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Even in the States most affected there seems to be a growing mood in the direction of compliance with the Court's ruling, provided this can be done gradually. More and more its necessity and rightness are being recognized.

However, some of the apparent mood of acceptance is potential. Many are uncommitted and may be won over by the propaganda and other measures promoted by organized prosegregation groups. In many places the opposition is vocal and tends to get headlines in the press, radio, and television out of proportion to its real strength. In other places opposition is secret and potentially dangerous to law and order.

Responsible leaders of both races recognize the complexities which face genuine efforts to implement the decision and show a disposition to seek and follow constructive and cooperative measures.

The possibilities of peaceful and steady desegregation are enhanced by integration movements within churches, social welfare agencies, public and private graduate schools, and community groups which preceded the ruling and helped prepare the hearts and minds of many to accept it.

Since the decision was announced, cooperation of church and civic groups to promote its acceptance, as an expression of American democratic ideals and religious faith, has reached a new high and has been singularly effective in some communities.

Proper channels for communication and cooperation between all racial groups in each community are necessary for constructive discussion and action. Such channels exist in only a relatively few of the communities most affected by the ruling.

In many places the possibilities of this constructive communication are inhibited by custom, law, or fear of reprisals. These customs, laws, and fears affect both races, even though they are felt most severely by Negroes.

Absence of adequate opportunities for constructive association, discussion, and cooperation tends to create a vacuum which may attract headline seekers and persons with selfish ambitions who will exploit the situation and create preventable strife and tension.

Everywhere there is a need for informed, wise, unselfish leadership, typical of consecrated Christians. This need presents both an opportunity and an obligation.

IV. NEW DUTIES FOR NEW OCCASIONS-A STATEMENT OF GUIDING PRINCIPLES, POLICIES, AND PRACTICAL SUGGESTIONS

"New occasions teach new duties." God, as revealed in Jesus Christ, summons us to a dynamic application of His Holy Word to the needs and problems of each day. As the God of history, He speaks to us through the events of history.

A MATTER OF LAW

The Supreme Court of the United States of America, the highest legal authority of the Nation, has declared "that in the field of public education the doctrine of 'separate but equal' has no place. Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal." It has ruled, therefore, that racial segregation in public schools is unconstitutional and illegal.

Law and order are essential to the stability and sanctity of home and church and the free institutions of the Nation, indeed, and to the life of the Nation itself.

A MATTER OF RELIGIOUS CONVICTION

The Court's ruling is more than a matter of law and order; it is also a matter of religious faith and democratic principles. Among all these vital aspects, the religious and moral are primary. They are more fundamental than law or political conviction.

The ruling is a matter of Christian faith and morals because it has to do with the will of God and the welfare and destiny of human beings. It affects not only those granted relief by the Court, but it touches the life of every person who dwells within the jurisdiction of the Court.

The vital nerve of the Court's action is that it stems from and affirms the Divine origin of all men. In declaring that segregation is inherently unequal, it affirms the equality of all men as human beings, and the sacredness of human personality in the eyes of God.

CIVIL RIGHTS-1959

CIVIL RIGHTS-1959

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(2) Even where equal in these tangible aspects, they have been unequal in the most basic intangible factors which affect the healthy growth of personality and the development of individual faculties and responsibility,

(3) The psychological effects of racial school segregation are as detrimental to whites as to Negroes.

The harmful feelings of inferiority which it engenders in Negro children and
teachers and parents are matched by feelings of superiority which are equally
harmful from a religious point of view. "Lord I thank Thee that I am not
like other men.” (Luke 18: 10.)
These facts, judged in the light of Christian faith and principles, lead us to
the conclusion that the Court's decision is just and right and necessary. We
conimend this conclusion to all churchmen and others.

GOD CALLS US

Our attitude toward this decision reveals our real belief about God, about ourselves, and about all mankind.

God creates all men-of all sorts and conditions-in His own image. This image is spiritual and moral, not physical. In this basic humanity all are equal and may not be denied the rights and obligations which go with it, without offending God. God did not create some men in His image and others in soune inferior mold. All men, regardless of race or color, have immortal souls

, and are equally dear to Him.

God has made each part of His creation for a purpose and each part has a contribution to make the whole. “The eye cannot say unto the hand, I have no need of thee; nor again the head to the feet, I have no need of you. Nay, much more those members of the body which seem to be more feeble are necessary. (I Corinthians 12: 21-22.)

This is a cardinal belief of all Christians who truly understand the life and teaching of our Lord Jesus Christ, who taught us to pray to our Father. It is not an optional belief. It is not a matter of opinion. It is a cornerstone of Christian faith. It is this conviction that all men are created by God, that alone gives point to our use of the Lord's Prayer. It alone gives meaning to the Christian idea that all men are brothers.

In Christ, God revealed Himself in human form (John 1: 14), and by that very act reaffirmed the sacredness of human personality, the dignity and worth of each person. And,

as if to make the point crystal clear, He identified Himself with all those despised and rejected by men. Jesus made His identification with all men explicit when He declared : "Inasmuch as to one * * * me." (Matthew 25:40.)

God's incarnation calls us all to a new relationship through Him with all men. His death and resurrection assure the possibility of redemption for all. This new relationship with all men is a requirement not an elective. "By this all men will know that you are My disciples, if you have love for one another." (John 13: 35.)

“Thy kingdom come” (Matthew 6: 10). Our daily prayer for the kingdom is fulfilled in part wherever men discover and experience this new relationship in Christ Jesus.

"If anyone is in Christ, he is a new creation; the old is passed away, behold the new has come.”

(Corinthians 5: 17.) Segregation breaks the relationship to which we are called in Christ, engendering in the hearts of some the hurt of humiliation, in the hearts of others the damage of pride. “Ye are all one in Christ Jesus” (Galatians 3: 28.) This oneness is broken by racial segregation, hate, frustration, or fear.

More than this, the Court's decision has to do specifically and primarily with the welfare of children. "Whoever shall offend one of these little ones it were better for him that a millstone were hanged about his neck ** thew 18: 6.) children? Who can deny that indoctrinating children with false ideas of supe

Who can no longer deny that inferior schools are an offense to riority is an offense to them, according to the teaching of our Lord and Saviour, Jesus Christ? An equal chance to lifé, liberty, and the pursuit of bappiness is the minimum each child should have.

you do it unto

Through this decision, God calls the church and churchmen again, with loving concern, to repentance and obedience. We are called to repentance for what we have done, individually and as members of groups, to maintain or extend racial divisions : repentance for what we have not done to bring healing in the name of Jesus Christ ; and repentance for what we have done, in an unloving manner, to remore barriers. Each of us must ask himself: "What is my particular sin in this situation?"

We are called to obedience in the first instance, and primarily to God. He speaks in our hearts through conscience and the fellowship of the church. The obedience which we owe under the law of man is as nothing in comparison with that we owe in Christ. Let us fear the judgment of God more than the judgment of men. Obedience to God may lead us through suffering, even as it led Jesus Christ through Calvary. His resurrection is our assurance that obedience also leads to Gol's victory in and through Jesus Christ.

We are called then in a new and compelling way to give fresh and dramatic Fitness, in our personal and church life and work, of the unity of God's people which links together with the golden cord of love the most diverse and different of God's children.

We cannot be content with any private sense of piety which may flow from a consciousness of our own good will. We must strive in church and community to secure freedom, equal justice, and security from the fear of racial hatred.

SOME GUIDING PRINCIPLES AND POLICIES

(Mat

A MATTER OF DEMOCRACY

In a peculiar and basic way, public schools in a democracy are evidence of this equal chance or the lack of it. Education—in knowledge, in character, in productive skills, in democracy—is the foundationstone of mature personality growth and responsible

citizenship. Knowledge, character, productive skills, and democracy are matters of experience, perhaps even more than of facts, Therefore, public schools

, open to ai, are vital to the democratic health of the

We declare our approval and pledge our support to the decision of the Supreme Court. To give substance to this approval and pledge, we commend to ourselves and to all Christians certain basic approaches and policies as guides toward constructive thinking, positive relationships, and Christian action : 8

(1) All races are responsible for seeking and applying a Christian solution to their mutual problems, regardless of initial responsibility.*

(2) Leaders of all races are concerned and have a vital and necessary contribution to make. Consequently, those now in charge of school and community affairs are not alone in their concern for a peaceful solution, nor do they alone have the wisdom to work toward that end. Responsible and representative leaders of all races should be included from the outset in the councils which seek to effect desegregation.*

13) Individual churchmen have an obligation to seek constructive contacts and to create and utilize channels for discussion and cooperation in the community. Through this means we may build personal relationships and conmunications which are so often absent.

(4) Every churchman is clearly called to work unceasingly to create and foster genuine Christian fellowship between races in his own congregation and church school, in hospitals, homes, and institutions, and in every aspect of the church's life.

(5) Parents have a special opportunity and responsibility to set an example for their children, and to help them grow up free from prejudice and ill will. They can help instill a deep respect for all men and a firm conviction about the sacredness of the rights of persons.*

Nation.

EACH MUST DECIDE From a religious point of view, all Christians must answer the same question the Court has answered from a legal point of view : Does racial segregation rio

which convictions are written into the political creed of the Natione

legal question, that is, on the basis of actual facts and experience. Facts and

We can answer this religious question only as the Court has answered the experience point to three general conclusions: tarily equal in facilities and resources and seldom equal in these respects eren

(1) Where schools are segregated they are separate but almost never solun

when under court order.

& The starred items are in substance the same as those set forth as guiding policies by the Department of Christian Social Relations of the Diocese of Mississippi, August 1954, in its publication, "The Church and the Supreme Court Decision."

(2) Even where equal in these tangible aspects, they have been unequal in the most basic intangible factors which affect the healthy growth of personality and the development of individual faculties and responsibility.

(3) The psychological effects of racial school segregation are as detrimental to whites as to Negroes.

The harmful feelings of inferiority which it engenders in Negro children and teachers and parents are matched by feelings of superiority which are equally harmful from a religious point of view. "Lord I thank Thee that I am not like other men." (Luke 18: 10.)

These facts, judged in the light of Christian faith and principles, lead us to the conclusion that the Court's decision is just and right and necessary. We commend this conclusion to all churchmen and others.

GOD CALLS US

Through this decision, God calls the church and churchmen again, with loving concern, to repentance and obedience. We are called to repentance for what we have done, individually and as members of groups, to maintain or extend racial divisions; repentance for what we have not done to bring healing in the name of Jesus Christ; and repentance for what we have done, in an unloving manner, to remove barriers. Each of us must ask himself: “What is my particular sin in this situation?"

We are called to obedience in the first instance, and primarily to God. He speaks in our hearts through conscience and the fellowship of the church. The obedience which we owe under the law of man is as nothing in comparison with that we owe in Christ. Let us fear the judgment of God more than the judgment of men.

Obedience to God may lead us through suffering, even as it led Jesus Christ through Calvary. His resurrection is our assurance that obedience also leads to God's victory in and through Jesus Christ.

We are called then in a new and compelling way to give fresh and dramatic witness, in our personal and church life and work, of the unity of God's people which links together with the golden cord of love the most diverse and different of God's children.

We cannot be content with any private sense of piety which may flow from a consciousness of our own good will. We must strive in church and community to secure freedom, equal justice, and security from the fear of racial hatred.

SOME GUIDING PRINCIPLES AND POLICIES

We declare our approval and pledge our support to the decision of the Supreme Court. To give substance to this approval and pledge, we commend to ourselves and to all Christians certain basic approaches and policies as guides toward constructive thinking, positive relationships, and Christian action:

(1) All races are responsible for seeking and applying a Christian solution to their mutual problems, regardless of initial responsibility.*

(2) Leaders of all races are concerned and have a vital and necessary contribution to make. Consequently, those now in charge of school and community affairs are not alone in their concern for a peaceful solution, nor do they alone have the wisdom to work toward that end. Responsible and representative leaders of all races should be included from the outset in the councils which seek to effect desegregation.*

(3) Individual churchmen have an obligation to seek constructive contacts and to create and utilize channels for discussion and cooperation in the community. Through this means we may build personal relationships and communications which are so often absent.

(4) Every churchman is clearly called to work unceasingly to create and foster genuine Christian fellowship between races in his own congregation and church school, in hospitals, homes, and institutions, and in every aspect of the church's life.

(5) Parents have a special opportunity and responsibility to set an example for their children, and to help them grow up free from prejudice and ill will. They can help instill a deep respect for all men and a firm conviction about the sacredness of the rights of persons.*

8 The starred items are in substance the same as those set forth as guiding policies by the Department of Christian Social Relations of the Diocese of Mississippi, August 1954, in its publication, "The Church and the Supreme Court Decision."

(6) Each Episcopal church can give vital leadership by making it clear that all churchmen are invited into the full life and fellowship of the church, including its services of worship, parish organizations, diocesan activities, churchsponsored schools and institutions. Each parish and mission has a primary

responsibility for this leadership.

(7) Each parish church and mission faces its old obligation with new force and urgency, namely, to seek diligently for every unchurched person in its neighborhood, to bring the good news of Jesus Christ to such persons, and to welcome them into the fellowship of that church or mission. This old doctrine of the task of the church was reaffirmed at the 1952 general convention in two resolutions:

(a) We consistently oppose and combat discrimination based on color or race in every form, both within the church and without, in this country and internationally.

(b) This convention affirms its conviction that no branch of the Christian church should rest content while any injustices in racial relations obtain in parishes, schools, and agencies under her control or in association with her; and that it urges every member of the church to labor unceasingly for the elimination of such injustices.

SOME PRACTICAL SUGGESTIONS

Diocesan bodies such as departments of Christian social relations can promote study conferences on public schools which will include community leaders, and prepare material for use of parish groups, as has been done by some already.

A diocese may establish a special committee, representative of all races, to give leadership, provide study materials, organize study conferences, and confer with school authorities and other State officials with a view to assisting in the transition to desegregated schools.

College work commissions, Canterbury Clubs, and other diocesan and parish youth groups have a special opportunity to give leadership among youth.

Parish groups can promote study conferences to discuss facts and plans of local school districts; may take the lead in encouraging representation of all races on school boards; and may cooperate with other agencies concerned with the schools, such as the PTA, Leage of Women Voters, councils of churches and of churchwomen, the Southern Regional Council, and interfaith groups.

Diocesan and parish groups can promote circulation and distribution through tract racks and otherwise, of materials published by the Southern Regional Council, the Department of Racial and Cultural Relations of the National Council of the Churches of Christ, the United Church Women, and the national council of this church.

WE GIVE THANKS

We thank God for the new and rich opportunity for health and healing which the decision has opened up, and for the new hope this brings to people all over the world. Ample evidence of this increased health and healing is to be found in the events since the ruling was announced. For the striking fact of these first months is the widespread and increasing acceptance of this new interpretation of the law. This growing acceptance is more significant than either the much publicized or the secret opposition.

We thank God that so much of this growing support is based on reasoned Christian insight, faith, and conviction.

We thank God that through His Holy Spirit He has put it into the hearts of many to undertake voluntarily to remove these barriers between the children of our land. These efforts have demonstrated that the decision is as workable in practice as it is sound in principle. It is true and it works.

In the light of these successes, the recognized practical difficulties which still exist may be seen as being manageable, when approached in good faith by men and women of good will.

APPENDIX A

The following is the full text of the resolution supporting the Supreme Court's decision against segregation in the public schools, unanimously passed by the National Council of the Protestant Episcopal Church at its final meeting of the year, December 8, in Greenwich, Conn.

"Resolved, The national council accepts the report on church reaction to the Supreme Court decision on segregation in public schools and the guiding statement thereon, prepared by the division of Christian citizenship at the request of the council, and adopted by the division and the department of Christian social relations, as being in keeping with the spirit and intent of the resolution of the general convention of 1952 on justice and equal opportunity.

"The council commends this report and statement for study to all churchmen, and to such others as may care to take note of it, with the hope that this report of facts and this statement of guiding principles and policies may assist parochial and diocesan authorities in their efforts to promote a wise, wholehearted, and genuine realization of the principles set forth by the Court and supported so widely by churchmen in all parts of the country.

"The council transmits this report and statement to all bishops of the church, deans of seminaries, trustees of educational institutions affiliated with the church, and to diocesan and provincial officers, with the request that they study and act on these documents as they may be led, and that they inform the council of any use which they may make of this document; and it further requests and its department of Christian social relations and division of Christian citizenship summarize and report such information to the council from time to time, and continue to give leadership in this matter.

"The council notes that parochial, diocesan, and provincial bodies of the Episcopal Church have already taken positive and supportive action. These actions range all the way from affirmations of general principles to specific recommendations, to specific acts in crisis situations.

"The council adopts the following passages from the statement of guiding principles presented by the department and division:

**

""The Court's ruling is more than a matter of law and order * * * it is also a matter of religious faith and democratic principles *** for it has to do with the will of God and the welfare and destiny of human beings. * Judged in the light of Christian principles *** the Court's decision is just, right, and necessary.

64

"We thank God for the new and rich opportunity for health and healing which the decision has opened up, and for the hope this brings to people all over the world.

"We thank God that so much of the growing support is based on reasoned Christian insight, faith, and conviction.

"We thank God also that, through His Holy Spirit, He has put it into the hearts of many to undertake voluntarily to remove these barriers between the children of our land. These efforts have demonstrated that the decision is as workable in practice as it is sound in principle. It is true and it works. In the light of these successes, the recognized practical difficulties which still exist may be seen as manageable when approached by men and women of good will.' "With full and sympathetic appreciation of the very real and very great difficulties faced by the church and churchmen in many areas, we feel compelled, however, to appeal to churchmen and others everywhere to join with all men and women of good will to realize in the church and in the community the principles and goals of the Court's decision."

APPENDIX B

THE NATION'S PRESS COMMENTS

On the days following the Supreme Court's ruling, the New York Times published a summary of editorial comment throughout the Nation. A digest of this comment, together with those from other sources, is summarized herewith. The main classifications used by the New York Times are followed, namely, comments from segregated States, from nonsegregated States, from college papers, and from Negro papers.

The Washington Post and Times Herald called the decision "a profoundly healthy and feeling one *** it will help to refurbish American prestige in a world which looks to this land for moral inspiration and restore the faith of Americans themselves in their own great values and traditions."

The Washington Evening Star said "*** This decision finds much support in wisdom and fairness."

The Baltimore Sun acknowledged "its implications will be painful to many Marylanders no one can deny ***. The Court is entirely right in its state

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