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is without sin cast the first stone *** (Jn. 8, 7). But discrimination based on the accidental fact of race or color, and as such injurious to human rights regardless of personal qualities or achievements, cannot be reconciled with the truth that God has created all men with equal rights and equal dignity.

Secondly, we are bound to love our fellow man. The Christian love we bespeak is not a matter of emotional likes or dislikes. It is a firm purpose to do good to all men, to the extent that ability and opportunity permit.

Among all races and national groups, class distinctions are inevitably made on the basis of like-mindedness of a community of interests. Such distinctions are normal and constitute a universal social phenomenon. They are accidental, however, and are subject to change as conditions change. It is unreasonable and injurious to the rights of others that a factor such as race, by and of itself, should be made a cause of discrimination and a basis for unequal treatment in our mutual relations.

The question then arises: Can enforced segregation be reconciled with the Christian view of our fellow man? In our judgment it cannot, and this for two fundamental reasons:

(1) Legal segregation, or any form of compulsory segregation, in itself and by its very nature imposes a stigma of inferiority upon the segregated people. Even if the now obsolete Court doctrine of "separate but equal" had been carried out to the fullest extent, so that all public and semipublic facilities were in fact equal, there is nonetheless the judgment that an entire race, by the sole fact of race and regardless of individual qualities, is not fit to associate on equal terms with members of another race. We cannot reconcile such a judgment with the Christian view of man's nature and rights. Here again it is appropriate to cite the language of Pope Pius XII: "God did not create a human family made up of segregated, dissociated, mutually independent members. No; He would have them all united by the bond of total love of Him and consequent self-dedication to assisting each other to maintain that bond intact" (September 7, 1956).

(2) It is a matter of historical fact that segregation in our country has led to oppressive conditions and the denial of basic human rights for the Negro. This is evident in the fundamental fields of education, job opportunity, and housing. Flowing from these areas of neglect and discrimination are problems of health and the sordid train of evils so often associated with the consequent slum conditions. Surely Pope Pius XII must have had these conditions in mind when he said just 2 months ago: "It is only too well known, alas, to what excesses pride of race and racial hate can lead. The church has always been energetically opposed to attempts of genocide or practices arising from what is called the *color bar'" (September 5, 1958).

One of the tragedies of racial oppression is that the evils we have cited are being used as excuses to continue the very conditions that so strongly fostered such evils. Today we are told that Negroes, Indians, and also some Spanishspeaking Americans differ too much in culture and achievements to be assimilated in our schools, factories, and neighborhoods. Some decades back the same charge was made against the immigrant Irish, Jewish, Italian, Polish, Hungarian, German, Russian. In both instances differences were used by some as a basis for discrimination and even for bigoted ill treatment. The immigrant, fortunately, has achieved his rightful status in the American community. Economic opportunity was wide open and educational equality was not denied to him.

Negro citizens seek these same opportunities. They wish an education that does not carry with it any stigma of inferiority. They wish economic advancement based on merit and skill. They wish their civil rights as American citizens. They wish acceptance based upon proved ability and achievement. No one who truly loves God's children will deny them this opportunity.

To work for this principle amid passions and misunderstandings will not be easy. It will take courage. But quiet and persevering courage has always been the mark of a true follower of Christ.

We urge that concrete plans in this field be based on prudence. Prudence may be called a virtue that inclines us to view problems in their proper perspective. It aids us to use the proper means to secure our aim.

The problems we inherit today are rooted in decades, even centuries, of custom and cultural patterns. Changes in deep-rooted attitudes are not made overnight. When we are confronted with complex and far-reaching evils, it is not a sign of weakness or timidity to distinguish among remedies and reforms. Some changes are more necessary than others. Some are relatively easy to achieve. Others seem impossible at this time. What may succeed in one area may fail in another.

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It is a sign of wisdom, rather than weakness, to study carefully the problems we face, to prepare for advances, and to bypass the nonessential if it interferes with essential progress. We may well deplore a gradualism that is merely a cloak for inaction. But we equally deplore rash impetuosity that would sacrifice the achievements of decades in ill-timed and ill-considered ventures In concrete matters we distinguish between prudence and inaction by asking the question : Are we sincerely and earnestly acting to solve these problems? We distinguish between prudence and rashness by seeking the prayerful and considered judgment of experienced counselors who have achieved success in meeting similar problems.

For this reason we hope and earnestly pray that responsible and sober minded Americans of all religious faiths, in all areas of our land, will seize the mantle of leadership from the agitator and the racist. It is vital that we act now and act decisively. All must act quietly, courageously, and praserfully before it is too late.

For the welfare of our Nation we call upon all to root out from their hearts bitterness and hatred. The tasks we face are indeed difficult. But hearts inspired by Christian love will surmount these difficulties.

Clearly, then, these problems are vital and urgent. May God give this Nation the grace to meet the challenge it faces. For the sake of generations of future Americans, and indeed of all humanity, we cannot fail.

(Signed by members of the Administrative Board, National Catholic Welfare Conference, in the name of the bishops of the United States November 14, 1958:)

Francis Cardinal Spellman, Archbishop of New York; James Francis

Cardinal McIntyre, Archbishop of Los Angeles; Francis P.
Keough, Archbishop of Baltimore; Karl J. Alter, Archbishop of
Cincinnati ; Joseph E. Ritter, Archbishop of St. Louis; William
0. Brady, Archbishop of St. Paul; Albert G. Meyer, Archbishop
of Chicago; Patrick A. O'Boyle, Archbishop of Washington; Let
Binz, Archbishop of Dubuque; Emmet Ň. Walsh, Bishop of
Youngstown; Joseph M. Gilmore, Bishop of Helena ; Albert R.
Zuroweste, Bishop of Belleville.

VI. That we have a moral obligation to work together with our fellow citizens for interracial justice, to secure justice and equality of human rights to the members of all racial groups.

VIL That in the daily sacrifice of the mass offered by the mystical body in the name of all men, we as Catholics have a unique and powerful source at which to learn more deeply what justice and charity mean before God, and through which to obtain the assistance of God for uprooting racial prejudice, for changing the hearts and minds of men, and for striving courageously and perseveringly to eliminate from our society all forms of racial discrimination. The Catholic Interracial Council of Chicago, therefore, proposes to do the following:

I. To spread the spirit of interracial justice and charity by the personal example and prayers of its members until it is interwoven into the daily lives of men and institutions.

II. To conduct an increasingly intensive educational program directed to quicken the minds and consciences of fellow Christians, and all the citizens of our metropolitan area ; to make them sensitive to the practical and moral facts of interracial justice.

III. To develop an effective action program to combat discrimination against any group of people, by working for

(a) Economic equality by securing full employment opportunities for all.

(0) Complete cultural development by securing full access for all to health, educational, and recreational facilities,

(c) Political equality by insuring suffrage for all.

(d) Intergration in housing and neighborhoods, as the necessary condition to secure adequate housing for minority groups, and healthy community life for all the people of our metropolitan area. IV. To cooperate with other organizations working in the cause of interracial justice, including those national movements to which we can contribute meaningfully.

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CATHOLIC INTERRACIAL COUNCIL OF CHICAGO--STATEMENT OF PRINCIPLES AND

OBJECTIVES
"The first of these pernicious errors, widespread today, is the for
getfulness of that law of human solidarity and charity which is dictated
and imposed by our common origin and by the equality of rational
nature in all men, to whatever people they belong, and by the redeeming
sacrifice offered by Jesus Christ on the altar of the cross to His Heavenly
Father on behalf of sinful mankind."

Pope Pius XII, Summi Pontificatus
The Catholic Interracial Council of Chicago recognizes--

1. That as Catholics, members of Christ's mystical body, we must be aware
of the unity of all mankind. This unity is rooted in the essential equality
of all men, in the Fatherhood of God over all men, in their common descent
from Adam and Eve, and in the universal redemption of all men by Christ

.
II. That this unity, as God intends, is intensified and deepened in the
niystical body of Christ which is meant by God to embrace all men without
exception, so that those who enter the church, whatever be their origin or
their speech, must know that

they have equal rights as children in the
house of the Lord, where the law of Christ and the peace of Christ prevail"
(Pope Pius XII).
sistent with our Christian faith, and a practical denial of the doctrine of

III. That, accordingly, racial discrimination is immoral, wholly incon-
our unity in Christ's mystical body.

IV. That scientific findings support the conception of human unity and essential human equality.

V. That, as a matter of fact, racial and ethnic minorities in the I'nited States are so widely discriminated against, so many millions of American are denied full happiness, health, and security, that the common good is threatened, full economic development retarded, and domestic peace endangered.

STATEMENT ON THE CHURCHES AND SEGREGATION ADOPTED BY THE
GENERAL ASSMBLY OF THE NATIONAL COUNCIL OF THE CHURCHES
OF CHRIST IN THE U.S.A., DECEMBER 5, 1957
Racial segregation is contradictory to the teaching of Jesus Christians in
increasing numbers are convinced of this. The majority of the communions in
the National Council of Churches have spoken out against racially exclusive
policies and practices within the churches. There is increasing movement in
the direction of developing racial inclusiveness at all levels of the churches' life
and work.

Furthermore, most of the member communions have made it clear that they trust oppose any law or community practice which segregates or discriminate: on the basis of race, color or national origin. Such laws and practices are con trary to the Christian principle, that all men are beings of worth in the sight of God. They deny the God-given rights, the enjoyment of which are guaranteet to all persons by our free and democratic society. In this connection many na tional, regional and local church bodies have supported the C.$. Supreme Court'decision regarding the elimination of segregation from public schools. The have spoken with equal clarity against segregation in public transportation housing and other aspects of community life. Many of the member communion of the National Council of Churches have carried forward within the churche actire programs of social education and action aimed at the elimination of segre gation in all spheres of life. Despite these activities, the churches must do fa more to live up to the responsibilities of Christian brotherhood.

It is encouraging that a large number of church groups and others have beer speaking out against the fact that economic, political and community pressure are being applied to thwart desegregation of the public schools. Those pressure deny economic, social and political rights, above all the right to vote, threatens ing the rery foundation of our Nation. They deny such personal rights as fret dom of religion and conscience, freedom of speech, freedom of peaceable associa tion and assembly and freedom from arbitrary arrest, police brutality, mob vic lence and intimidation.

VI. That we have a moral obligation to work together with our fellow citizens for interracial justice, to secure justice and equality of human rights to the members of all racial groups.

VII. That in the daily sacrifice of the mass offered by the mystical body in the name of all men, we as Catholics have a unique and powerful source at which to learn more deeply what justice and charity mean before God, and through which to obtain the assistance of God for uprooting racial prejudice, for changing the hearts and minds of men, and for striving courageously and perseveringly to eliminate from our society all forms of racial discrimination. The Catholic Interracial Council of Chicago, therefore, proposes to do the following:

I. To spread the spirit of interracial justice and charity by the personal example and prayers of its members until it is interwoven into the daily lives of men and institutions.

II. To conduct an increasingly intensive educational program directed to quicken the minds and consciences of fellow Christians, and all the citizens of our metropolitan area; to make them sensitive to the practical and moral facts of interracial justice.

III. To develop an effective action program to combat discrimination against any group of people, by working for

(a) Economic equality by securing full employment opportunities for all.

(b) Complete cultural development by securing full access for all to health, educational, and recreational facilities.

(c) Political equality by insuring suffrage for all.

(d) Intergration in housing and neighborhoods, as the necessary condition to secure adequate housing for minority groups, and healthy community life for all the people of our metropolitan area.

IV. To cooperate with other organizations working in the cause of interracial justice, including those national movements to which we can contribute meaningfully.

STATEMENT ON THE CHURCHES AND SEGREGATION ADOPTED BY THE GENERAL ASSMBLY OF THE NATIONAL COUNCIL OF THE CHURCHES OF CHRIST IN THE U.S.A., DECEMBER 5, 1957

Racial segregation is contradictory to the teaching of Jesus. Christians in increasing numbers are convinced of this. The majority of the communions in the National Council of Churches have spoken out against racially exclusive policies and practices within the churches. There is increasing movement in the direction of developing racial inclusiveness at all levels of the churches' life and work.

Furthermore, most of the member communions have made it clear that they must oppose any law or community practice which segregates or discriminates on the basis of race, color or national origin. Such laws and practices are contrary to the Christian principle, that all men are beings of worth in the sight of God. They deny the God-given rights, the enjoyment of which are guaranteed to all persons by our free and democratic society. In this connection many national, regional and local church bodies have supported the U.S. Supreme Court's decision regarding the elimination of segregation from public schools. They have spoken with equal clarity against segregation in public transportation, housing and other aspects of community life. Many of the member communions of the National Council of Churches have carried forward within the churches active programs of social education and action aimed at the elimination of segregation in all spheres of life. Despite these activities, the churches must do far more to live up to the responsibilities of Christian brotherhood.

It is encouraging that a large number of church groups and others have been speaking out against the fact that economic, political and community pressures are being applied to thwart desegregation of the public schools. Those pressures deny economic, social and political rights, above all the right to vote, threatening the very foundation of our Nation. They deny such personal rights as freedom of religion and conscience, freedom of speech, freedom of peaceable associa tion and assembly and freedom from arbitrary arrest, police brutality, mob violence and intimidation.

The General Assembly of the National Council of Churches is grateful for the effective Christian witness which many churches and individual Christians are bearing in communities disturbed by tension and confusion in connection with problems of desegregation. We join them in urging responsible local community action and obedience to the mandates of the U.S. Supreme Court. We hope that the necessity of further Federal enforcement of rights can be avoided by the responsible action of local authorities. We are thankful that churches and individual Christians impelled by the mandates of the Gospel of Christ, are standing for justice along with reconciliation, for law along with self-discipline. We assure the churches and our fellow Christians in these agonizing situations of our sympathy and prayers, of our resolution to assist them in ways that may be helpful, including continued practical support when they suffer hardship as a result of loyalty to Christian principles.

The General Assembly of the National Council of Churches reaffirms at this time its renunciation of the pattern of racial segregation, both in the churches and in society, as a violation of the gospel of love and human brotherhood. Segregation is also bad economics, wasteful of human resources, detrimental to the development of a healthy political life, a grave obstacle to the development of our relationship and mission with churches in other parts of the world and to the establishment of world peace.

This general assembly commits itself, and urges the member churches and all of their constituencies to commit themselves, to strengthen further the efforts and to increase the work of the churches, national, regional and local, to achieve as soon as possible a nonsegregated society.

NATIONAL COUNCIL OF THE CHURCHES OF CHRIST IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

General Board, New York, N.Y., October 2, 1957

RESOLUTIONS FOR THE GENERAL BOARD

I. The General Board of the National Council of Churches is grateful for the effective Christian witness which many churches and individual Christians are bearing in communities disturbed by tension and confusion in connection with problems of desegregation. We are thankful that they, impelled by the mandates of the Gospel of Christ, are standing for justice along with reconciliation, for law along with self-discipline. Especially during the recent days of crisis in Little Rock, such actions of our fellow churchmen have inspired in us a sense of warm Christian fellowship.

II. The General Board authorizes the Department of Racial and Cultural Relations to convey the concern of the council, as expressed in its numerous statements opposing segregation to officers of church groups, ministers, community leaders and others in these and other situations of tension, as the department may deem appropriate.

III. The board endorses the telegram sent by the president of the council to the President of the United States on the occasion of his conference with Southern Governors. Copy of telegram to President as follows:

"Your actions in upholding the decisions of the Federal Courts and in supporting the community forces desirous of complying with the Court's decisions and the steps you have taken to restore law and order are worthy of commendation. Obedience to law is essential to the safety and security of all our citizens as well as to the good name and influence of our Nation abroad. I trust that these important considerations will be determinative as you confer with the committee of Southern Governors. May God bless and guide you in your deliberations and decisions.

EUGENE CARSON BLAKE, President, National Council of Churches.” RESOLUTION ON RACIAL TENSIONS ADOPTED BY THE GENERAL BOARD OF THE NATIONAL COUNCIL OF THE CHURCHES OF CHRIST IN THE U.S.A., FEBRUARY 27-28, 1957

Voted that the National Council of Churches notes with deep appreciation the leadership being taken by various church councils, councils of church women, ministerial groups, and individual Christians, who are working earnestly for discipline and good will in situations of racial tension in all parts of the country.

We continue to join in prayer with all those whose patience is sorely tried and who suffer because of enmities,

THE METHODIST SOCIAL CREED

(Adopted 1956 general conference) "We instruct those in charge of publishing the Discipline to include the social Creed, with such revisions as may be adopted from time to time, in all future editions unless other directions are received from the general conference."-Discipline, 1940.

E. Freedom from discrimination.- We stand for the rights of racial groups and insist that the social, economie, and spiritual principles set forth in this creed apply to all races alike. We urge individual Christians and churches to make a serious and prayerful examination of their own attitudes and practices in regard to racial equality and fellowship with the determination to bring our practices into conformity with Christian ideals.

THE METHODIST CHURCH AND RACE

(Adopted 1956 general conference) The teaching of our Lord is that all men are brothers. The Master permits no discrimination because of race, color, or national origin.

The position of the Methodist Church, long held and frequently declared, is an amplification of our Lord's teaching : "To discriminate against a person solely upon the basis of his race it both unfair and un-Christian. Every child of God is entitled to that place in society which he has won by his industry and his (character. To deny him that position of honor because of the accident of his birth is neither honest democracy nor good religion” (“The Episcopal Address," 1952 and 1936).

There must be no place in the Methodist Church for racial discrimination or enforced segregation. Recognizing that we have not attained this goal, yet rejoicing in the progress made, we recommend that discrimination or segregation by any method or practice, whether by conference structure or otherwise, in the Vethodist Church be abolished with reasonable speed. The growing spirit of rotherhood throughout the church strengthens our confidence that under the eadership of the Holy Spirit we will continue to go forward.

There is a changing racial climate in our world, largely growing out of the eachings of the Christian church. The conscience of society has become inreasingly sensitive regarding racial discrimination and injustice. Methodists inite with people of all lands and all faiths in a determined effort to eliminate hese un-Christian practices. We look to the ultimate establishment of a truly Christian society.

The decisions of the Supreme Court of the United States relative to segregaion make necessary far-reaching and often difficult community readjustments hroughout the Nation. We call upon our people to effect these adjustments in ll good faith, with brotherliness and patience. In doing this all racial groups must be willing to admit their imperfections and seek to correct them. Let hese things, however, be done in love lest the cause of Christ suffer at our ands.

It is our desire to accomplish the realization of Christian brotherhood and ill participation by all in every aspect of the church's life. We join other peole of good will around the world in moving toward the day when all races shall ha re richly without discrimination or segregation in the good things of life. 'herefore, we resolutely go forward with the work begun with respect to race elations in the church and in our world. In this spirit, we recommend the following: 1. That the institutions of the church, local churches, colleges, universities, heological schools, publishing agencies, hospitals, and homes carefully restudy eir policies and practices as they relate to race, making certain that these plicies and practices are Christian.

2. That Methodists in their homes, in their work, in their churches, and in eir communities actively work to eliminate discrimination on the basis of race, olor, or national origin. That parents, teachers and others who work with

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