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Alsoe very often shipps bound to this place break bulk there @ run their guods into that Colony with intent afterwards to import the same privately @ at more leisure into this Province notwithstanding their oath, they salving themselves wiib this evasion that that place is not in this Goverm', To day an Interloper landed five tun@ one half of teeth there, to prevent all which inconveniences @ for the securing of this place from enemys, I desire to have an order to make up a small Fort with twelve guns apon Sandy-Hook the channell there being soe near the shore that noe vessel can goe in nor out but shee must come soe neare the Point that from on board one might toss a buiscuit cake on shore
If the Proprietors would rightly consider it they would find it their own interest that that place should bee annexed to this Goverment for they are at a greater charge for maintaining the present Goverme than the whole profits of the Province (which is by quit rents) will amount unto; for they are at the whole charge the Country allowing nothing towards its support see that had they not the charge of the Govermt, they might put that money into their own pockets
And indeed to make Amboy a port will be no less inconvenient for the reasons afore mentioned neighboring colonys being not come to that P'fection but that one fort may sufficiently serve us all Durys to We in this Government look upon that bay that runs Soody into the Sea at Sandy Hook to be Hudsons River Iberfore there being a clause in my instructions directing mee that I cause all vessels that come into Hudson's River to enter at New York I desire to know whether his Maty intends thereby those vessels that come within Sandy-Hook, the people of East-Jersey pretendling a right to the river soe farr as their province extends which is eighteen miles up the river to the northward of this place
West Jersey remaining as it does will be no less inconvenient to this Goverm for the san.e reasons as East Jersey, they both making but one neck of land @ that so near sitiuate to us that its more for their convenience to have commerce here than any where else, @ under those circumstances that if there were a wari
either with Christians or Indians they would not bee able to defend themselves without the assistance of this Govermt.
To bec short, there is an absolute necessity those provinces and that of Connecticut be annexed
The three lower Countys of Pennsylvania have been a dependency on this place @ a great many of the inhabitants persons that removed thither from this Goverint and I doe not believe it was his Matys intention to annex it to Pennsylvania, nor to have it subject to the same laws it being the King's own land, the doing whereof by mr Pen there has been of great detriment to this place in hindring the Tobacco to come hither as formerly, for then there came two shipps for one that comes now; Beaver @ Peltry taking up but small Stowage in shipps
And indeed it were in my opinion very necessary for the advantage of this place @ increase of his Matys revenues that it were soe ordered that the Tobacco of these countrys may bee imported hither without paying there the duty of one penny pi pound and then wee should not bee at such streights for returns, their trade would much increase, and this place become a mayazin for the Neighboring provinces, @ care taken that the Tobacco bee duly returned to England whereas now a great part of it goes another way @ soe its very necessary that the Collector of this place should be Collector of that River for the enumerateil commoditys, And wee will have such regard to the advantage of this port that we'el suffer noe fraud to bee committed there nor noe Tobacco to be exported but what goes either directly for England or this place.
Besides wee find the contrary to bee very inconvenient in this that whereas formerly the damnified Tobacco which came from thence not fit for England wee made up in rolls and sent ye same up the River to the Indians who in Exchange gave in Beaver @ Peltry, for want whereof his Matys revenue here is much impaired inasmuch as the Indians are therefore forct either to Plant the tobacco themselves or to goe where they can be furnished with it @ there carry their beavor @peltry (they being of that temper that they had rather want clothes than Tobacco) by which Meanes his Matys revenue sustains a double loss, one in the ten per cent such tobacco pays custom up the river @ the other in the custom of such Beaver @ peltry as the same would produce
Further if Pennsylvania bee continued as by charter running five degrees to the westward it will take in the most of the five nations that lye to the westward of Albany @ the whole Beaver @ Peltry trade of that place the consequence whereof will be the depopulation of this Govermt for the people must follow the trade. Those Indians and the people of this Govermt have been in continued peace @ amity one with another these fifty years And those Indians about forty years agoe did annex their lands to this Governmt @ have ever since constantly renewed the same with every Governor that has been here both in the time of the Dutch @ the English @ in particular to myself who have given them largely in consideration of their lands And I am certainly informed that they have declared they will go @ live on ye other side of the lake than be under any other Govermt on this than ours, Endeavors have been used (tho to noe purpose) to p’suade some of our Traders who speak the language to goe and live upon the Susquehanna river tho I cannot yet find out by whom this has been made.
The five Indian nations are the most warlike people in America, @ are a bulwark between us @ the French @ all other Indians they goe as far as the South Sea the North West passage @ Florida to warr. New England in their last warr with the Indians had been ruined had not Sr Edmund Andros sent some of those nations to their assistance, and indeed they are soe considerable that all the Indians in these parts of America are tributary to them. I suffer no Christians to converse with them any where but at Albany @that not without my license
Since I came here the people of Boston have sent them presents in acknouledgement of their favor @ friendship. @ I was forc't to goe with my Lord Effingham to bury his hatchet and theirs which is their way of making a peace
I have sent herewith what the nations that conquered Indian propo
the Susquehannas desired of the King in my Lord Ef
fingham's presence and I believe it to be of dangerous consequence if denyed
sal and present.
This Governmt has always been and still is at a great charge to keep them peaceable @ annexed to this government which is of that moment that upon any occasion I can have three or four thousand of their men at a call.
I cannot believe that ever it was the King's intention to grant away soe considerable a part of this government which has been
so long appropriated to it @ even the people think it for the Beaver as a part of themselves @ would be much troubled at
a separation from soe good @ ancient neighbours that at first of their own free wills became soe and have ever since continued with such constancy to desire and maintain a mutual friendship and correspondence If therefore his Maty were pleased to have a line run from 410 and 40 m in Delaware River to the Falls upon the Susquehanna and to let Mr. Pen keep all below that it would be sufficient for him the bounds below it being conjectured to contain more than all England besides the louer Countys which is near upon 100 miles from the Cape up the river ; and in bredth more than 30 miles as is generally beleeved
To preserve the Beaver @ Peltry trade for this @ Albany and to be an encouragement to our Beaver hunters I desire I may bave order to erect a Campayne Fort upon Delaware River in 410 40 m; another upon the Susquehanna where his Maty shall think fit Mr. Penns bounds shall terminate. And another at Oneigra near the great lake in the way where our people goe a Beaver hunting or trading or any where else where I shall think convenient it being very necessary for the support of Trade, maintaining a correspondence with the further Indians, @ in securing our right in the country the French making a pretence as far as the Bay of Mexico, for which they have no other argument than that they have had possession this twenty years by their fathers living so long among the Indians they have fathers still among the five nations aforementioned viz. the Maquaes, Sinicaes, Cayouges, Oneides, and Onondagues @ have converted many of them to the Christian Faith @ doe their utmost to draw them to Canada, to which place there are already 6 or 700 retired and more like to doe, to the great prejudice of this Govermt if not prevented. I have done my endeavours @ have gone so far in it that I have
Indians from prevailed with the Indians to consent to come back
from Canada on condition that I procure for them a piece of land called Serachtague lying upon Hudson's River about 40 miles above Albany @ there furnish them with pricsts
Thereupon and upon a petition of the people of Albany to mee setting forth the reasonableness and conveniency of granting to the Indians there requests I have procured the land for them, altho it has been formerly patented to people at Albany @ have promised the Indians that they shall have priests and that I will build them a church @ have assured the people of Albany that I would address to his Maty as 10 your Lo’ps that care may bee taken to send over by the first five or six it being a matter of great consequence.
These Indians have about 10 or 12 castles (as they term them) @ those at a great distance one from another, soe that there is an absolute necessity of having soe many priests, that there bee three always travelling from castle to castle, @ the rest to live with those that are Christians, By that means the French Priests will be obliged to retire to Canada, whereby the French will be divested of their pretence to ye Country @ then wee shall enjoy that trade without any fear of being diverted,
I find a very small matter will serue the French for a pretence of right. About 30 years ago 6 or 700 of them taking allvantage of the Indians being abroad soe farr as Cape Florida at warr came down @ burnt a castle of the Maquaes wherein there were none but old men women @ children which the rest of the Indians hearing pursued the French to a place called Sconectade about 20 miles above Albany where they had every man been cut off had not one Corlarr (a Dutchman so beloved of the Indians that in memory of him they call all Governors by that name, interposed
However from that time they have fancied to themselves that they have a right to the country so farr as that place
The great difference between us is about the Beaver trade and in truth they have the advantage of us in it @ that by noe other meanes than by their industry in making discoveries in the country before us
Before my coming bither noe man of our Governmt ever went