & 14 Vict. c. 98. But it seems
The right of presentation on promotion, however, appears the crown to have been an usurpation of the crown, and anciently the had not this law was taken to be, that the rightful patron ought to present; prerogative anciently.
and, as Levinz says, there is little or no reason that the king should present, because he has promoted the parson ; for the church is the patron's church, and it is reasonable he should have the presentation of a parson thereto (under whom he and his tenants and servants are to live), whose manners, doctrine, religion, and conversation ought to be such as he shall approve; and, by the same reason, if the king promote my chaplain of my family, or my bailiff, or other servant, he may impose another upon me. That anciently the king had no such prerogative is clear-(1) because no mention is made of any such prerogative either in the king or the pope, as certainly there would have been if any such thing had then been : (2) there is no mention of it in the stat. de prærogativa Regis,
advowson should devolve on the crown, in consequence of the XIV. Sale of
Advowson. present or any succeeding incumbent being promoted to a
be made a 17 Edw. 2, st. 1, which for the most part is but a sum or collection of certain prerogatives that were known law long before ; nor in Stamford's Treatise upon that statute (see particularly cap. 8): (3) and the 5 Edw. 2, 148, in the book published by Serjt. Maynard, it appears that Hugh de Courtney brought a Quare impedit and counts, that the Countess of Albemarle was seised, and presented a clerk, who was made a bishop, and so derives a title to the plaintiff to present; but there is no mention of the king's prerogative, or any presentment by him upon the parson's promotion to the bishopric: (4) nor is any such thing mentioned in any of our ancient books, as Glanville, Bracton, Britton, Fleta, Doctor and Student (see particularly Dial. 2, c. 36, 37, pp. 218, 220, 18th ed.), &c.; and it has been denied to be law, as in Dyer, 228, b.; 3 Lev. 378.
But the king's prerogative in such cases has been favoured The king's since, and the law has now been settled, however repugnant to prerogative reason, as Dr. Watson says (Clergyman's Law, 74, 4th ed. cap. 9), right to prethat the king shall present upon such an avoidance : Wright's clearly estacase, Moore, 399; Edles v. Bishop of Oxford, Vaughan, 19; Rex blished. v. Episcop. Londin., 3 Lev. 377; 1 Ld. Raym. 23; Holt, 586 ; Salk. 540 ; 4 Mod. 206 ; S. C., 1 Show. 441; Mr. Justice Dolben said, however, it had been always grumbled at; that it never came in question, but some judge or other was against it; that it having been so common in great livings, that the true patron in St. Andrew's, Holborn, had not presented above once in a hundred years, when he presented Dr. Stillingfleet; and he added, the church would suffer by it, because there was no one who had a great living but would present a blockhead, who was not likely to be made a bishop, in order to preserve his presentation : 1 Show. 461, 462, 463.
The king has this prerogative whether the church be now or The king has old; and it extends as well to the second, third, and all other this prerogasuccessive promotions to bishoprics from the same benefice or tive, although dignity: Gibson's Codex, 763, 2nd ed. Thus, by the 1 Jac. 2, it the advowson was enacted, that St. James in the Fields should be divided from created, and the parish of St. Martin, and a church erected there, and that it he has it toties should be a parish of itself; and it was determined in The King quoties. v. Bishop of London and Birch, 3 Lev. 382; 2 Salk. 540; 4 Mod. 200; 1 Show. 164, S. C., on the promotion of the rector of the parish of St. James to a bishopric, that the king has the same prerogative in churches newly erected, as in the old, to present, on promoting the parson to a bishopric; and in the above case of The King v. Bishop of London and Dr. Lancaster, 3 Lev. 377, the crown presented thrice successively to the living of St. Martin in the Fields : and so, where the rector of Bow Church, &c., united into one parish by the 22 Car. 2, c. 11, s. 63, was created Bishop of Rochester, King George I., by his prerogative, in 1720, presented Dr. Lisle, who being afterwards created Bishop of St. Asaph, King George II., in 1744, presented Dr. Newton in like manner: Grocer's Company v. Archbishop of Canterbury, 3 Wils. 214; S. C., 2 W. Black. 770. B. - VOL. I.
tract not to
XIV. Sale of bishopric (either] before (or after] the said — day of Advowson.
this contract shall not be affected thereby, nor shall bishop, con
In Ireland, no person could formerly accept a bishopric there, be affected.
until he had resigned all the preferments which he had in Quare, whe
England: which preferments being void before the acceptance ther this doc. of the bishopric, it seems that the king in such case would lose trine extended the presentation : 1 Burn's Eccl. Law, 9th ed. 141, 212. to Ireland. No right of the crown to present to a benefice arises upon
the Colonial appointment of the incumbent to a colonial bishopric: Reg. v. bishopric. Eton College, 8 Ell. & Bl. 610; S. C., 27 L. J., Q. B. 132, and
4 Jur., N. S. 35. The right of The right of the crown to present upon promotion, postpones
the right of any grantee who has the next avoidance; as in the postpones, but
case put in Co. Litt. 379 a, that if a man seized of an advowson does not de feat the right
in fee, whether in gross or appendant, take a wife, by act in law of the person the wife is entitled to the third presentation, if the husband die having the before: F. N. B. 148, C.; 150, G.; Perk. s. 342, 313; Co. Litt.
32 a (contra, Cro. Jac. 691); and if the husband grant the third sentation.
presentation to another, and the husband die before the church becomes void, the heir shall present twice, and the wife shall have the third presentation, and the grantee the fourth; for, in this
case, it shall be taken to be the third presentation, which he might lawfully grant. Thus, in the Grocer's Company v. Archbishop of Canterbury, in which three patrons had a right to present by turns, it was decided by the whole Court, that the prerogative presentations cannot be considered as turns, or deprive a patron of his turn; for a prerogative presentation upon the promotion of an incumbent to a bishopric is by act of law, which cannot operate to the injury of a third person; for constructio et_actus legis nulli facit injuriam: Co. Litt. 148, 183 a, b; 2 Inst. 287; Dyer, 35, b. In fact this is the fifth vacancy ; but with respect to the patrons, it is but the third opening or avoidance, wherein the presentation of a patron, having the third turn, could take place: 3 Wils. 232; 2 W. Blacks. 773; vide Perk. s. 331, 332; Hal. MS. n.; Co. Litt.
32 b; stat. 3 & 4 Will. 4, c. 27, s. 31, ante, p. 18. A grant of So the grant of the next presentation to a benefice was decided the next pre- to mean the next which the grantor would by law be entitled to sentation make; and that, therefore, if the present incumbent be made a means that which the
bishop, a covenant for title in the grant is not broken, and the grantor is grantee may present on the next vacancy : Calland v. Troward, next entitled 2 H. Blacks. 324 ; Trouard v. Cailland, in error, 6 T. R. 439; to.
aff. D. P., Id. 778; 8 Br. P. C. 71.
The grant of the next presentation, or of an advowson, made sentation can
after the church is actually vacant, is a void grant quoad the not be granted fallen vacancy: Brookbie's case, Cro. El. 174; Baker v. Rogers, after church
Id. 788; and the possession of a clerk who has been wrongly is vacant.
presented is a vacancy: Walker v. Hammersley, Skinn. 90. But it is good as to the advowson itself: Wolferstan v. Bishop of Lincoln, 2 Wils. 174; 3 Burr. 1504 ; 1 Wm. Blacks. 490; 2 Id. 1054, and Serjt. Hill's MS. notes, Elsley's edit. And even if the contract be simoniacal, the conveyance of the advowson made in pursuance of such contract is void only as to the next presentation: Greenwood v. Bishop of London, 1 Marsh, 292 ; 5 Taunt.