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upon the Banks of the River in great Distress, and begged to be taken up and carried to Oswego.—The Traders being in Number but about Half a Dozen, were fearful of taking more than one of them in, and him they delivered to the Garrison.
This Repulse will doubtless check the Incursions of the French, shake their Indian Interest, strengthen our own, and secure our future Conroys in their Passage to Oswego.-Capt. Bradstreet's Gallantry and Conduct are justly Commended. The former, in his Defence of the Island, and the attack at the Swamp; and the latter in his prudent Disposition of the Remainder of the Battoemen, for securing his Rear, and preventing the Enemy from Surrounding his whole Party.–Nor did he receive any Help from our Indians.- The whole Number he had with him, was only Twelve.—Nine of these (such is the State of our Interest with them!) could not be brought to engage.—One went immediately over to the French, and informed them of our Numbers & Disposition. An Oneida Indian fought bravely thro' the whole Dispute but another Indian escaped to the Onondaga Castle, and spread a Report that Capt. Bradstreet was killed, & all his Battoemen defeated. I hope we shall in the ensuing Campaign, fully avenge the Loss we sustained on the Banks of Monaungahela.
DESCRIPTION OF OSWEGO_1756.
[Paris Doc. XII.)
Fort Ontario is situate at the right of the River in the middle of a very high plateau. It consists of a square of 30 toises (180 feet) a side, the faces of which, broken in the centre, are flanked by a redan placed at the point of the break. It is constructed of pickets 18 inches in diameter, smooth on both sides, very well joined the one to the other and rising 8 @ 9 feet from the ground. The ditch that encircles the fort, is 18 feet wide by 8 deep. The excavated earth had been thrown up en glacis on the counterscarp with a very steep slope over the berm (covered way). Loop holes and embrasures are formed in the pickets on a level with the carth thrown up on the berm and a scaffolding of carpenter's work extends all around so as to fire from above. It has eight guns and 4 mortars with double grenades.
1 That is, the East Bank
The old Fort Chouaguen, situate on the left (or west] bank of the River, consists of a house with galleries (machecoulis) with loopholes on the ground floor and principal story, the walls of which are three feet thick and encompassed at a distance of three toises (18 feet,] by another wall 4 feet thick and 10 high, loopholed and flanked by two large square towers. It has likewise a trench encircling, on the land side, the Fort where the enemy had placed 18 pieces of cannon and 15 mortars and howitzers,
Fort George is situate 300 toises beyond that of Choauguen on a hill that commanded it. It is of pickets and badly enough entrenched with earth on two sides.
JOURNAL OF THE SIEGE OF CHOUAGUEN,
COMMENCED THE 11th August 1756, AND CONCLUDED THE 14th AT
NIGHT; BY THE MARQUIS OF MONTCALM.
[Paris Doc. XII.)
On the arrival of the French Troops in Canada in the month of May, every disposition having been made for the Campaign, the Marquis of Vandreuil Governor General of New France detached a body of Colonial Troops and Militia towards the St. John River to harass the English and receive the remains of the Acadians driven from their Settlements, of whom those who had not been transplanted to the more distant English Colonies were wandering in the woods. Another detachment of observation of about 500 men was in the direction of Fort Lydius. The Queen's batallion and that of Langueiloc were encamped in front of Fort Carillon. Bearn was destined for Niagara; Guyenne for Frontenac, and Sieur de Villiers, Captain of a Colonial Troop, hung on the enemy and watched his movements towards the river Chouaguen, with
a corps of 700 men, Canadians and Indians. The defence of Fort du Quesne and the Belle Riviere (Ohio) was confided to a somewhat considerable party of Canadians and Savages, and Sieur Dumas, Commandant in that Quarter, had orders to retain with him all the Indians of the Upper Country whose rendezvous was at Presque isle, in case his posts were threatened; if not to send a part of them to Montreal.
Reinforcernents having arrived from France, Royal Rousillon was sent to Lake St Sacrement and La Sarre to Frontenac with the two French Engineers, also arrived this year, to the order of Sieur Colonel Bourlamaque, to erect new fortifications at that place, or rather an entrenched Camp which would have placed them beyond insult. Chevalier de Levis, Brigadier, was destined to command on Lake St Sacrement, and the Marquis de Montcalm, Field Marshal, to proceed to the quarter which may apparently be most threatened by the enemy.
Thus every thing seemed arranged for defence in different parts; on Lake Ontario, Lake St Sacrement, and the Belle Riviere. Some parties only of Canadians and Indians succeeded each other without intermission on the English frontiers exposed to their ravages, and they laid waste more especially Pensilvania, Virginia and Maryland.
Toward mid-June it clearly appeared from the report of the Indians sent out as scouts; from the depositions of several prisoners; from the vast preparations made at Albany and Fort Lydius, that the English had offensive intentions in the direction of the Point of Lake St Sacrement. Upon this intelligence, the Marquis de Montcalm proposed a diversion towards Lake Ontario for the purpose of attracting a portion of the enemy's forces thither, and consequently relieving La Pointe. This diversion was to be made, however, in such a way that the defensive could be changed into offensive, according to circumstances.
The Marquis de Vaudreuil had rever lost sight of the siege of Chouaguen a post important by its situation at the Mouth of the River of that name on Lake Ontario, the key of the Upper Country by its communication with the Five Nations, Albany and the river Hudson ; defended by three forts-Fort Ontario on the right bank of the River, Forts George and Chouaguen on the left bank, as well as a species of Crown work, in earth, serving as an intrenched Camp, having also a good port and a well sheltered harbour. But this siege so important to the Colony did not seem feasible this Campaign, the season being already far advanced, the preparation which this expedition required being very great, the distance considerable and transportation not being accomplished except with difficulties and endless delays across a country having no other roads but rivers, filled with falls and rapids, and lakes rendered frequently impassable to batteaux in consequence of the violence of the waves. • Sieur Bigot, Intendant of Canada, arrived at this conjuncture at Montreal; took upon himself the collection of munitions of war of all sorts, and of provisions—the despatch of convoys and their uninterrupted supply. The diversion towards Chouaguen was then determined on with the design to besiege it, if the condition of that place, or the carelessness of the enemy permitted.
Sieur de Rigaud de Vaudreuil, Governor of Three Rivers was, accordingly sent with a fresh body of Colonial troops and Indians to assume command of Sieur de Villiers' Camp, established at Niaouré bay about 15 leagues from Chouaguen ; Sieur de Bourlamaque received orders to commence at Fort Frontenac whatever preparations he may deem necessary ; Sieur Decombles, Engineer, to proceed with a detachment of Canadians and Savages to recon· noitre Chouaguen; and to conceal the project from the enemy, the Marquis de Montcalm departed 27th June with Chevalier de Levis for Fort Carillon. The defensive positions to be adopted in this quarter; the fortifications erecting at Carillon; the movements of the enemy at Fort Lydius and Albany; all these reasons justified the Marquis of Montcalm's presence at Lake St Sacrement. This General remained there only long enough to make the necessary arrangements and put the English on the wrong scent. He placed the defence of that frontier in the hands of Chevalier de Levis with a corps of 3000 men; returned on 15th July to Montreal where he arrived on the 19th; received there his last Instructions and set out again on the 21st and arrived at Frontenac on the
2911. Bearn's batallion' had already received orders to repair thither from Niagara, and Sieur Mercier Commander of Artillery had arrived there two days before.
Having made those preparations inseparable from a new expedition in this country, which consequently presents difficulties unknown in Europe, and provided every thing necessary to secure a retreat in case superior forces rendered this inevitable, orders were given to two barks—one of 12, and the other of 16 guns—to cruize in the latitude of Chouaguen. A corps of Scouts, Canadians and Indians, were sent on the road between the latter place and Albany, to intercept Runners.
The Marquis de Montcalm left Frontenac on the 4th August with the first division of the army consisting of De la Sarre's and De Guyenne's batallions and four pieces of cannon. He arrived on the 6th at the Bay of Niaouré, which the Marquis de Vaudreuil had designated as the rendezvous of all the Troops, and where the second division composed of Bearn's batallion, of the Militia, of 80 batteaux of Artillery and provisions arrived on the 8th. The number of troops destined for the expedition was nearly 3000 men -to wit, de la Sarre's, Guyenne's and Bearn's batallions amounting to only 1300 men; the remainder, soldiers of the Colony, Militiamen and Indians.
Sieur de Rigaud's corps, destined as the vanguard, set out on the same day to advance to a cove called, L'anse aux Cabanes (Wigwam Cove)3 within three leagues of Chouaguen. The first division having arrived there on the 10th at two o'clock in the morning, the vanguard proceeded four hours afterwards across the woods to another Cove situated half a league from Chouaguen
1 Supposed to be a part of the celebrated Irish Brigade, then in the French service, and mentioned in the Deposition of a French Deserter, post p. 504; Bearn's batallion was between 400 and 500 men.
2 Another account says-" Orders came for the Regiment of La Sarre to proceed to the Bay of Niaouré. . . We proceeded on the 29th to encamp at l'Isle aux Aillo and arrived at the rendezvous on the 30th. . , . We had orders to send back our batteaux to Frontenac for Guyenne's and Bearn's Regiment and the Artillery."
3 Now, Sandy Creek Bay, "We marched all the night of the 9th and 10th, (says another account) when we joined Mr. Rigaud at Wigwam Cove. The army bivouacked at the Rivière aux Sables,” now, Sandy Creek, Oswego co.