« SebelumnyaLanjutkan »
HE EXAMPLES in this report show some of the possibilities for stretching the school experiences to meet the capacities of the more able children. Many teachers are constantly engaged in similar efforts intended to inspire and to help all children reach their own growth levels, the more able as well as the less able. But, willing as teachers are to do all they can to challenge above-average children, both teachers and children are hampered in their efforts to achieve unless the entire teaching-learning situation supports the children's growth.
Throughout the examples are scattered implications for administrative outlook and action
for pupil-teacher ratio which facilitates personalized teaching
for help to teachers in identifying the individual talents of children for classroom environments which are rich and varied in resources for learning
for easily available resources in central libraries and other school-materials centers from which teachers may draw to supplement classroom supplies in meeting children's learning needs
for preservice and inservice education of teachers to help them extend their proficiencies in subject matter areas, in understanding the interrelationships of knowledge, and in the use of teaching techniques which enable children to seek their own growth levels
for a professional school setting in which teachers are encouraged, even inspired, to try their own wings in meeting chidlren's growth needs.
There are implications for the teacher also
to understand growth and learning sufficiently to utilize the individual child's way of learning-the ways of seeing relationships which have personal meaning for him
to understand individual differences sufficiently to identify differences in children's educational needs and other needs which impinge upon learning
to understand the educational possibilities sufficiently to make adaptations to fit individual learners
to develop facility in using both individualized and group instruction in the required and voluntary or optional areas of the curriculum
to understand the subject-matter areas to the point where interrelationships are clarified, permitting the treatment of subjects integratively, with flexible flow from one area to another, or in separate categories when the situation calls for this
to cultivate the attitude of mutual learning; i.e., that the teacher as well as the children are learning much from the cooperative probing in which they are engaged
to develop a variety of approaches to teaching, so that the motivation can be made to suit the learner
to become well acquainted with the tools of teaching and learning: books, pictures, maps, globes; art, science, and arithmetic materials; trips, and all other resources, old or new, which can be mustered to aid the learning process to become sensitive to ways of keeping curiosity alive, of stimulating interest, of making education a joyous and rewarding, never-ending adventure for all. The examples carry many implications also for learning situations for children, particularly the more able
situations which invite and facilitate exploring, experimenting, searching, trying out, learning about the present, going beyond the present; thinking, relating, judging, being generally alert to the world, its processes, history, and events
in academic areas
in other areas, such as music, art, poetry, and the like
in an atmosphere of responsible and happy individual and social living intellectual curiosity which is captured and pursued in interests which in turn give rise to more curosity and activities designed to "find out"
skills which are developed as the learner seeks and finds information, differentiates between facts and opinions and facts and promotion, expresses and communicates knowledge and opinions, discusses with others in order to pool and clarify ideas, to reach common agreements or beliefs, or to make and carry out a program of action
responsible action by individual children toward achieving the goals set by themselves or by the group
experiences which produce self-satisfaction in growth and achievement along lines which the learner and people important to him consider significant.
The present report contains evidence that, in attempting to improve the education of the more able children, professionally trained school leaders and teachers do not begin at scratch. Developments in the past, particularly those in the last three or four decades, have contributed much to our understanding of how and what children learn, of the nature and extent of individuals differences, of how to organize schools and classrooms to the advantage of children, of how to organize subject-matter and learning experiences to meet individual differences among children, of psychological approaches to learning,
and of the effects of environmental factors on learning. As the members of a school staff examine the implications for good administration and good teaching which have been drawn from the school visits related in this bulletin, they will note much familiar ground. Real advantage will accrue to the children in our schools as efforts are made by the teaching profession to make all teaching-learning situations good ones.
Magazine Articles and Pamphlets
1. ABRAHAM, WILLARD. A Hundred Gifted Children. Understanding the Child, 26: 116-20, October 1957. Chapel Hill, N.C.: National Association for Mental Health, 1303 Mason Farm Road.
SOME SUGGESTED READINGS
2. BARBE, WALTER A. Characteristics of Gifted Children. Educational Administration and Supervision, 41: 207-217, April 1955. Baltimore: Warwick & York.
Reports some characteristics found as a result of a study of 100 children of 125 IQ, 7-13 years of age.
Presents a brief summary of research relating to the physical, mental, emotional, and social characteristics of gifted children. Quotes studies which indicate that in addition to their mental superiority, gifted children are generally superior in physique and general health, personality and character traits, and personal adjustment.
Evaluation of Special Classes for Gifted Children. Exceptional Children, 22: 60-73, November 1955. Washington: National Education Association, 1201 16th Street NW.
An evaluation of the Major Work Program in the public schools of
Helping Gifted Children. The Gifted Child, vol. III, No. 1, 4-9, 16, autumn 1959. Cincinnati, Ohio: The National Association for Gifted Children, 409 Clinton Springs Avenue.
Points out some characteristics of gifted children, some reasons for school problems, the values of counseling, and indicates some organizational patterns for educating the more able children.
5. BLOUCH, A. What Shall I Do Now? Social Education, 20: 369-70, December 1956. Washington: National Education Association.
Presents ideas for enrichment in the regular classroom.
6. CARPENTER, AUDREY F. More Than Plot. Elementary English, 34: 383-385, October 1957. Champaign, Ill.: National Council of Teachers of English, 704 South Sixth Street.
Librarian tells how she guided a group in reading.
7. FLIEGLER, LOUIS A. and CHARLES E. BISH. The Gifted and the Talented. Review of Educational Research, vol. 39, No. 5, 408-50, December 1959. Washington: National Education Association.
8. FOUST, CLARENCE. The Accommodation of Superior Students. Education Digest 22: 6-9, January 1957. Ann Arbor, Mich. : 330 Thompson Street. Cautions against too rigid identification of the gifted and against regimented learining. Favors guided independent study.
Reviews research up to date of publication, indicating major contributions of the past 6 years and causes for the recent upsurge of public interest; classifies studies under Portrait of the Gifted, Educational Provisions and Needed Research. The bibliography indicates the extent of recent research in this field.
9. FRAZIER, ALEXANDER. Talent and the School Environment. The Elementary School Journal, 60: 88-92, November 1959. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 5750 Ellis Avenue.
10. GALLAGHER, JAMES J. The Gifted Child in the Elementary School. Wash
ington: National Education Association, 1959. 32 p. Discusses in popular vein the intricacies of selecting and educating the gifted.
The director of the Center for School Experimentation, The Ohio State University, discusses three conditions necessary in the school environment for the development of talent: open versus limited learning, individual versus group learning, and thinking versus memorizing.
Peer Acceptance of Highly Gifted Children in Elementary School. The Elementary School Journal. 58: 465-470, May 1958. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 5750 Ellis Avenue.
and THORA CROWDER. The adjustment of Gifted Children in the Regular Classroom. Exceptional Children, 23: 306-312, April 1957.
Presents an analytical summary of 35 case studies of children of IQ of 150 or more educated in the regular classrooms.
13. GLENNON, VINCENT J. Arithmetic for the Gifted Child. The Elementary School Journal, 58: 91–96, November 1957.
"The growing and widespread use of unit teaching, reinforced with systematic instruction in arithmetic, offers the best hope for meeting the needs of the gifted child in arithmetic. The organization of classroom learning on a more democratic basis, with increased freedom on the part of the learner to participate with the teacher in planning the purposes, the experiences, the materials, and the evaluation of learning; the wide use of individual instruction; small-group and whole-class learning situations with flexibility in evidence in large degree-all will contribute toward creating and maintaining a learning atmosphere that will best provide for the gifted child as well as the average and the slow child."
The author shows that unit teaching is not enough; a designed program is also needed. Enrichment must be provided, whether "vertical" or "horizontal." The author suggests desirable experiences and materials.