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OF Confederation and perpetual Union be

tween the States of New-Hampfire, Mar sachusetts Bay, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, Connecticut, New-York; News Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina

-, and Georgia. ARTICLE I. HE stile of this confederacy shall be « The United Stile of the

“ States of America:

:1! Confederacy

2 · Art. II. Each state retains its sovereignty, freedom and independence,


and Indepenand every power, jurisdiction and right, which is not by this contederation dence of the exprelly delegated to the United States, in Congress affembled, Art, III.' The said states hereby severally

, enter into a firm league of Design of the friendship with each other, for their common defence, the security of their Confederatiliberties, and their mutual and general welfare, binding themselves to affist on, as it reeach other, against all force offered to, or attacks made upon them, or any, mon fecurity.

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. of them, on account of religion, sovereignty, trade, or any other pretence whatever. :

Art. IV. The better to secure and perpetuate mutual friendship and Social and intercourse among the people of the different states in this union, the free mutual intera inhabitants of each of these states, paupers, vagabonds, and fugitives from course among justice excepted, shall be entitled to all privileges and iminunities of free the States. citizens in the several states, and the people of each ftare hall have free ingress and regress to and from any other state, and shall enjoy therein all the privileges of trade and commerce, lubject to the fame duties, impofitia ons and restrictions as the inhabitants , thereof respectively, provided that such restriction shall not extend so far as to prevent the removal of property imported into any state, to any other state of which the owner is an inhabi tant ; provided also that no imposition, duties or restriction shall be laid by any state, on the property of the united states, of either of them.

If any person guilty of, or charged with treason, felony, or other high misdemeanor in any state, shall flee from justice, and be found in any of the united itates, he shall upon demand of the Governor, or execucive power, of the state from which he fled, be delivered up and removed to the state having jurisdiction of his offence.

Full faith and credit shall be given in each of these states to the records; acts and judicial proceedings of the courts and magistrates of every other Itate.

ART. V. For the more convenient management of the general inte. Männer of selts of the United States, delegates shall be annually appointed in such conftituting

the Congress manner as the legislacure of each state shall direct, to meet in Congress on of the States, the first Monday in November, in every year, with a power reserved to with the quacach state, to recalics delegates, or any of them, at any time within the lifications &

privileges of year, and to send others in their stead, for the remainder of the year.

the Delegates No.


No state shall be represented in congress by lefs than two, nor by more than seven members, and no person shall be capable of being a delegate for more than three years, in any term of six years; nor shall any person being a delegate, be capable of holding any office under the united states, for which he, or another for his benefit receives any falary, fees or emolu. ment of any kind.

EACA state thall maintain its own delegates in a meeting of the states, and while they act as members of the committee of the states,

ÍN determining questions in the united states, in congress assembled, each

ftate shall have one vote.

FREEDOM of speech and debate in congress shall not be impeached or questioned in any court, or place out of congress, and the members of congrefs fhall be protected in their persons from arrests and imprisonments, dur. ring the time of their going to and from, and attendance on congress, except for treason, felony, or breach of the

peace. ART. VÍ. No'ftate without the consent of the united states in congress alfembled, shall fend any embafly to, or receive any embally from, or enter

into any conference, agreement, alliance or treaty with any king, prince Restraints or state ; nor shall any person holding any office of profit or trust under the upon the fera united ftatés or any of them, accept of any present, emolument, office or parate ftates. title of any kind whacever from any king, prince or foreign ftate ; nor shall

the united Itates in congress alfembled, or any of them, grant any title of nobility

No two or more states shall enter into any treaty, confederation or alli ance whatever between them, without the consent of the united states in congrets affembled, fpecifying accurately the purposes for which the same is to be entered inco, and how long it shall continue,

No state shall lay any imposts or dutiés; which may interfere with any ftipulations in treaties, entered into by the united states in congress affem bled, with any king, prince or itate, in pursuance of any treaties already proposed by congress, to the courts of France and Spain,

No vessels of war Thall be kept up in time of peace by any state, except Fuch number only, as shall be deemed nece Mary by the united states in con. gress affembled, for the defence of such state, or its trade; nor shall any body of forces be kept up by any statt, in time of peace, except fuch number only, as in the judgment of the united states, in congrefs aliembled, shall be deemed requidite co garrison the forts necessary for the defence of fuch itate ; but every state shall always keep up a well regulated and dif. ciplined militia, fuficiently armed and accoutred, and that provide and conftantly have ready for ute, in public stores, a due number of field pieces and tents, and a proper quantity of arints, ammunition and camp equipage.

No state shall engage in any war without the consent of the united states in congrefs afsembled, unless such state be actually invaded by enemies, or Hall have received certain-advice of a tesolution being formed by some nation of Indians to invade such state, and the danger is so imminent as not to admit of a delay, till the united states in congress assembled can be confulred: nor shall any fate grant commissions to any ships or vesels of War, nor letters of marque or reprisal, except it be after a declaration of war by the united states in congress affeinbled, and then only against the kingdom of ftate and the subjects thereof, against which war has been fo declared, and under such regulations as shall be established by the united states in cone gress assembled, unless such ftare be infested by pirates, in which cafe vessels of war may be fitted out for that occasion, and kept fo long as the danger,




fhall continue, or until the united states in congress affembled fhall derer:
mine otherwise,

ART. VII. When land-forces are raised by any state for the common
defence, all officers of or under the rank of colonel, shall be appointed by of Congress

Mixt Rights the legislature of each stare respectively, by whom such forces shall be raifed, and the repa or in such manner as such itate Thall direct, and all vacancies shall be rate States. filled up by the state which first made the appointment.

ART. VIII. All charges of war, and all other expences that fhall be incurred for the common defence or general welfare, and allowed by

Manner of the united states in congress assembled, shall be defrayed out of a com


public EX mon treasury, which shall be fupplied by the several states, in proportion pences. to the value of all land within each state, granted to or surveyed for any person, as such land and the buildings and improvements thereon thall be eftimated according to such mode as the united states in congress affembled, Thall from time to time direct and appoint. . The taxes for paying that proportion shall be laid and levied by the authority and direction of the legiffatures of the several states within the time agreed upon by the united itates in congress affeabled.

Art. IX. The united states in congress afsembled, shall have the sole and exclusive right and power of determining on peace and war, except in Powers of the cases mentioned in the fixth article-of fending and receiving ambassa. congress dors- entering into treaties and alliances, provided that no treaty of commerce hall be made whereby the legislative power of the respective states shall be restrained from imposing such impofts and duties on foreigners, as their own people are subjected to, or from prohibiting the exportation or inportation of any species of goods or commodities whatsoever-of

gla, blishing rules for deciding in all cases, what captures on land or water shall be legal, and in what manner prizes taken by land or naval forces in the ser vice of the united states shall be divided or appropriated ---of granting lere ters of marque and reprisal in times of peace--appointing courts for the trial of piracies and felonies cominicted on the high seas, and establishing courts for receiving and determining finally appeals in all cases of captures, provided that no member of congress (hall be appointed a judge of any of the said courts.

The united states in congress affembled shall allo be the last resort on appeal in all disputes and differences now subfifting, or that hereafter may arife between two or more staces concerning boundary, jurisdiction, or any other cause whatever; which authority shall

always be exercifed in the manner following:- Whenever the legidative or executive authority of lawful agent any state in controversy with another shall present a petition to con gress stating the matter in question, and praying for a hearing, notice there of I. ! be given, by order of congress, to the legislative or executive author rity of the other state in controversy, and a day assigned for the appearance of the parties by their lawful agents, who fall then be directed to appoint, by joint confent, commissioners or judges to constitute a court for hearing and determining the matter in question ; but if they cannot agree, congress fhall name three persons out of each of the united states, and from the list of such perfons each party shall alternately strike out one, the petitioners beginning, until the number shall be reduced to thirteen; and from that num. ber not less than seven, por more than nine names, as congress shall direct, Ihall, in the presence of congress, be drawn out by lot, and the perfung whose names Thall bc fo drawn, or any five of them, shall be commissioners or judges, to hear and finally determine the controversy, fo always as a major part of the judges who shall hear the cause shall agree in the determination: And if either party shall neglect to actend at the day appointed, without Shewing reasons, which congress shall judge fufficient, or being present Dhall refuse to strike, the congress shall proceed to nominate three persons


of any

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out of each state, and the secretary of congress shall strike in behalf of such
party ablent or refuGing; and the judgment and sentence of the court
to be appointed, in the manner before prescribed, shall be final and
conclusive ; and if any of the parties shall refuse to submit to the authority
of such court, or to appear or defend their claim or cause, the court thall
nevertheless proceed to pronounce sentence, or judgment, which shall in
like mânner be final and decisive, the judgment or sentence and other
proceedings being in either case transmitted to congress, and lodged among
the acts of congress for the security of the parties concerned : provided
that every commissioner, before he fits in judgment; mall take an oath
to be administred by one of the judges of the supreme or superior court
of the state, where the cause shall be tried, " well and truly to hear and
determine the matter in question, according to the best of his judgment,
without favour, affection or hope of reward :” provided also that no state
Thall be deprived of territory for the benefit of the united states.

All controversies concerning the private right of soil claimed under
different grants of two or more states, whose jurisdictions as they may
respect such lands, and the states which paffed such grants are adjusted,
the faid grants or either of them being at the same time claimed to
have originated antecedent to fach settlement of jurisdiction, shall on the
petition of either party to the congress of the united states, be finally de-
termined as near as may be in the same manner as is before prescribed for
deciding dispures respecting territorial jurisdiction between different states.

The united states in congress assembled shall also have the sole and exclusive right and power of regulating the alloy and value of coin ftruck by their own authority, or by that of the respective states-fixing the standard of weights and measures throughout the united states--regulating the trade and managing all affairs with the Indians, not members of any of the stares, provided that the legislative right of any state within its own limits be not infringed or violated-establishing and regulating poft-offices from one ftace to another, throughout all the united states, and exacting such postage on the papers passing through the same as may be requifite to defray the expences of the said office-appointing all officers of the land forces, in the service of the united states, excepting regimental officers-appointing all the officers of the naval forces, and commissioning all officers whatever in the service of the united states--making rules for the government and regulation of the said land and naval forces, and directing their operations.

The united states in conigrefs affembled shall have authority to appoint a committee, to sit in the recess of congress, to be denominated öc A Committee of the States," and to consist of one delegate from each ftare : and to appoint such other conmittees and civil officers as may be necessary for managing the general affairs of the united states under their direction to appoint one of their number to prefide, provided that no person be allowed to ferve in the office of president more than one year in any term of three years; to ascertain the neceffary sums of money to be raised for the fervice of the united states, and to appropriate and apply the same for defraying the public expences--to borrow money, or emit bills on the credit of the united states, transmitting every half year to the refpective states an account of the fums of money fo borrowed or emited to build and equip a navy-co agree upon the number of land forces, and to make requisitions from each state for its quota, in proportion to the number of white inhabitants in such state ; which requiGtion shall be binding, and thereupon the legislature of each ftate shall appoint the regimental officers, raise the men, and cloath, arm. and equip them in a foldier like manner, at the expence of the united states,


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is) and the officers and men so cloathed, armed and equipped fhalt march to the place appointed, and within the time agreed on by the united states in congress affembled : Buc if the united states in congress assembled shall; op consideration of circumstances. judge proper that any state should not raise men, or should raise a smaller number than its quota, and that any other itate should raise a greater number of men than the quota thereof, such extra number shall be raised, officered, cloached, armed and equipped in the same manner as the quota of such state, unless the legislacure of such ftate Mall judge that such extra number cañnot be safely spared out of the fame, in which case they fhall raise, officer, cloathe arm and equip as many of such extra number as they judge can be safely spared. And the officers and men to cloathed, armed and equipped, thall march to the place appointed, and within the time agreed on by the united states in congrels assembled.

The united states in congress affembled that never engage in a war, nor grane letters of marque and reprisal, in time of peace, nor enter into any treaties or alliances, nor coin money, nor regulate the value thereof, nor ascertain the sums and expences necessary for the defence and welfare of the united states, or any of them, nor emic bills, nor borrow money on the credit of the united liates, nor appropriate money, nor agree upon the number of veffels of war, to be built or purchased, or the number of land or sea forces to be raifed, nor appoint a commander in chief of the army or navy, unless nine ftates afsent to the fame : nor shall a question on any other point, except for ardjourning from day to day be determined, unless by the votes of a majority of the united states in congress assembled.

The congress of the united states shall have power to adjourn to any time within the year, and to any place within the united states, so that no period of adjournment be for a longer duration than the space of six months, and shall publish the journal of their proceedings monthly, except fuch parts thereof relating to treaties, alliances or military operations, as in their judgment require fecresy; and the yeas and nays of the delegates of each ftate on any question shall be entered on the journal, when it is desired by any delegate ; and the delegates of a state, or any of them, at his or their request shall be furnished with a transcript of the said journal, except such parts as are above excepted, to lay before the legislatures of the several ftates,

Art. X. The committee of the states, or any nine of them, shall be authorised to execute, in the recess of congress, such of the powers of con- Committee grefs as the united states in congress afsembled, by the consent of nine states, of the States thall from time to time think expedient to veft them with ; provided thać & its powers. no power be delegated to the said committee, for the exercise of which, by the articles of confederation, the voice of nine states in the congress of the united states affembled is requisite.

Art. XI. CANADA acceeding to this confederation, and joining in the Admission of measures of the united states, shall be admitted into, and entitled to all the Canada, and advantages of this union : but no other colony shall be admitted into the other States

to the Union, fame, unless such admission be agreed to by nine ftates.

Art. XII. ALL bills of credit emitted, monies borrowed and debts Public faith contraded by, or under the authority of congress, before the assembling of pledged for the united states, in pursuance of the present confederation, shall be deemed paft engage and considered as a charge against the united states, for payment and satis

Congress. faction whereof the said united states, and the public faith are hereby som lemnly pledged.


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