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as well as unrefined oil. The merchandise in question is refined cocoanut oil, and consequently it is entitled to free entry unless it is more specifically provided for elsewhere. The Circuit Court and the Board of Appraisers apparently held that the merchandise was properly assessed for duty as “cocoa butterine” because the importers had failed to show that it was not suitable for use as a substitute for cocoa butter. We are by no means certain that the importers, having shown that the provision of the free list applied to this article, were obliged to go further and offer evidence to negative the application of the cocoa butterine paragraph. Refined and unrefined cocoanut oil might both be used as substitutes for cocoa butter without making “cocoa butterine” a more specific designation for them than “cocoanut oil.” But, assuming that the burden was upon the importers to show the nonapplication of the “cocoa butterine” paragraph, we think that they sustained it. We are fully satisfied from the evidence that refined cocoanut oil is not cocoa butterine, and that if it could be used as a substitute for cocoa butter, still it is more specifically described in the provision of the free list than in paragraph 282 (Act July 24, 1897, c. 11, § 1, Schedule G, 30 Stat. 172 [U. S. Comp. St. 1901, p. 1652]). The case of United States v. Oriental American Co. (C. C.) 129 Fed. 249, T.D. 25,179, is directly in point and is approved. The decision of the Circuit Court is reversed.

E. L. WATROUS MFG. CO. W. AMERICAN HARDWARE MFG. CO. (Circuit Court of Appeals. Seventh Circuit. January 5, 1910.) No. 1,526.

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PATENTs (§ 328*)—INFRINGEMENT—Door CIIECK AND CLoser. The Bailey patent, No. 652,828, for a door check and closer, as limited by its terms to meet the requirements of the Patent Office, in view of the prior art, held not infringed.

Appeal from the Circuit Court of the United States for the Northern District of Illinois.

Suit in equity by the E. L. Watrous Manufacturing Company against the American Hardware Manufacturing Company. Decree for defendant (161 Fed. 362), and complainant appeals. Affirmed.

The bill in the court below was to restrain the infringement of letters patent No. 652,828, issued to Herbert L. Bailey, July 3, 1900, for an improvement in door checks and closers. Upon hearing, the bill was dismissed for want of equity. The facts are stated in the opinion.

Wallace R. Lane, for appellant.
Henry L. Clapp, for appellee.

Before GROSSCUP, BAKER, and SEAMAN, Circuit Judges.

*For other cases see same topic & $ NUMBER in Dec. & Am. Digs. 1907 to date, & Rep'r Indexes

GROSSCUP, Circuit Judge. Appellant's patent is illustrated in the following diagram:

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The operation of the device patented is clearly described in the descriptive portion of the patent, especially when read in connection with Fig. 4 of the diagram, as follows: "Referring by letter to the accompanying drawings, A indicates the door. frame; B, a pin or projection depending from the top of the frame ; C, the door ; D.a bracket secured to the inner side of the door near the top thereof, and E à bifurcated jaw pivoted to the bracket and adapted and arranged to engage the pin B upon the door-frame when the door is closed. The pivoted bifurcated

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jaw is provided with an angular tailpiece or projection É, adapted and ar. ranged to engage a shoulder G upon the bracket when the jaw is swung out or extending in position to engage the pin on the door as the door swings to. A spiral spring H is secured at its ends, respectively, to the bracket and to the jaw at such points as that it shall swing across the dead-center formed by its two points of attachment and the pivot connecting the jaw to the bracket, so that when the jaw is open—that is, swung out in the position shown in Fig. 3—the contractile force of the pring tends to yieldingly maintain the jaw in such position. When, however, the jaw is forcibly swung upon its pivot, as by engagement therewith of the pin B, as soon as the jaw has swung sufficiently for the spring to pass the dead-center the contractile force thereof will tend to draw the jaw inward to the position illustrated in Fig. 2. This tendency of the spring causes the device to forcibly close the door after the door has been checked by the engagement of the jaw with the pin B, the checking force resulting from force necessary to swing the spring across the dead-center. Of course when the door is forcibly drawn open the jaw will be caused to swing out again in the opposite direction, and the shape of the notch therein and the location of the pin B are such that at the time the jaw becomes disengaged from the pin the jaw will have been swung outward on its pivot until the spring H has passed the dead-center, when the parts will be retained in this position until the door is again closed."

The functions of the device are to use the spring, first, as a buffer, to resist the strength of the slam of the door, and secondly, as a means to pull the door shut, and to hold it shut—these functions being brought about in succession by the arrangement of the spring and the frog, whereby, due to the angle of the frog, the pressure of the spring is exerted against the forcible closing of the door until the dead center has been passed, but the dead center passed, the tension of the spring is exerted toward drawing the door shut and holding it shut.

Bailey's claim, as originally filed and as subsequently allowed (the interlineations and the erasures indicating the changes in the claim as originally applied for, and showing it as finally allowed), is as follows:

“In a door check and closer, the combination with a bracket secured to the near the upper edge thereof

depending from the top of the door frame door and a pin or projection on the door from me jucand Where of a bifurcated jaw pivoted to the bracket and adapted and arranged to engage said pin, a spring secured at its ends, respectively, to said jaw and bracket so as to swing across the dead center when the jaw is swung upon its pivot and a stop for said jaw, substantially as described."

The original claim being disallowed on the following citations :

"Becker, #354,087, Dec. 14, 1836, Door Checks and Closers, and Mallory, #512,202, Jany. 2, 1894, 'Door Checks-Trippers' and German patent to Hoing, #86,732, Door Checks. The most that applicant has done is to add the spring of Mallory to the device of Hoing."

Thereupon the amendments were made, as indicated in the insertions and erasures.

An inspection of these patents, and of the patent of Conklin, No. 589,418, and the English patent of Schou, No. 10,955, convinces us that the claim, as thus filed, was too broad-Mallory, Conklin and Schou clearly embodying the functions and the arrangement of angle and frog, whereby, upon the passing of the dead center, the line of draft is changed, as above set forth. The mechanical adjustments, only, are somewhat different, and by amending the claim upon these citations, Bailey has limited himself to the mechanical respects in which his device differs from the preceding devices.

Considering the Bailey patent, therefore, as a limited one, the Wells device, patent No. 770,837, does not answer to the call of his claim. True, it reaches the same result, and through the performance by the device of the same functions, but in this larger respect it follows only the prior art. It does not use a bracket secured to the door “near the upper edge thereof” (and this is one of the amendments that saved the Bailey patent in the Patent Office from citations of the prior art); nor is "a pin or projection depending from the top of the door frame" employed to engage with the jaw-another amendment that saved the Bailey patent in the Patent Office from the prior art. The Bailey patent, in terms being so limited and made so to meet the requirements of the Patent Office--we are not at liberty to enlarge or alter it.

The decree of the Circuit Court is affirmed.

JONES et al. v. F. A. HARDY & CO.
(Circuit Court of Appeals, Seventh Circuit. January 4, 1910.)

No. 1,557.
PATENTS (8 328*)-INFRINGEMENT-EYEGLASSES.

The Finch patent, No. 666,928, for eyeglasses, construed, and held not infringed. Appeal from the Circuit Court of the United States for the Eastern' Division of the Northern District of Illinois..

Suit in equity by Edwin T. Jones and others against F. A. Hardy & Co. Decree for defendants, and complainants appeal. Affirmed. For opinion below, see 162 Fed. 320. H. P. Doolittle and Wm. M. Stockbridge, for appellants. L. M. Hopkins, for appellees. Before GROSSCUP, BAKER, and SEAMAN, Circuit Judges. BAKER, Circuit Judge. Appellants' bill for alleged infringement of patent No. 666,928, January 29, 1901, to Finch, assignor, was dismissed for want of equity on the ground that appellees' device did not infringe.

The claim reads: "In eyeglasses the combination, with the eyeglass-frame or lens-mountings, of a bridge having bends at the extremities of its bow portion, said bends be ing substantially perpendicular to the plane of the lenses, and projections extending forwardly from the bends to the frame or lens-mountings, and springheld lever-arms extending across the bridge, and suitably fulcrumed on the frame or mountings, their ipner extremities or nose-pieces being normally spring-pressed toward the bow of the bridge, whereby there is co-operative gripping action between the pose-pieces of the lever-arms and the bow of the bridge, in a plane substantially perpendicular to that of the lenses."

The bridge described in the claim is the “saddle-bridge” of the prior art, quite generally used in spectacles; that is, in glasses having holding-arms that extend back over the ears of the wearer. Spring-held lever-arms, with nose-pieces at the inner ends thereof, were likewise old, and had frequently been used in eyeglasses or "nose-pincers." We find it unnecessary to set forth the prior art in relation to the controversy whether Finch was broadly entitled to a monopoly of the For other cases see some topic & $ NUMBER in Dec. & Am. Digs. 1907 to date, & Rep'r Indexen

combination of the saddle-bridge and spring-operated nose-pieces, for such a combination is not broadly claimed. The claim is distinctly limited to that combination of the elements in which there is a cooperative gripping action between the saddle-bridge and nose-pieces in a plane substantially perpendicular to that of the lenses. What kind of construction would afford this action is not set forth in the claim. We must therefore turn from the claim to the disclosure. Therein Finch said: “My improvement embraces the combination of a saddle-bridge and a leverguard having but a small bearing surface, namely, the disk, 10. The said bridge, which extends well down on the nose on both sides, supports the glasses, while the guard maintains the bridge in place and prevents the glasses from turning or falling forward. The small area of the guard-disk is amply sufficient for this purpose. The lever-guards heretofore used have been provided with a long bearing-surface which grips the nose on opposite sides and in Some instances causes such irritation that the eyeglasses cannot be worn.”

Finch's idea, as we gather it from reading the claim in connection with the specification, was that the saddle-bridge should support the eyeglasses just as it supported the spectacles, and that, just as the arms of the spectacles extending back over the ears in a plane substantially perpendicular to that of the lenses held the saddle-bridge firmly in place, so should his spring-operated nose-pieces by pulling back in a plane substantially perpendicular to that of the lenses hold the saddlebridge firmly in place. This result was to be obtained and the objections to the long bearing-surfaces were to be obviated by the use of small bearing-surfaces that should grip the soft part of the nose between the eyes, and by their forward motion in the plane perpendicular to that of the lenses should draw the saddle-bridge back against the noSe. .

The action of appellants, who are extensive manufacturers of eyeglasses, in marketing saddle-bridge eyeglasses only in connection with spring-operated nose-pieces having long bearing-surfaces, might be considered as corroboration of appellees' expert's opinion that the combination of the Finch patent was for all practical purposes inoperative. But we will not pursue that inquiry, because appellees do not use the invention as we have defined it. Appellees' eyeglasses have the elongated nose-pieces which afford support independently of the bridge—a combination of saddle-bridge and nose-pieces beyond the letter and the spirit of Finch's patent.

The decree is affirmed.

MORGAN ENGINEERING CO. v. ALLIANCE MACH. CO. (Circuit Court of Appeals, Sixth Circuit. November 2, 1909.) No. 1,917. 1. PATENTs (§ 165*)—CoNSTRUCTION.—AdvantAGEs Not CLAIMED. A patentee is entitled to have his patent considered with reference to

an advantage over the prior art necessarily secured by the operation of the device as described, even though such advantage is not specifically claimed.

[Ed. Note.—For other cases, see Patents, Cent. Dig. § 241; Dec. Dig. § 165.”]

•For other cases see same topic & $ NUMBER in Dec. & Am. Digs. 1907 to date, & Rep'r Indexes

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