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while loan funds made it possible for many to stay in college who otherwise might have had to drop out for financial reasons, the program is helping an even larger number of young people bridge the gap from high school to college."

130. Student Loan Program. Higher Educ., 16: 16, Nov. 1959.

An analysis of reports from the 1,197 colleges and universities that participated in the National Defense Student Loan Program, 1958-59. Total of 36,497 students (high school seniors, 11,133; undergraduate, 22,157; graduate, 3,207) had received loans or had arranged for them upon entrance to college. Of college students, 17,823 were men, 7,536 were women. Average loan, $311. "These reports do not reflect a normal situation."

131. Student Loyalty Oaths-Privilege or Insult? Sen. Schol. 76: 6-7, 30, Feb. 3, 1960.

"A pro and con discussion. Should there be a student loyalty oath for Federal scholarships?" Gives and discusses four reasons under heading of "Privilege" and four under heading of "Insult."

132. Summary of National Defense Act of 1958. Higher Educ., 15: 23–32, 39, Oct. 1958.

A summary of the provisions of Public Law 85-864. Entire issue is devoted to this act and to certain other aspects of Federal educational legislation. Act includes provisions for student loans on sliding scale, up to $90 million annually; and for 1,500 national defense fellowships annually for graduate study, with stipends of $2,000 to $2,400 plus $400 for each dependent.

133. U.S. CONGRESS. HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. Scholarship and Loan Programs. Hearings Before Subcommittee of the Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives, 85th Congress, 1st session. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1958. Part I, p. 1-661. Part II, p. 662-1305.

Verbatim reports of hearings held at Washington, D.C.; Eau Claire Wis.; Sioux Falls, S. Dak.; Salt Lake City, Utah; and Portland, Oreg. Contains statements from 99 witnesses, August 1957 to May 1958, and letters and prepared statements from 30 other individuals and groups. Also extensive statistical information.

134. National Defense Education Act of 1958 (Administration of.) Hearings Before Subcom

mittee of the Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives, 86th Congress, 1st Session, Held at Washington, Feb. 19–20, 1959. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1959. 172 p.

Contains statements by various officials of U.S. Office of Education, supplementary statements, letters, and documents, and supporting statistical information.

135. National Defense Education Act of 1958. 85th Congress, 2d Session. Report No. 2157. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1958. 49 p.

Contains complete text of the act, favorable recommendations by the committee, and minority views of three members of the committee.

136. SENATE. The National Defense Education Act of 1958. A Summary and Analysis of the Act Prepared by the Staff of the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare, United States Senate, 85th Congress, 2d Session. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1958. 48 p.

Gives text of the act (Public Law 85-864) and summarizes its principal provisions. Answers various questions concerning it, especially with reference to Title II: "Loans to Students in Institutions of Higher Education," and Title IV: "National Defense Scholarships." Authorizes appropriation of $47,500,000 to $90,000,000 annually for loans, and 1,000 to 1,500 fellowships, paying $2,000 to $2,400 per year plus $400 for each dependent.

137. Vice President Nixon on the "Affidavit of Disbelief." Sch. & Soc., 88: 195. April 23, 1960.

"It is my opinion that the affirmative loyalty oath by itself covers the situation, making the disclaimer affidavit unnecessary and, since it is not a general requirement for all recipients of governmental benefits,

unwarranted."

138. We've Been Asked: Who Can Get New Student Loans? U.S. News, 45: 71, Nov. 7, 1958.

Presents 14 question and answers on loan and fellowship features of National Defense Education Act.

See also Nos. 8, 40, 69, 79, 237, 406.

III. Costs

139. ALDEN, VERNON R. College Administration in a Rapidly Changing Economy. Assoc. Amer. Coll. Bull., 43: 534-548, Dec. 1957. (Author: Associate Dean, Graduate School of Business Administration, Harvard University.)

"Colleges and universities have steadily increased their charges in the past decade, and I believe that we must continue to raise the price tag on a college education. . . . All of us are familiar with the case of a minister or widowed school teacher making $2,800 to $3,200 annually who contributes substantially to the support of children in college. On the other hand, we all know of families with incomes of $20,000 or more who permit their sons and daughters to apply for financial aid on the ground that they cannot help them with their educational expense. It is about time that those of us in colleges and universities become a little more hard headed on this subject." Suggests additional scholarship funds and student loans. Reports experience of Harvard Business School with student loans, up to $2,500 for 2 years of graduate work, totaling $3 million in 40 years, with losses of less than 1 percent.

140. College Policy and the Economy in the Years Ahead. Coll. Board Review, No. 34, 27-32, Winter 1958. (Author: See No. 139.)

"Tuition increases, extensive student loans, and extended student enrollments are recommended for private colleges."

141. BAUMBACK, CLIFFORD M. A Study of the Financial Resources of Students of Public Institutions of Higher Education in Iowa. Iowa City, Iowa: Bureau of Business and Economic Research, State University of Iowa, Mar. 1959. ii,21 p.

Based on 70 percent reply to questionnaires sent to a 1/20th sample of students and their parents in each of the three State institutions of higher education, a proportion of replies "higher than would normally

be expected in this kind of survey." Conclusion: "Parents (or guardians) are the principal means of financial support for the average student registered at a State institution of higher learning in Iowa. On the average, they bear about 43 percent of the total costs incurred by the students while attending college. "The students themselves bear approximately 37 percent of such costs. The balance is paid with income derived from scholarships, loans, and other secondary sources."

142. BOKELMAN, W. ROBERT. Higher Education Planning and Management Data, 1957-58: Salaries, Fringe Benefits, Tuition and Fees, Room and Board. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1958. (U.S. Office of Education Circular No. 517.) vi,102 p. (Author: With U.S. Office of Education.)

Based on information furnished by 429 publicly and 717 privately controlled institutions. Reports by geographical region, by type of institution, and by size of institution. Chapter 6, "Institutional Charges for Tuition and Fees" (p. 64-75), in eight detailed tables with comments on them, gives data for various groups of institutions, classified by type and geographical location, including increases between 1956-57 and 1957-58. Chapter 7, "Room and Board Rates at Participating Institutions" (p. 76–91), in 12 detailed tables gives data for similar groups of institutions for combined room and board rates, institutional board rates, dormitory room rates, and cost of furnishing linens and maid room-cleaning service.

143. Higher Education Planning and Management Data, 1958-59: Salaries, Tuition and Fees, Room and Board. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1959. (U.S. Office of Education Circular No. 549.) vii,126 p. (Author: See No. 142.)

Second in annual series of which No. 142 was the first. Similar in content, but based

on returns from 1,015 colleges and universities having 78 percent of the enrollment in public institutions and 67 percent in private institutions. Chapter 4, "Institutional Charges for Tuition and Fees" (p. 71–74). Finds average tuition $164 in public, $584 in private institutions. Chapter 5, "Room and Board Rates at Participating Institutions" (p. 75-94). Finds that average charges for dormitory rooms vary from $160 to $207 in different types of institutions and for the different sexes; for board from $359 to $418. Trends: Tuition increased 34 percent in 4 years; room rates 21 percent; board 8 percent.

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147. COUNCIL FOR FINANCIAL AID ΤΟ EDUCATION. What Price Tuition? A Matter of Importance to Colleges and to the Society Which They Serve. New York: The Council, 1957. 16 p.

Urges raising of tuition rates, particularly in publicly supported institutions of higher education, to be accompanied by greater number of fellowships and scholarships for those who cannot afford the higher rates.

148. CRIBBEN, JAMES J. What Does It Cost To Attend College? Pers. & Guid. Jour., 34: 443-446, Mar. 1956. (. (Author: Faculty member, School of Education, Fordham University, New York.)

Detailed study of expenses at three colieges of Fordham University. Conclusion: "The process of securing a college education is extremely expensive and complex. . . . One logical approach to this problem is to make provisions for student-counsel-parent conferences."

149. Dig Deep to Learn. Newsweek, 49: 104, Apr. 8, 1957.

Reports annual costs in one family for education at Yale University-$1,235 for father in 1909, $2,864 for one son in 1945, $3,240 for another son in 1951, and $3,200 for another in 1956. Speculates on cost for a grandson in 1975.

150. DILLENBECK, DOUGLAS D. Advice for Schools on College Scholarship Practices. Coll. Board Review, No. 39, 12-14, Fall 1959. (Author: Guidance Director, North Shore Schools, Glen Head, N.Y.)

Address at meeting of College Scholarship Stresses inadequacy Service, Oct. 27, 1958. and frequent confusion in information given by colleges to secondary schools and their students on total costs of attending a particular college and financial aid available at it.

151. FELS, WILLIAM C. Charging the Full Cost of Tuition. Coll. Board Review, No. 36: 17-19, Fall 1958. (Author: President, Bennington College, Vermont.)

Reports plan adopted at Bennington College. "The charge for tuition, room, board, and health services was increased $400 to the full cost, $2,650. . . . However, the plan encompassed a provision for adjusting fees to family resources. Thus total charges range downward from $2,650 to $1,050." Conclusion: "From the beginning of the College Scholarship Service, it has seemed to me inevitable that most colleges and universities, including publicly supported institutions,

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"I would like to discuss, first, the problem of tuition, and then that of scholarships, and then related questions." Comments on marked variations in tuition in different types of insti6

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157. Charging the Student Tuition on the Basis of Costs. Educ. Record, 40: 24-28, Jan. 1959. (Author: See No. 155.)

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Discusses some of the difficulties involved in determination of true costs, but advocates the plan as a basis of substantial increases in tuition. "A fuller version of the problem of pricing of college services, presented in a 3-year study financed by the Ford Foundation, will be available in about a year. That version, which includes material not presented here, stresses the case for higher tuition on grounds of equity and practicality."

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158. and RUSSELL, JOHN DALE. Is Higher Tuition the Answer to the College Crisis? Sen. Schol. 76:18T-19T, Feb. 17, 1960. (Authors: (1) See No. 155; (2) Director, Office of Institutional Research, New York University.)

Two articles, pro and con. Dr. Harris favors higher tuition "simply because, on the most favorable assumptions on tapping alternative resources, we cannot find the $7 billion additional we need by 1970." Dr. Russell is opposed because raising tuition tends to "discourage or prevent large numbers of capable young people from attending college."

159. HOLLIS, ERNEST V. Trends in Tuition Charges and Fees. Higher Educ., 12: 69-71, Jan. 1956. (Author: With U.S. Office of Education.)

Tabulates tuition rates for 1,526 higher education institutions and shows trends for 15year period in 196 institutions each enrolling more than 2,000 students. "While tuition and fees have increased with the total of spiraling costs, they have not increased quite as rapidly Moreover, Internal Revenue data indicate that they have not increased as rapidly as individual or family incomes after the payment of Federal income tax."

156. as total costs. Pricing Higher Education. In Eastern Association of College and University Business Officers, Proceedings, 1958, p. 61-73. Followed by extensive panel discussion: "Meeting the Cost of Education: (1) The Institutional View; (2) The Students' View," (p. 74-112) in which Professor Harris participated. (Author: See No. 155.)

160. and Associates. Costs of Attending College: A Study of Student Expenditures and Sources of Income. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1957. (U.S. Office of Education, Bulletin, 1957, No. 9.) v,91 p. Summarized in articles by E. V. Hollis in Higher Educ., 13: 141-143, Apr. 1957; in Assoc. Amer. Coll. Bull., 43: 595-601, Dec. 1957; in NEA

Journal, 46: 543, Nov. 1957; and in Sch. Life, 40: 4-5, Dec. 1957. (Authors: With U.S. Office of Education.)

Based on questionnaire returns from random sample of 15,316 students in 110 institutions in 42 states. "The cost of attending undergraduate college during 1956-57 averaged $1,500 a school year at public institutions, and $2,000 at private ones . . . Students and their families paid more than three-fifths of the cost. . Scholarships accounted for slightly less than 5 percent of total income of all students." Bibliography, 25 titles.

161. If You Want Your Child To Go to College. U.S. News, 41: 46–51, July 27, 1956.

Gives detailed data on costs of board and room, tuition, and fees at 123 colleges and universities, arranged in 5 geographical groups: New England, 18 institutions; Middle Atlantic, 27; Southern, 28; Midwestern, 32; and Western, 18. Finds average costs at State universities, $805; at private colleges, $1,485.

162. JOHNS, RUTH and DUNSMOOR, G. C. College Costs, 1960. Bedford Hills, N.Y.: Board of Cooperative Educational Services, 1960. 11 p. (Authors: (1) Director of Guidance, Briarcliff High School, Briarcliff Manor, N.Y.; (2) Director, Board of Cooperative Educational Services Guidance Center, Bedford Hills, N.Y.)

Reports costs separately for tuition, fees, board, room, and books, and total typical costs, for 250 institutions classified in 4 groups: coeducational, men's, and women's 4-year colleges, and junior colleges. Total typical costs vary from $200 to $3,310. Addressed primarily to prospective llege students. Gives practical suggestions for meeting college expenses.

163. KIESSLING, OSCAR. College for Five-It's Murder! Sat. Eve. Post, 232: 25, 67-58, Jan. 30, 1960.

Personal experiences of a Government economist, with more than average income, in trying to finance college education for his five children. "Our five children will probably muddle through to bachelor's or master's degrees sooner or later regardless. But a lot of families won't be able to manage as well unless something is done to ease the financial load."

164. KING, FRANCIS P. Financing the College Education of Faculty Children. A Study Conducted by the Teachers In

surance and Annuity Association for the Fund for the Advancement of Education. New York: Henry Holt & Co., 1954. xii, 115 p. Summaries in different forms in AAUP Bull., 40: 401-433, Autumn 1954; in Educ. Record, 35: 281-285, Oct. 1954; and in Assoc. Amer. Coll. Bull., 40: 512-520, Dec. 1954. (Author: Research Associate, Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association.)

"This report deals with the problem college faculty members have in financing or otherwise providing for the undergraduate college education of their children." Based on interviews with college and university faculty members and administrative officers in 23 institutions, and upon data from various other sources. Details given in 18 tables and 8 charts. "As a result of this report, the Fund for the Advancement of Education made a grant to assist the Faculty Children's Tuition Exchange." Names of 73 institutions, members of the Exchange, given. Bibliography, 27 titles. Review by S. A. Nock, Coll. & Univ., 30: 77, Oct. 1954.

165. The First Year of the Tuition Exchange. Educ. Record, 36: 349-350, Oct. 1955. (Author: See No. 164.)

Reviews establishment of the Tuition Exchange for faculty children, reports its rapid first-year growth, stating number of Cooperating institutions than doubled from 72 to 165. Reports four lessons learned during first year of the organization.

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165a. LANSING, JOHN B.; LORIMER, THOMAS; and MORIGUCHI, CHIKASHI. How People Pay for College. Ann Arbor, Mich. : Survey Research Center, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, Sept. 1960. ix, 160 p.

"Concerned with one of the major sources of funds-parents who pay or help pay for the education of their own children. A primary purpose has been to discover how far in advance parents begin to plan for a college education for their children and how they raise the money to pay for it." Based upon interviews with 2,749 members of family units in 1959 and 1960. Reports that average annual expenses of unmarried college students in 1959-60 was $1,550 per year, of which "roughly 60 percent on the average is met from money contributed by their parents." Many details given in 52 tables and 9 charts.

166. LEWIS, LANORA G. Some Striking Relationships: Median Family Income,

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